Cisco Nexus 6000 Series NX-OS Security Configuration Guide, Release 6.0(2)N1(2)
Configuring Access Control Lists
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Configuring Access Control Lists

Contents

Configuring Access Control Lists

This chapter contains the following sections:

Information About ACLs

An access control list (ACL) is an ordered set of rules that you can use to filter traffic. Each rule specifies a set of conditions that a packet must satisfy to match the rule. When the switch determines that an ACL applies to a packet, it tests the packet against the conditions of all rules. The first match determines whether the packet is permitted or denied. If there is no match, the switch applies the applicable default rule. The switch continues processing packets that are permitted and drops packets that are denied.

You can use ACLs to protect networks and specific hosts from unnecessary or unwanted traffic. For example, you could use ACLs to disallow HTTP traffic from a high-security network to the Internet. You could also use ACLs to allow HTTP traffic but only to specific sites, using the IP address of the site to identify it in an IP ACL.

IP ACL Types and Applications

The Cisco Nexus device supports IPv4, IPv6, and MAC ACLs for security traffic filtering. The switch allows you to use IP access control lists (ACLs) as port ACLs, VLAN ACLs, and Router ACLs as shown in the following table.

Table 1 Security ACL Applications

Application

Supported Interfaces

Types of ACLs Supported

Port ACL

An ACL is considered a port ACL when you apply it to one of the following:

  • Ethernet interface
  • Ethernet port-channel interface

When a port ACL is applied to a trunk port, the ACL filters traffic on all VLANs on the trunk port.

IPv4 ACLs

IPv6 ACLs

MAC ACLs

Router ACL

  • VLAN interfaces
    Note   

    You must enable VLAN interfaces globally before you can configure a VLAN interface.

  • Physical Layer 3 interfaces
  • Layer 3 Ethernet subinterfaces
  • Layer 3 Ethernet port-channel interfaces
  • Layer 3 Ethernet port-channel subinterfaces
  • Tunnels
  • Management interfaces

IPv4 ACLs

IPv6 ACLs

VLAN ACL (VACL)

An ACL is a VACL when you use an access map to associate the ACL with an action and then apply the map to a VLAN.

IPv4 ACLs

MAC ACLs

VTY ACL

VTYs

IPv4 ACLs

IPv6 ACLs

Application Order

When the device processes a packet, it determines the forwarding path of the packet. The path determines which ACLs that the device applies to the traffic. The device applies the ACLs in the following order:
  1. Port ACL
  2. Ingress VACL
  3. Ingress Router ACL
  4. Egress Router ACL
  5. Egress VACL

Rules

You can create rules in access-list configuration mode by using the permit or deny command. The switch allows traffic that matches the criteria in a permit rule and blocks traffic that matches the criteria in a deny rule. You have many options for configuring the criteria that traffic must meet in order to match the rule.

Source and Destination

In each rule, you specify the source and the destination of the traffic that matches the rule. You can specify both the source and destination as a specific host, a network or group of hosts, or any host.

Protocols

IPv4, IPv6, and MAC ACLs allow you to identify traffic by protocol. For your convenience, you can specify some protocols by name. For example, in an IPv4 ACL, you can specify ICMP by name.

You can specify any protocol by the integer that represents the Internet protocol number. For example, you can use 115 to specify Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) traffic.

Implicit Rules

IP and MAC ACLs have implicit rules, which means that although these rules do not appear in the running configuration, the switch applies them to traffic when no other rules in an ACL match.

All IPv4 ACLs include the following implicit rule:

deny ip any any

This implicit rule ensures that the switch denies unmatched IP traffic.

All IPv6 ACLs include the following implicit rule:

deny ipv6 any any

Additional Filtering Options

You can identify traffic by using additional options. IPv4 ACLs support the following additional filtering options:

  • Layer 4 protocol
  • TCP and UDP ports
  • ICMP types and codes
  • IGMP types
  • Precedence level
  • Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP) value
  • TCP packets with the ACK, FIN, PSH, RST, SYN, or URG bit set
  • Established TCP connections
IPv6 ACLs support the following additional filtering options:
  • Layer 4 protocol
  • Authentication Header Protocol
  • Encapsulating Security Payload
  • Payload Compression Protocol
  • Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP)
  • SCTP, TCP, and UDP ports
  • ICMP types and codes
  • IGMP types
  • Flow label
  • DSCP value
  • TCP packets with the ACK, FIN, PSH, RST, SYN, or URG bit set
  • Established TCP connections
  • Packet length
MAC ACLs support the following additional filtering options:
  • Layer 3 protocol
  • VLAN ID
  • Class of Service (CoS)

Sequence Numbers

The Cisco Nexus device supports sequence numbers for rules. Every rule that you enter receives a sequence number, either assigned by you or assigned automatically by the device. Sequence numbers simplify the following ACL tasks:

  • Adding new rules between existing rules—By specifying the sequence number, you specify where in the ACL a new rule should be positioned. For example, if you need to insert a rule between rules numbered 100 and 110, you could assign a sequence number of 105 to the new rule.
  • Removing a rule—Without using a sequence number, removing a rule requires that you enter the whole rule, as follows:
    switch(config-acl)# no permit tcp 10.0.0.0/8 any
    
    However, if the same rule had a sequence number of 101, removing the rule requires only the following command:
    switch(config-acl)# no 101
    
  • Moving a rule—With sequence numbers, if you need to move a rule to a different position within an ACL, you can add a second instance of the rule using the sequence number that positions it correctly, and then you can remove the original instance of the rule. This action allows you to move the rule without disrupting traffic.

If you enter a rule without a sequence number, the device adds the rule to the end of the ACL and assigns a sequence number that is 10 greater than the sequence number of the preceding rule to the rule. For example, if the last rule in an ACL has a sequence number of 225 and you add a rule without a sequence number, the device assigns the sequence number 235 to the new rule.

