Cisco NX-OS network-level HA is optimized by tools and functionality that provide failovers and fallbacks transparently and quickly. The features described in this chapter ensure high availability at the network level.
Each virtual device context (VDC) in a system runs a separate Spanning Tree Protocol (STP), which includes extensions to support virtualization. Each VDC can also run one or more instances of a routing protocol. The network-level HA features described in this chapter apply to a failure or restart of a VDC in the same manner as a failure or restart of the system.
For complete information on VDCs, see the Cisco Nexus 7000 Series NX-OS Virtual Device Context Configuration Guide.
The network-level high availability features require no license. Any feature not included in a license package is bundled with the Cisco NX-OS system images and is provided for free.
VDC requires an Advanced Services license.
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) requires an Enterprise Services license.
For a complete explanation of the Cisco NX-OS licensing scheme and how to obtain and apply licenses, see the Cisco Nexus 7000 Series NX-OS Licensing Guide.
Spanning Tree Protocol
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)refers to IEEE 802.1w and IEEE 802.1s. If this publication is referring to the IEEE 802.1D STP, 802.1D is stated specifically.
When you create fault-tolerant internetworks, you must have a loop-free path between all nodes in a network. Multiple active paths between end stations cause loops in the network that result in network devices learning end station MAC addresses on multiple Layer 2 LAN ports. This condition can result in a broadcast storm, which creates an unstable network.
STP provides a loop-free network at the Layer 2 level. Layer 2 LAN ports send and receive STP frames, which are called Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs), at regular intervals. Network devices do not forward these frames but use the frames to determine the network topology and to construct a loop-free path within that topology. Using the spanning tree topology, STP forces redundant data paths into a blocked state. If a network segment in the spanning tree fails and a redundant path exists, the STP algorithm recalculates the spanning tree topology and activates the blocked path.
Cisco NX-OS also supports Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP.The multiple independent spanning tree topology enabled by MSTP provides multiple forwarding paths for data traffic, enables load balancing, and reduces the number of STP instances required to support a large number of VLANs.
MST incorporates Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP), which allows rapid convergence. MST improves the fault tolerance of the network because a failure in one instance (forwarding path) does not affect other instances (forwarding paths).
You can configure spanning tree parameters only on Layer 2 interfaces; a spanning tree configuration is not allowed on a Layer 3 interface. For information on creating Layer 2 interfaces, see the Cisco Nexus 7000 Series NX-OS Interfaces Configuration Guide.
For details about STP behavior and configuration, see the Cisco Nexus 7000 Series NX-OS Layer 2 Switching Configuration Guide.
Virtual Port Channels
The major limitation in classic port channel communication is that the port channel operates only between two devices. In large networks, the support of multiple devices together is often a design requirement to provide some form of hardware failure alternate path. This alternate path is often connected in a way that would cause a loop, limiting the benefits gained with port channel technology to a single path. To address this limitation, Cisco NX-OS provides a technology called virtual port channel (vPC). Although a pair of switches acting as a vPC peer endpoint looks like a single logical entity to port channel-attached devices, the two devices that act as the logical port channel endpoint are still two separate devices. This environment combines the benefits of hardware redundancy with the benefits of port channel loop management.
For more information on vPCs, see the Cisco Nexus 7000 Series NX-OS Interfaces Configuration Guide.
First-Hop Redundancy Protocols
Within a group of two or more routers , first-hop redundancy protocols (FHRPs) allow a transparent failover of the first-hop IP router. Cisco NX-OS supports the following FHRPs:
Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP)—HSRP provides first-hop routing redundancy for IP hosts on Ethernet networks configured with a default gateway IP address. An HSRP router group of two or more routers chooses an active gateway and a standby gateway. The active gateway routes packets while the standby gateway remains idle until the active gateway fails or when preset conditions are met.
Many host implementations do not support any dynamic router discovery mechanisms but can be configured with a default router. Running a dynamic router discovery mechanism on every host is not feasible for a number of reasons, including administrative overhead, processing overhead, and security issues. HSRP provides failover services to these hosts.
Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP)—VRRP dynamically assigns responsibility for one or more virtual routers to the VRRP routers on a LAN, which allows several routers on a multi-access link to use the same virtual IP address. A VRRP router is configured to run VRRP with one or more other routers attached to a LAN. One router is elected as the virtual router master, while the other routers act as backups if the virtual router master fails.
Gateway Load Balancing Protocol (GLBP)—GLBP provides path redundancy for IP by sharing protocol and Media Access Control (MAC) addresses between redundant gateways. In addition, GLBP allows a group of Layer 3 routers to share the load of the default gateway on a LAN. A GLBP router can automatically assume the forwarding function of another router in the group if the other router fails.
GLBP performs a similar function to HSRP and the Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP), which allows multiple routers to participate in a virtual group configured with a virtual IP address. GLBP performs an additional load balancing function that HSRP and VRRP do not provide. GLBP shares the forwarding load among all routers in a GLBP group instead of allowing a single router to handle the entire load while the other routers remain idle. HSRP and VRRP elect one member as the active router to forward packets to the virtual IP address for the group. The other routers in the group are redundant until the active router fails.
For configuration details about FHRPs, see the Cisco Nexus 7000 Series NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide.
Nonstop Forwarding in Routing Protocols
Cisco NX-OS provides a multilevel high-availability architecture. OSPFv2 supports stateful restart, which is also referred to as non-stop routing (NSR). If OSPFv2 experiences problems, it attempts to restart from its previous run time state. The neighbors would not register any neighbor event in this case.
If the first restart was not successful and another problem occurs, OSPFv2 attempts a graceful restart. A graceful restart, or nonstop forwarding (NSF), allows OSPFv2 to remain in the data forwarding path through a process restart. When OSPFv2 needs to do a graceful restart, it first sends a link-local opaque (type 9) LSA, called a grace LSA. (For more information about opaque LSAs, see the Cisco Nexus 7000 Series NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide.) The restarting of the OSPFv2 platform is called NSF capable. The grace LSA includes a grace period, which is a specified time that the neighbor OSPFv2 interfaces hold onto the LSAs from the restarting OSPFv2 interface. (Typically, OSPFv2 tears down the adjacency and discards all LSAs from a down or restarting OSPFv2 interface.) The participating neighbors, which are called NSF helpers, keep all LSAs that originate from the restarting OSPFv2 interface as if the interface were still adjacent. When the restarting OSPFv2 interface is operational again, it rediscovers its neighbors, establishes adjacency, and starts sending its LSA updates again. At this point, the NSF helpers recognize that graceful restart has finished.
Scenarios where a stateful restart is used:
First recovery attempt after a process experiences problems.
User-initiated switchover using the system switchover command.
Scenarios where graceful restart is used:
Second recovery attempt after a process experiences problems within a 4 minute interval.
Manual restart of the process using the restart ospfv3 command.
Active supervisor removal.
Active supervisor reload using the reload module<active sup> command.
Virtual device context (VDC)
Cisco Nexus 7000 Series NX-OS Virtual Device Context Configuration Guide
Cisco Nexus 7000 Series NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide
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