Cisco Nexus 6000 Series NX-OS Quality of Service Configuration Guide, Release 6.x
Configuring Classification
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Configuring Classification

Configuring Classification

This chapter contains the following sections:

Information About Classification

Classification is the separation of packets into traffic classes. You configure the device to take a specific action on the specified classified traffic, such as policing or marking down, or other actions.

You can create class maps to represent each traffic class by matching packet characteristics with classification criteria.

Table 1 Classification Criteria

Classification Criteria

Description

Class map

Criteria specified in a named class-map object.

Precedence

Precedence value within the Type of Service (ToS) byte of the IP Header.

Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP)

DSCP value within the DIffServ field of the IP Header.

Protocol

Selected set of protocols, including Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) and Connectionless Network Service (CLNS).

IP RTP

Identify applications using Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) by UDP port number range.

ACL

Traffic is classified by the criteria defined in the access control list (ACL).

Table 2 Supported RFCs
RFC Title
RFC 2474 Definition of the Differentiated Services Field (DS Field) in the IPv4 and IPv6 Headers

Ingress Classification Policies

You use classification to partition traffic into classes. You classify the traffic based on the packet property (CoS field) or the packet header fields that include IP precedence, Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP), and Layer 2 to Layer 4 parameters. The values used to classify traffic are called match criteria.

Traffic that fails to match any class is assigned to a default class of traffic called class-default.

Licensing Requirements for Classification

This feature does not require a license. Any feature not included in a license package is bundled with the Cisco NX-OS system images and is provided at no extra charge to you. For a complete explanation of the Cisco NX-OS licensing scheme, see the Cisco NX-OS Licensing Guide.

Configuring Classification

Configuring Class Maps

You can create or modify a class map with the class-map command. The class map is a named object that represents a class of traffic. In the class map, you specify a set of match criteria for classifying the packets. You can then reference class maps in policy maps.


Note


The class map type default is type qos and its match criteria default is match-all.


Procedure
     Command or ActionPurpose
    Step 1switch# configure terminal  

    Enters global configuration mode.

     
    Step 2 switch(config)# class-map [type {network-qos | qos | queuing}] class-map name
     

    Creates or accesses a named object that represents the specified class of traffic.

    Class-map names can contain alphabetic, hyphen, or underscore characters, are case sensitive, and can be up to 40 characters.

    The three class-map configuration modes are as follows:

    • network-qos—Network-wide (global) mode. CLI prompt: switch(config-cmap-nq)#

    • qos—Classification mode; this is the default mode. CLI prompt: switch(config-cmap-qos)#

    • queuing—Queuing mode. CLI prompt: switch(config-cmap-que)#

     
    Step 3switch(config)# class-map [type qos] [match-all | match-any] class-map name
     
    (Optional)

    Specifies that packets must match any or all criteria that is defined for a class map.

    • match-all—Classifies traffic if packets match all criteria that is defined for a specified class map (for example, if both the defined CoS and the ACL criteria match).

    • match-any—Classifies traffic if packets match any criteria that is defined for a specified class map (for example, if either the CoS or the ACL criteria matches).

    Class-map names can contain alphabetic, hyphen, or underscore characters, are case sensitive, and can be up to 40 characters.

     
    Step 4 switch(config)# no class-map [type {network-qos | qos | queuing}] class-name
     
    (Optional)

    Deletes the specified class map.

    Note   

    Class-map names can contain alphabetic, hyphen, or underscore characters, are case sensitive, and can be up to 40 characters.

     

    Configuring CoS Classification

    You can classify traffic based on the class of service (CoS) in the IEEE 802.1Q header. This 3-bit field is defined in IEEE 802.1p to support QoS traffic classes. CoS is encoded in the high order 3 bits of the VLAN ID Tag field and is referred to as user_priority.


    Note


    The Cisco Nexus 2148 Fabric Extender does not support frames with the dot1p vlan 0 tag.


    If a system class is configured with a no-drop function, the match cos command serves an additional purpose. The switch sends the CoS value to the adapter so that the adapter will apply a PFC pause for this CoS value.