In addition, the device allows you to reassign sequence numbers to rules in an ACL. Resequencing is useful when an ACL has rules numbered contiguously, such as 100 and 101, and you need to insert one or more rules between those rules.

Logical Operators and Logical Operation Units

IP ACL rules for TCP and UDP traffic can use logical operators to filter traffic based on port numbers.

The Cisco Nexus device stores operator-operand couples in registers called logical operation units (LOUs) to perform operations (greater than, less than, not equal to, and range) on the TCP and UDP ports specified in an IP ACL.


Note


The range operator is inclusive of boundary values.


These LOUs minimize the number of ternary content addressable memory (TCAM) entries needed to perform these operations. A maximum of two LOUs are allowed for each feature on an interface. For example an ingress RACL can use two LOUs, and a QoS feature can use two LOUs. If an ACL feature requires more than two arithmetic operations, the first two operations use LOUs, and the remaining access control entries get expanded.

The following guidelines determine when the device stores operator-operand couples in LOUs:

  • If the operator or operand differs from other operator-operand couples that are used in other rules, the couple is stored in an LOU. For example, the operator-operand couples "gt 10" and "gt 11" would be stored separately in half an LOU each. The couples "gt 10" and "lt 10" would also be stored separately.
  • Whether the operator-operand couple is applied to a source port or a destination port in the rule affects LOU usage. Identical couples are stored separately when one of the identical couples is applied to a source port and the other couple is applied to a destination port. For example, if a rule applies the operator-operand couple "gt 10" to a source port and another rule applies a "gt 10" couple to a destination port, both couples would also be stored in half an LOU, resulting in the use of one whole LOU. Any additional rules using a "gt 10" couple would not result in further LOU usage.

ACL Resource Management

Understanding the ACL capacities when configuring ACLs helps avoid resource contention and exhaustion. Because the platform enforces several types of ACLs in hardware rather than in software, the switch programs hardware lookup tables and various hardware resources so that when a packet arrives, the switch can perform a hardware table lookup and execute the appropriate action without affecting performance, while the packets are cut-through switched.

For typical configurations, the switch uses one of the following main hardware resources:

  • Logical operation units (LOUs)-Registers that are used to store Layer 2, Layer 3, and Layer 4 operations information.
  • Value, Mask, Result (VMR)-Entries in the TCAM that consist of a value pattern, the associated mask value, and a result for lookups returning a hit for the entry.

The switch optimizes the use of these hardware resources for Layer 4 operations (L4Op). When the number of (L4Ops) are exhausted, an ACL that needs to check a particular value using a L4Op can be expanded to use a set of entries in the TCAM instead. The ACL uses the TCAM entries to perform the same filtering that L4Op would have performed.

If the number of L4Ops are not exhausted, the switch computes the cost of using each resource. If the cost of using a set of expanded TCAM entries is less than that of using a L4Op, the switch expands the set of TCAM entries to preserve the L4Op for higher priority operations.

Depending on the size of ACL TCAM, and the size of various regions in the TCAM, it is possible that policies that are expanded might not fit within the available space. For example, after the switch is reloaded, the set of policies that were expanded before might not be expanded again.

To manage this issue, you can configure a threshold value. The threshold value is from 0 to 32 and the default value is 5. When an ACL policy needs a L4Op, the policy is expanded to check if the number of expanded TCAM entries needed exceeds the threshold value. If the number exceeds the threshold value, the expansion is not used, and L4Op is used instead. If the number of TCAM entries do not exceed the threshold value (that is, they are less than or equal to the threshold value), then the expanded TCAM entries are installed.


Note


If there is an ACL policy that uses both a source L4Op and destination L4Op, the source L4Op and destination L4Op are expanded individually. The following example shows an ACL policy with source and destination L4Ops:
permit tcp any get 546 any range 236 981

Statistics and ACLs

The device can maintain global statistics for each rule that you configure in IPv4, IPv6, and MAC ACLs. If an ACL is applied to multiple interfaces, the maintained rule statistics are the sum of packet matches (hits) on all the interfaces on which that ACL is applied.


Note


The device does not support interface-level ACL statistics.


For each ACL that you configure, you can specify whether the device maintains statistics for that ACL, which allows you to turn ACL statistics on or off as needed to monitor traffic filtered by an ACL or to help troubleshoot the configuration of an ACL.

The device does not maintain statistics for implicit rules in an ACL. For example, the device does not maintain a count of packets that match the implicit deny ip any any rule at the end of all IPv4 ACLs. If you want to maintain statistics for implicit rules, you must explicitly configure the ACL with rules that are identical to the implicit rules.

Licensing Requirements for ACLs

The following table shows the licensing requirements for this feature:

Product

License Requirement

Cisco NX-OS

No license is required to use ACLs.

Prerequisites for ACLs

IP ACLs have the following prerequisites:

  • You must be familiar with IP addressing and protocols to configure IP ACLs.
  • You must be familiar with the interface types that you want to configure with ACLs.

VACLs have the following prerequisite:

  • Ensure that the IP ACL or MAC ACL that you want to use in the VACL exists and is configured to filter traffic in the manner that you need for this application.

Guidelines and Limitations for ACLs

IP ACLs have the following configuration guidelines and limitations:

  • We recommend that you perform ACL configuration using the Session Manager. This feature allows you to verify ACL configuration and confirm that the resources required by the configuration are available prior to committing them to the running configuration. This is especially useful for ACLs that include more than about 1000 rules.
  • When you apply an ACL that uses time ranges, the device updates the ACL entries whenever a time range referenced in an ACL entry starts or ends. Updates that are initiated by time ranges occur on a best-effort priority. If the device is especially busy when a time range causes an update, the device may delay the update by up to a few seconds.
  • To apply an IP ACL to a VLAN interface, you must have enabled VLAN interfaces globally.

MAC ACLs have the following configuration guidelines and limitations:

  • MAC ACLs apply to ingress traffic only.
  • ACL statistics are not supported if the DHCP snooping feature is enabled.
  • For M1 Series modules, the mac packet-classify command enables a MAC ACL for port and VLAN policies.

VACLs have the following configuration guidelins:

  • We recommend that you perform ACL configurations using the Session Manager. This feature allows you to verify ACL configuration and confirm that the resources required by the configuration are available prior to committing them to the running configuration.
  • ACL statistics are not supported if the DHCP snooping feature is enabled.

Default ACL Settings

The following table lists the default settings for IP ACLs parameters.

Table 2 Default IP ACLs Parameters

Parameters

Default

IP ACLs

No IP ACLs exist by default.

ACL rules

Implicit rules apply to all ACLs .

The following table lists the default settings for MAC ACLs parameters.

Table 3  Default MAC ACLs Parameters

Parameters

Default

MAC ACLs

No MAC ACLs exist by default.

ACL rules

Implicit rules apply to all ACLs .

The following table lists the default settings for VACL parameters.

Table 4  Default VACL Parameters

Parameters

Default

VACLs

No IP ACLs exist by default.

ACL rules

Implicit rules apply to all ACLs.

Configuring IP ACLs

Creating an IP ACL

You can create an IPv4 or IPv6 ACL on the switch and add rules to it.

Procedure
      Command or Action Purpose
    Step 1 switch# configure terminal
     

    Enters configuration mode.

     
    Step 2 switch(config)# {ip | ipv6} access-list name
     

    Creates the IP ACL and enters IP ACL configuration mode. The name argument can be up to 64 characters.

     
    Step 3 switch(config-acl)# [sequence-number] {permit | deny} protocol source destination
     

    Creates a rule in the IP ACL. You can create many rules. The sequence-number argument can be a whole number between 1 and 4294967295.

    The permit and deny commands support many ways of identifying traffic. For more information, see the Command Reference for the specific Cisco Nexus device.

     
    Step 4 switch(config-acl)# statistics
     
    (Optional)

    Specifies that the switch maintains global statistics for packets that matches the rules in the ACL.

     
    Step 5 switch# show {ip | ipv6} access-lists name
     
    (Optional)

    Displays the IP ACL configuration.

     
    Step 6 switch# show ip access-lists name
     
    (Optional)

    Displays the IP ACL configuration.

     
    Step 7 switch# copy running-config startup-config
     
    (Optional)

    Copies the running configuration to the startup configuration.

     

    The following example shows how to create an IPv4 ACL:

    switch# configure terminal
    switch(config)# ip access-list acl-01
    switch(config-acl)# permit ip 192.168.2.0/24 any
    switch(config-acl)# statistics
    

    The following example shows how to create an IPv6 ACL:

    switch# configure terminal
    switch(config)# ipv6 access-list acl-01-ipv6
    switch(config-ipv6-acl)# permit tcp 2001:0db8:85a3::/48 2001:0db8:be03:2112::/64
    

    Changing an IP ACL

    You can add and remove rules in an existing IPv4 or IPv6 ACL. You cannot change existing rules. Instead, to change a rule, you can remove it and recreate it with the desired changes.

    If you need to add more rules between existing rules than the current sequence numbering allows, you can use the resequence command to reassign sequence numbers.

    Procedure
        Command or Action Purpose
      Step 1 switch# configure terminal
       

      Enters configuration mode.

       
      Step 2 switch(config)# {ip | ipv6} access-list name
       

      Enters IP ACL configuration mode for the ACL that you specify by name.

       
      Step 3 switch(config)#ip access-list name
       

      Enters IP ACL configuration mode for the ACL that you specify by name.

       
      Step 4 switch(config-acl)# [sequence-number] {permit | deny} protocol source destination
       

      Creates a rule in the IP ACL. Using a sequence number allows you to specify a position for the rule in the ACL. Without a sequence number, the rule is added to the end of the rules. The sequence-number argument can be a whole number between 1 and 4294967295.

      The permit and deny commands support many ways of identifying traffic. For more information, see the Command Reference for your Cisco Nexus device.

       
      Step 5 switch(config-acl)# no {sequence-number | {permit | deny} protocol source destination}
       
      (Optional)

      Removes the rule that you specified from the IP ACL.

      The permit and deny commands support many ways of identifying traffic. For more information, see the Command Reference for your Cisco Nexus device.

       
      Step 6 switch(config-acl)# [no] statistics
       
      (Optional)

      Specifies that the switch maintains global statistics for packets matching the rules in the ACL.

      The no option stops the switch from maintaining global statistics for the ACL.

       
      Step 7 switch#show ip access-lists name
       
      (Optional)

      Displays the IP ACL configuration.

       
      Step 8 switch# copy running-config startup-config
       
      (Optional)

      Copies the running configuration to the startup configuration.

       

      Removing an IP ACL

      You can remove an IP ACL from the switch.

      Before you remove an IP ACL from the switch, be sure that you know whether the ACL is applied to an interface. The switch allows you to remove ACLs that are currently applied. Removing an ACL does not affect the configuration of interfaces where you have applied the ACL. Instead, the switch considers the removed ACL to be empty.

      Procedure
          Command or Action Purpose
        Step 1 switch# configure terminal
         

        Enters configuration mode.

         
        Step 2 switch(config)# no {ip | ipv6} access-list name
         

        Removes the IP ACL that you specified by name from the running configuration.