    The FCoE system class has a default CoS value of 3. You can add a match cos configuration to the FCoE system class to set a different CoS value. A PFC pause will be applied to traffic that matches the new value.

    Procedure
       Command or ActionPurpose
      Step 1 switch# configure terminal
       

      Enters global configuration mode.

       
      Step 2 switch(config)# class-map type qos class-name
       

      Creates a named object that represents a class of traffic. Class-map names can contain alphabetic, hyphen, or underscore characters, are case sensitive, and can be up to 40 characters.

       
      Step 3 switch(config-cmap-qos)# match cos cos-value
       

      Specifies the CoS value to match for classifying packets into this class. You can configure a CoS value in the range of 0 to 7.

      Note   

      When a Cisco Nexus 2148T Fabric Extender is connected and in use, data traffic should never be marked with a CoS value of 7. CoS 7 is reserved for control traffic transiting the Fabric Extender.

       
      Step 4 switch(config-cmap-qos)# no match cos cos-value
       
      (Optional)

      Removes the match from the traffic class.

       

      This example shows how to classify traffic by matching packets based on a defined CoS value:

      switch# configure terminal
      switch(config)# class-map type qos match-any class_cos
      switch(config-cmap-qos)# match cos 4, 5-6
      
      

      Use the show class-map command to display the CoS value class-map configuration:

      switch# show class-map class_cos
      

      Configuring Precedence Classification

      You can classify traffic based on the precedence value in the type of service (ToS) byte field of the IP header (either IPv4 or IPv6). The following table shows the precedence values:

      Table 3 Precedence Values

      Value

      List of Precedence Values

      <0-7>

      IP precedence value

      critical

      Critical precedence (5)

      flash

      Flash precedence (3)

      flash-override

      Flash override precedence (4)

      immediate

      Immediate precedence (2)

      internet

      Internetwork control precedence (6)

      network

      Network control precedence (7)

      priority

      Priority precedence (1)

      routine

      Routine precedence (0)

      Procedure
         Command or ActionPurpose
        Step 1switch# configure terminal  

        Enters global configuration mode.

         
        Step 2 switch(config)# class-map type qos match-any class-name  

        Creates a named object that represents a class of traffic. Class-map names can contain alphabetic, hyphen, or underscore characters, are case sensitive, and can be up to 40 characters.

         
        Step 3 switch(config-cmap-qos)#match precedence precedence-values  

        Configures the traffic class by matching packets based on precedence values. For a list of precedence values, see the Precedence Values table.

         
        Step 4switch((config-cmap-qos)# no match precedence precedence-values   (Optional)

        Removes the match from the traffic class. For a list of precedence values, see the Precedence Values table.

         

        This example shows how to classify traffic by matching packets based on the precedence value in the ToS byte field of the IP header:

        switch# configure terminal
        switch(config)# class-map type qos match-any class_precedence
        switch(config-cmap-qos)# match precedence 1-2, critical

        Use the show class-map command to display the IP precedence value class-map configuration:

        switch# show class-map class_precedence

        Configuring DSCP Classification

        You can classify traffic based on the Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP) value in the DiffServ field of the IP header (either IPv4 or IPv6).
        Table 4 Standard DSCP Values