         
        Step 3 switch(config)# no ip access-list name
         

        Removes the IP ACL that you specified by name from the running configuration.

         
        Step 4 switch# show running-config
         
        (Optional)

        Displays the ACL configuration. The removed IP ACL should not appear.

         
        Step 5 switch# copy running-config startup-config
         
        (Optional)

        Copies the running configuration to the startup configuration.

         

        Changing Sequence Numbers in an IP ACL

        You can change all the sequence numbers assigned to the rules in an IP ACL.

        Procedure
            Command or Action Purpose
          Step 1 switch# configure terminal
           

          Enters configuration mode.

           
          Step 2 switch(config)# resequence {ip | ipv6} access-list name starting-sequence-number increment
           

          Assigns sequence numbers to the rules contained in the ACL, where the first rule receives the starting sequence number that you specify. Each subsequent rule receives a number larger than the preceding rule. The difference in numbers is determined by the increment that you specify. The starting-sequence-number argument and the increment argument can be a whole number between 1 and 4294967295.

           
          Step 3 switch# show {ip | ipv6} access-lists name
           
          (Optional)

          Displays the IP ACL configuration.

           
          Step 4 switch# copy running-config startup-config
           
          (Optional)

          Copies the running configuration to the startup configuration.

           

          Configuring ACLs with Logging

          You can create an access-control list for logging traffic of a specified protocol and address.

          Procedure
              Command or Action Purpose
            Step 1 switch# configure terminal 

            Enters global configuration mode.

             
            Step 2 switch(config)# {ip | ipv6} access-list name 

            Creates the IP ACL and enters IP ACL configuration mode. The name argument can be up to 64 characters.

             
            Step 3 switch(config-acl)# permit protocol source destination log 
            Creates a rule to log traffic of the specified protocol in the syslog file. in the IP ACL. Valid values for the protocol argument are:
            • icmp—ICMP
            • igmp—IGMP
            • ip—IPv4
            • ipv6—IPv6
            • tcp—TCP
            • udp—UDP
            • sctp—SCTP (IPv6 only)

            The source and destination arguments can be the IP address with a network wildcard (IPv4 only), IP address and variable-length subnet mask, host address, or any to designate any address. For more information, see the System Management configuration guide and the Security command reference for your platform.

             
            Step 4 switch(config-acl)# exit 

            Exists the current configuration mode.

             
            Step 5 switch(config)# copy running-config startup-config  (Optional)

            Saves the change persistently through reboots and restarts by copying the running configuration to the startup configuration.

             
            The following example shows how to create an ACL for logging entries that match IPv4 TCP traffic from any source and any destination:
            switch# configuration terminal
            switch(config)# ip access-list tcp_log
            switch(config-acl)# permit tcp any any log
            switch(config-acl)# exit
            switch(config)# copy running-config startup-config
            

            Applying an IP ACL to mgmt0

            You can apply an IPv4 or IPv6 ACL to the management interface (mgmt0).

            Before You Begin

            Ensure that the ACL that you want to apply exists and that it is configured to filter traffic in the manner that you need for this application.

            Procedure
                Command or Action Purpose
              Step 1 configure terminal


              Example:
              switch# configure terminal
              switch(config)#
               

              Enters global configuration mode.

               
              Step 2 interface mgmt port


              Example:
              switch(config)# interface mgmt0
              switch(config-if)#
               

              Enters configuration mode for the management interface.

               
              Step 3 ip access-group access-list {in | out}


              Example:
              switch(config-if)#ip access-group acl-120 out
               

              Applies an IPv4 or IPv6 ACL to the Layer 3 interface for traffic flowing in the direction specified. You can apply one router ACL per direction.

               
              Step 4 show running-config aclmgr


              Example:
              switch(config-if)# show running-config aclmgr
               
              (Optional)

              Displays the ACL configuration.

               
              Step 5 copy running-config startup-config


              Example:
              switch(config-if)# copy running-config startup-config
               
              (Optional)

              Copies the running configuration to the startup configuration.

               

              Related Topics

              • Creating an IP ACL

              Applying an IP ACL as a Router ACL

              You can apply an IPv4 or IPv6 ACL to any of the following types of interfaces:

              • Physical Layer 3 interfaces and subinterfaces
              • Layer 3 Ethernet port-channel interfaces and subinterfaces
              • VLAN interfaces
              • Tunnels
              • Management interfaces

              ACLs applied to these interface types are considered router ACLs.

              Before You Begin

              Ensure that the ACL you want to apply exists and that it is configured to filter traffic in the manner that you need for this application.

              Procedure
                  Command or Action Purpose
                Step 1 switch# configure terminal 

                Enters global configuration mode.

                 
                Step 2 Enter one of the following commands:
                • switch(config)# interface ethernet slot/port[. number]
                • switch(config)# interface port-channel channel-number[. number]
                • switch(config)# interface tunnel tunnel-number
                • switch(config)# interface vlan vlan-ID
                • switch(config)# interface mgmt port
                 

                Enters configuration mode for the interface type that you specified.

                Note   

                If this is a 10G breakout port, the slot/port syntax is slot/QSFP-module/port.

                 
                Step 3 Enter one of the following commands:
                • switch(config-if)# ip access-group access-list {in | out}
                • switch(config-if)# ipv6 traffic-filter access-list {in | out}
                 

                Applies an IPv4 or IPv6 ACL to the Layer 3 interface for traffic flowing in the direction specified. You can apply one router ACL per direction.

                 
                Step 4 switch(config-if)# show running-config aclmgr   (Optional)

                Displays the ACL configuration.

                 
                Step 5 switch(config-if)# copy running-config startup-config   (Optional)

                Copies the running configuration to the startup configuration.

                 

                Applying an IP ACL as a Port ACL

                You can apply an IPv4 or IPv6 ACL to a physical Ethernet interface or a PortChannel. ACLs applied to these interface types are considered port ACLs.


                Note


                Some configuration parameters when applied to an PortChannel are not reflected on the configuration of the member ports.


                Procedure
                    Command or Action Purpose
                  Step 1 switch# configure terminal 

                  Enters global configuration mode.

                   
                  Step 2 switch(config)# interface {ethernet [chassis/]slot/port | port-channel channel-number}
                   

                  Enters interface configuration mode for the specified interface.

                  Note   

                  If this is a 10G breakout port, the slot/port syntax is slot/QSFP-module/port.

                   
                  Step 3 switch(config-if)# {ip port access-group | ipv6 port traffic-filter} access-list in
                   

                  Applies an IPv4 or IPv6 ACL to the interface or PortChannel. Only inbound filtering is supported with port ACLs. You can apply one port ACL to an interface.

                   
                  Step 4 switch# show running-config
                   
                  (Optional)

                  Displays the ACL configuration.

                   
                  Step 5 switch# copy running-config startup-config
                   
                  (Optional)

                  Copies the running configuration to the startup configuration.

                   

                  Verifying IP ACL Configurations

                  To display IP ACL configuration information, perform one of the following tasks:

                  • switch# show running-config

                    Displays ACL configuration, including IP ACL configuration and interfaces that IP ACLs are applied to.

                  • switch# show running-config interface

                    Displays the configuration of an interface to which you have applied an ACL.

                  For detailed information about the fields in the output from these commands, refer to the Command Reference for your Cisco Nexus device.

                  Monitoring and Clearing IP ACL Statistics

                  Use the show ip access-lists or show ipv6 access-list command to display statistics about an IP ACL, including the number of packets that have matched each rule. For detailed information about the fields in the output from this command, see the Command Reference for your Cisco Nexus device.


                  Note


                  The mac access-list is applicable to non-IPv4 and non-IPv6 traffic only.


                  • switch# show {ip | ipv6} access-lists name

                    Displays IP ACL configuration. If the IP ACL includes the statistics command, then the show ip access-lists and show ipv6 access-list command output includes the number of packets that have matched each rule.

                  • switch#show ip access-lists name

                    Displays IP ACL configuration. If the IP ACL includes the statistics command, then the show ip access-lists command output includes the number of packets that have matched each rule.

                  • switch# clear {ip | ipv6} access-list counters [access-list-name]

                    Clears statistics for all IP ACLs or for a specific IP ACL.

                  • switch# clear ip access-list counters [access-list-name]

                    Clears statistics for all IP ACLs or for a specific IP ACL.

                  Configuring MAC ACLs

                  Creating a MAC ACL

                  To create a MAC ACL and add rules to it, perform this task:

                  Procedure
                      Command or Action Purpose
                    Step 1 switch# configure terminal
                     

                    Enters configuration mode.

                     
                    Step 2 switch# mac access-list name
                     

                    Creates the MAC ACL and enters ACL configuration mode.

                     
                    Step 3 switch(config-mac-acl)# [sequence-number] {permit | deny} source destination protocol
                     

                    Creates a rule in the MAC ACL.

                    The permit and deny options support many ways of identifying traffic. For more information, see the Security command reference for your platform.

                     
                    Step 4 switch(config-mac-acl)# statistics
                     
                    (Optional)

                    Specifies that the switch maintains global statistics for packets matching the rules in the ACL.

                     
                    Step 5 switch# show mac access-lists name
                     
                    (Optional)

                    Displays the MAC ACL configuration.

                     
                    Step 6 switch# copy running-config startup-config
                     
                    (Optional)

                    Copies the running configuration to the startup configuration.

                     

                    The following example shows how to create a MAC ACL and add rules to it:

                    switch# configure terminal
                    switch(config)# mac access-list acl-mac-01
                    switch(config-mac-acl)# permit 00c0.4f00.0000 0000.00ff.ffff any
                    switch(config-mac-acl)# statistics
                    

                    Changing a MAC ACL

                    In an existing MAC ACL, you can add and remove rules. You cannot change existing rules. Instead, to change a rule, you can remove it and recreate it with the desired changes.

                    If you need to add more rules between existing rules than the current sequence numbering allows, you can use the resequence command to reassign sequence numbers.

                    To change a MAC ACL, perform this task:

                    Procedure
                        Command or Action Purpose
                      Step 1 switch# configure terminal
                       

                      Enters configuration mode.

                       
                      Step 2 switch(config)# mac access-list name
                       

                      Enters ACL configuration mode for the ACL that you specify by name.

                       
                      Step 3 switch(config-mac-acl)# [sequence-number] {permit | deny} source destination protocol
                       

                      Creates a rule in the MAC ACL. Using a sequence number allows you to specify a position for the rule in the ACL. Without a sequence number, the rule is added to the end of the rules.

                      The permit and deny commands support many ways of identifying traffic.

                       
                      Step 4 switch(config-mac-acl)# no {sequence-number | {permit|deny} source destination protocol}
                       
                      (Optional)

                      Removes the rule that you specify from the MAC ACL.

                      The permit and deny commands support many ways of identifying traffic.

                       
                      Step 5 switch(config-mac-acl)# [no] statistics
                       
                      (Optional)

                      Specifies that the switch maintains global statistics for packets matching the rules in the ACL.

                      The no option stops the switch from maintaining global statistics for the ACL.

                       
                      Step 6 switch# show mac access-lists name
                       
                      (Optional)

                      Displays the MAC ACL configuration.

                       
                      Step 7 switch# copy running-config startup-config
                       
                      (Optional)

                      Copies the running configuration to the startup configuration.

                       

                      The following example shows how to change a MAC ACL:

                      switch# configure terminal
                      
                      switch(config)# mac access-list acl-mac-01
                      
                      switch(config-mac-acl)# 100 permit mac 00c0.4f00.00 0000.00ff.ffff any
                      
                      switch(config-mac-acl)# statistics
                      
                       

                      Removing a MAC ACL

                      You can remove a MAC ACL from the switch.

                      Be sure that you know whether the ACL is applied to an interface. The switch allows you to remove ACLs that are current applied. Removing an ACL does not affect the configuration of interfaces where you have applied the ACL. Instead, the switch considers the removed ACL to be empty.

                      Procedure
                          Command or Action Purpose
                        Step 1 switch# configure terminal
                         

                        Enters configuration mode.

                         
                        Step 2 switch(config)# no mac access-list name
                         

                        Removes the MAC ACL that you specify by name from the running configuration.

                         
                        Step 3 switch# show mac access-lists
                         
                        (Optional)

                        Displays the MAC ACL configuration.

                         
                        Step 4 switch# copy running-config startup-config
                         
                        (Optional)

                        Copies the running configuration to the startup configuration.

                         

                        Changing Sequence Numbers in a MAC ACL

                        You can change all the sequence numbers assigned to rules in a MAC ACL. Resequencing is useful when you need to insert rules into an ACL and there are not enough available sequence numbers.

                        To change all the sequence numbers assigned to rules in a MAC ACL, perform this task:

                        Procedure
                            Command or Action Purpose
                          Step 1 switch# configure terminal
                           

                          Enters configuration mode.

                           
                          Step 2 switch(config)# resequence mac access-list name starting-sequence-number increment
                           

                          Assigns sequence numbers to the rules contained in the ACL, where the first rule receives the number specified by the starting-sequence number that you specify. Each subsequent rule receives a number larger than the preceding rule. The difference in numbers is determined by the increment number that you specify.

                           
                          Step 3 switch# show mac access-lists name
                           
                          (Optional)

                          Displays the MAC ACL configuration.

                           
                          Step 4 switch# copy running-config startup-config
                           
                          (Optional)

                          Copies the running configuration to the startup configuration.

                           
                          Related Information

                          Applying a MAC ACL as a Port ACL

                          You can apply a MAC ACL as a port ACL to any of the following interface types:

                          • Ethernet interfaces
                          • EtherChannel interfaces

                          Be sure that the ACL that you want to apply exists and is configured to filter traffic as necessary for this application.


                          Note


                          Some configuration parameters when applied to an EtherChannel are not reflected on the configuration of the member ports.


                          Procedure
                              Command or Action Purpose
                            Step 1 switch# configure terminal 

                            Enters global configuration mode.

                             
                            Step 2 switch(config)# interface {ethernet [chassis/]slot/port | port-channel channel-number}
                             

                            Enters interface configuration mode for the Ethernet specified interface.

                            Note   

                            If this is a 10G breakout port, the slot/port syntax is slot/QSFP-module/port.

                             
                            Step 3 switch(config-if)# mac port access-group access-list
                             

                            Applies a MAC ACL to the interface.

                             
                            Step 4 switch# show running-config
                             
                            (Optional)

                            Displays ACL configuration.

                             
                            Step 5 switch# copy running-config startup-config
                             
                            (Optional)

                            Copies the running configuration to the startup configuration.

                             
                            Related Information

                            Verifying MAC ACL Configurations

                            To display MAC ACL configuration information, perform one of the following tasks:

                            • switch# show mac access-lists

                              Displays the MAC ACL configuration

                            • switch# show running-config

                              Displays ACL configuration, including MAC ACLs and the interfaces that ACLs are applied to.

                            • switch# show running-config interface

                              Displays the configuration of the interface to which you applied the ACL.

                            Displaying and Clearing MAC ACL Statistics

                            Use the show mac access-lists command to display statistics about a MAC ACL, including the number of packets that have matched each rule.

                            • switch# show mac access-lists

                              Displays MAC ACL configuration. If the MAC ACL includes the statistics command, the show mac access-lists command output includes the number of packets that have matched each rule.

                            • switch# clear mac access-list counters

                              Clears statistics for all MAC ACLs or for a specific MAC ACL.

                            Example Configuration for MAC ACLs

                            This example shows how to create a MAC ACL named acl-mac-01 and apply it to Ethernet interface 1/1:

                            switch# configure terminal
                            
                            switch(config)# mac access-list acl-mac-01
                            
                            switch(config-mac-acl)# permit 00c0.4f00.0000 0000.00ff.ffff any
                            
                            switch(config-mac-acl)# exit
                            
                            switch(config)# interface ethernet 1/1
                            
                            switch(config-if)# mac access-group acl-mac-01
                            
                             

                            Information About VLAN ACLs

                            A VLAN ACL (VACL) is one application of a MAC ACL or IP ACL. You can configure VACLs to apply to all packets that are bridged within a VLAN. VACLs are used strictly for security packet filtering. VACLs are not defined by direction (ingress or egress).

                            VACLs and Access Maps

                            VACLs use access maps to link an IP ACL or a MAC ACL to an action. The switch takes the configured action on packets permitted by the VACL.

                            VACLs and Actions

                            In access map configuration mode, you use the action command to specify one of the following actions:

                            • Forward—Sends the traffic to the destination determined by normal operation of the switch.
                            • Drop—Drops the traffic.

                            Statistics

                            The Cisco Nexus device can maintain global statistics for each rule in a VACL. If a VACL is applied to multiple VLANs, the maintained rule statistics are the sum of packet matches (hits) on all the interfaces on which that VACL is applied.


                            Note


                            The Cisco Nexus device does not support interface-level VACL statistics.


                            For each VLAN access map that you configure, you can specify whether the switch maintains statistics for that VACL. This allows you to turn VACL statistics on or off as needed to monitor traffic filtered by a VACL or to help troubleshoot VLAN access-map configuration.

                            Configuring VACLs

                            Creating or Changing a VACL

                            You can create or change a VACL. Creating a VACL includes creating an access map that associates an IP ACL or MAC ACL with an action to be applied to the matching traffic.

                            To create or change a VACL, perform this task:

                            Procedure
                                Command or Action Purpose
                              Step 1 switch# configure terminal
                               

                              Enters configuration mode.

                               
                              Step 2 switch(config)# vlan access-map map-name
                               

                              Enters access map configuration mode for the access map specified.

                               
                              Step 3 switch(config-access-map)# match ip address ip-access-list
                               

                              Specifies an IPv4 and IPv6 ACL for the map.

                               
                              Step 4 switch(config-access-map)# match mac address mac-access-list
                               

                              Specifies a MAC ACL for the map.

                               
                              Step 5 switch(config-access-map)# action {drop | forward}
                               

                              Specifies the action that the switch applies to traffic that matches the ACL.

                               
                              Step 6 switch(config-access-map)# [no] statistics
                               
                              (Optional)

                              Specifies that the switch maintains global statistics for packets matching the rules in the VACL.

                              The no option stops the switch from maintaining global statistics for the VACL.

                               
                              Step 7 switch(config-access-map)# show running-config
                               
                              (Optional)

                              Displays ACL configuration.

                               
                              Step 8 switch(config-access-map)# copy running-config startup-config
                               
                              (Optional)

                              Copies the running configuration to the startup configuration.

                               

                              Removing a VACL

                              You can remove a VACL, which means that you will delete the VLAN access map.

                              Be sure that you know whether the VACL is applied to a VLAN. The switch allows you to remove VACLs that are current applied. Removing a VACL does not affect the configuration of VLANs where you have applied the VACL. Instead, the switch considers the removed VACL to be empty.

                              Procedure
                                  Command or Action Purpose
                                Step 1 switch# configure terminal
                                 

                                Enters configuration mode.

                                 
                                Step 2 switch(config)# no vlan access-map map-name
                                 

                                Removes the VLAN access map configuration for the specified access map.

                                 
                                Step 3 switch(config)# show running-config
                                 
                                (Optional)

                                Displays ACL configuration.

                                 
                                Step 4 switch(config)# copy running-config startup-config
                                 
                                (Optional)

                                Copies the running configuration to the startup configuration.

                                 

                                Applying a VACL to a VLAN

                                You can apply a VACL to a VLAN.

                                Procedure
                                    Command or Action Purpose
                                  Step 1 switch# configure terminal
                                   

                                  Enters configuration mode.

                                   
                                  Step 2 switch(config)# [no] vlan filter map-name vlan-list list
                                   

                                  Applies the VACL to the VLANs by the list that you specified. The no option unapplies the VACL.

                                  The vlan-list command can specify a list of up to 32 VLANs, but multiple vlan-list commands can be configured to cover more than 32 VLANs.

                                   
                                  Step 3 switch(config)# show running-config
                                   
                                  (Optional)

                                  Displays ACL configuration.

                                   
                                  Step 4 switch(config)# copy running-config startup-config
                                   
                                  (Optional)

                                  Copies the running configuration to the startup configuration.

                                   

                                  Verifying VACL Configuration

                                  To display VACL configuration information, perform one of the following tasks:

                                  • switch# show running-config aclmgr

                                    Displays ACL configuration, including VACL-related configuration.

                                  • switch# show vlan filter

                                    Displays information about VACLs that are applied to a VLAN.

                                  • switch# show vlan access-map

                                    Displays information about VLAN access maps.

                                  Displaying and Clearing VACL Statistics

                                  To display or clear VACL statistics, perform one of the following tasks:

                                  • switch# show vlan access-list

                                    Displays VACL configuration. If the VLAN access-map includes the statistics command, then the show vlan access-list command output includes the number of packets that have matched each rule.

                                  • switch# clear vlan access-list counters

                                    Clears statistics for all VACLs or for a specific VACL.

                                  Configuration Examples for VACL

                                  The following example shows how to configure a VACL to forward traffic permitted by an IP ACL named acl-ip-01 and how to apply the VACL to VLANs 50 through 82:

                                  switch# configure terminal
                                  
                                  switch(config)# vlan access-map acl-ip-map
                                  
                                  switch(config-access-map)# match ip address acl-ip-01
                                  
                                  switch(config-access-map)# action forward
                                  
                                  switch(config-access-map)# exit
                                  
                                   switch(config)# vlan filter acl-ip-map vlan-list 50-82
                                  
                                   

                                  Configuring ACLs on Virtual Terminal Lines

                                  To restrict incoming and outgoing connections for IPv4 or IPv6 between a Virtual Terminal (VTY) line and the addresses in an access list, use the access-class command in line configuration mode. To remove access restrictions, use the no form of this command.

                                  Follow these guidelines when configuring ACLs on VTY lines:

                                  • Set identical restrictions on all VTY lines because a user can connect to any of them.
                                  • Statistics per entry is not supported for ACLs on VTY lines.
                                  Before You Begin

                                  Be sure that the ACL that you want to apply exists and is configured to filter traffic for this application.

                                  Procedure
                                      Command or Action Purpose
                                    Step 1 switch# configure terminal
                                     

                                    Enters global configuration mode.

                                     
                                    Step 2 switch(config)# line vty


                                    Example:
                                    switch(config)# line vty
                                    switch(config-line)#
                                     

                                    Enters line configuration mode.

                                     
                                    Step 3 switch(config-line)# access-class access-list-number {in | out}


                                    Example:
                                    switch(config-line)# access-class ozi2 in
                                    switch(config-line)#access-class ozi3 out
                                    switch(config)#
                                     

                                    Specifies inbound or outbound access restrictions.

                                     
                                    Step 4 switch(config-line)# no access-class access-list-number {in | out}


                                    Example:
                                    switch(config-line)# no access-class ozi2 in
                                    switch(config-line)# no access-class ozi3 out
                                    switch(config)#
                                     
                                    (Optional)

                                    Removes inbound or outbound access restrictions.

                                     
                                    Step 5 switch(config-line)# exit


                                    Example:
                                    switch(config-line)# exit
                                    switch#
                                     

                                    Exits line configuration mode.

                                     
                                    Step 6 switch# show running-config aclmgr


                                    Example:
                                    switch# show running-config aclmgr
                                     
                                    (Optional)

                                    Displays the running configuration of the ACLs on the switch.

                                     
                                    Step 7 switch# copy running-config startup-config


                                    Example:
                                    switch# copy running-config startup-config
                                     
                                    (Optional)

                                    Copies the running configuration to the startup configuration.

                                     

                                    The following example shows how to apply the access-class ozi2 command to the in-direction of the vty line.

                                    switch# configure terminal
                                    Enter configuration commands, one per line.  End with CNTL/Z.
                                    switch(config)# line vty
                                    switch(config-line)# access-class ozi2 in
                                    switch(config-line)# exit
                                    switch#

                                    Verifying ACLs on VTY Lines

                                    To display the ACL configurations on VTY lines, perform one of the following tasks:

                                    Command Purpose
                                    show running-config aclmgr Displays the running configuration of the ACLs configured on the switch.
                                    show users Displays the users that are connected.
                                    show access-lists access-list-name Display the statistics per entry.

                                    Configuration Examples for ACLs on VTY Lines

                                    The following example shows the connected users on the console line (ttyS0) and the VTY lines (pts/0 and pts/1).

                                    switch# show users
                                    NAME     LINE         TIME         IDLE          PID COMMENT
                                    admin    ttyS0        Aug 27 20:45   .         14425 *
                                    admin    pts/0        Aug 27 20:06 00:46       14176 (172.18.217.82) session=ssh
                                    admin    pts/1        Aug 27 20:52   .         14584 (10.55.144.118)
                                    

                                    The following example shows how to allow vty connections to all IPv4 hosts except 172.18.217.82 and how to deny vty connections to any IPv4 host except 10.55.144.118, 172.18.217.79, 172.18.217.82, 172.18.217.92:

                                    • Applying the ipv6 access-list ozi7 command to the in direction of the VTY line, denies VTY connections to all IPv6 hosts.
                                    • Applying the ipv6 access-list ozip6 command to the out direction of the VTY line, allows VTY connections to all IPv6 hosts.
                                    switch# show running-config aclmgr 
                                    !Time: Fri Aug 27 22:01:09 2010
                                    version 5.0(2)N1(1)
                                    ip access-list ozi
                                      10 deny ip 172.18.217.82/32 any 
                                      20 permit ip any any 
                                    ip access-list ozi2
                                      10 permit ip 10.55.144.118/32 any 
                                      20 permit ip 172.18.217.79/32 any 
                                      30 permit ip 172.18.217.82/32 any 
                                      40 permit ip 172.18.217.92/32 any 
                                    ipv6 access-list ozi7
                                      10 deny tcp any any 
                                    ipv6 access-list ozip6
                                      10 permit tcp any any 
                                    
                                    line vty
                                      access-class ozi in
                                      access-class ozi2 out
                                      ipv6 access-class ozi7 in
                                      ipv6 access-class ozip6 out
                                    

                                    The following example shows how to configure the IP access list by enabling per-entry statistics for the ACL:

                                    switch# conf t
                                    Enter configuration commands, one per line. 
                                    End with CNTL/Z. 
                                    switch(config)# ip access-list ozi2
                                    switch(config-acl)# statistics per-entry
                                    switch(config-acl)# deny tcp 172.18.217.83/32 any
                                    switch(config-acl)# exit
                                    
                                    switch(config)# ip access-list ozi
                                    switch(config-acl)# statistics per-entry
                                    switch(config-acl)# permit ip 172.18.217.20/24 any
                                    switch(config-acl)# exit
                                    switch#
                                    

                                    The following example shows how to apply the ACLs on VTY in and out directions:

                                    switch(config)# line vty
                                    switch(config-line)# ip access-class ozi in
                                    switch(config-line)# access-class ozi2 out
                                    switch(config-line)# exit
                                    switch#
                                    

                                    The following example shows how to remove the access restrictions on the VTY line:

                                     
                                    switch# conf t 
                                    Enter configuration commands, one per line. End
                                    with CNTL/Z.
                                    switch(config)# line vty
                                    switch(config-line)# no access-class ozi2 in
                                    switch(config-line)# no ip access-class ozi2 in
                                    switch(config-line)# exit
                                    switch#
                                    

                                    Configuring the ACL Resource Usage Threshold

                                    You can configure a threshold value for the number of Logical Operation Units (LOUs).

                                    Procedure
                                        Command or Action Purpose
                                      Step 1 switch# configure terminal 

                                      Enters global configuration mode.

                                       
                                      Step 2 switch(config)# hardware access-list lou resource threshold value  

                                      Configures the threshold value for the number of LOUs.

                                       
                                      Step 3 switch(config-if)# copy running-config startup-config  (Optional)

                                      Saves the change persistently through reboots and restarts by copying the running configuration to the startup configuration.

                                       
                                      The following example shows how to configure the maximum threshold value for LOUs.
                                      switch# configuration terminal
                                      switch(config)# hardware access-list lou resource threshold 15