        Value

        List of DSCP Values

        af11

        AF11 dscp (001010)—decimal value 10

        af12

        AF12 dscp (001100)—decimal value 12

        af13

        AF13 dscp (001110)—decimal value 14

        af21

        AF21 dscp (010010)—decimal value 18

        af22

        AF22 dscp (010100)—decimal value 20

        af23

        AF23 dscp (010110)—decimal value 22

        af31

        AF31 dscp (011010)—decimal value 26

        af32

        AF32 dscp (011100)—decimal value 28

        af33

        AF33 dscp (011110)—decimal value 30

        af41

        AF41 dscp (100010)—decimal value 34

        af42

        AF42 dscp (100100)—decimal value 36

        af43

        AF43 dscp (100110)—decimal value 38

        cs1

        CS1 (precedence 1) dscp (001000)—decimal value 8

        cs2

        CS2 (precedence 2) dscp (010000)—decimal value 16

        cs3

        CS3 (precedence 3) dscp (011000)—decimal value 24

        cs4

        CS4 (precedence 4) dscp (100000)—decimal value 32

        cs5

        CS5 (precedence 5) dscp (101000)—decimal value 40

        cs6

        CS6 (precedence 6) dscp (110000)—decimal value 48

        cs7

        CS7 (precedence 7) dscp (111000)—decimal value 56

        default

        Default dscp (000000)—decimal value 0

        ef

        EF dscp (101110)—decimal value 46

        Procedure
           Command or ActionPurpose
          Step 1switch# configure terminal  

          Enters global configuration mode.

           
          Step 2 switch(config)# class-map type qos class-name
           

          Creates a named object that represents a class of traffic. Class-map names can contain alphabetic, hyphen, or underscore characters, are case sensitive, and can be up to 40 characters.

           
          Step 3 switch(config-cmap-qos)# match dscp dscp-list
           

          Configures the traffic class by matching packets based on the values in the dscp-list variable. For a list of DSCP values, see the Standard DSCP Values table.

           
          Step 4 switch(config-cmap-qos)# no match dscp dscp-list
           
          (Optional)

          Removes the match from the traffic class. For a list of DSCP values, see the Standard DSCP Values table.

           

          This example shows how to classify traffic by matching packets based on the DSCP value in the DiffServ field of the IP header:

          switch# configure terminal
          switch(config)# class-map type qos match-any class_dscp
          switch(config-cmap-qos)# match  dscp af21, af32

          Use the show class-map command to display the DSCP class-map configuration:

          switch# show class-map class_dscp

          Configuring Protocol Classification

          You can classify traffic based on the IPv4 Protocol field or the IPv6 Next Header field in the IP header. The following table shows the protocol arguments:

          Table 5 Protocol Arguments

          Argument

          Description

          arp

          Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)

          clns_es

          CLNS End Systems

          clns_is

          CLNS Intermediate System

          dhcp

          Dynamic Host Configuration (DHCP)

          ldp

          Label Distribution Protocol (LDP)

          netbios

          NetBIOS Extended User Interface (NetBEUI)

          Procedure
             Command or ActionPurpose
            Step 1 switch# configure terminal
             

            Enters configuration mode.

             
            Step 2 switch(config)# class-map type qos class-name
             

            Creates a named object that represents a class of traffic. Class-map names can contain alphabetic, hyphen, or underscore characters, are case sensitive, and can be up to 40 characters.

             
            Step 3 switch(config-cmap-qos)# match protocol {arp | clns_es | clns_is | dhcp | ldp | netbios}
             

            Configures the traffic class by matching packets based on the specified protocol.

             
            Step 4 switch(config-cmap-qos)# no match protocol {arp | clns_es | clns_is | dhcp | ldp | netbios}
             
            (Optional)

            Removes the match from the traffic class.

             

            This example shows how to classify traffic by matching packets based on the protocol field:

            switch# configure terminal
            switch(config)# class-map type qos class_protocol
            switch(config-cmap-qos)# match protocol arp
             

            Use the show class-map command to display the protocol class-map configuration:

            switch# show class-map class_protocol
             

            Configuring IP RTP Classification

            The IP Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) is a transport protocol for real-time applications that transmits data such as audio or video and is defined by RFC 3550. Although RTP does not use a common TCP or UDP port, you typically configure RTP to use ports 16384 to 32767. UDP communications use an even port and the next higher odd port is used for RTP Control Protocol (RTCP) communications.

            You can classify based on UDP port ranges, which are likely to target applications using RTP.

            Procedure
               Command or ActionPurpose
              Step 1 switch# configure terminal
               

              Enters global configuration mode.

               
              Step 2 switch(config)# class-map type qos class-name
               

              Creates a named object that represents a class of traffic. Class-map names can contain alphabetic, hyphen, or underscore characters, are case sensitive, and can be up to 40 characters.

               
              Step 3 switch(config-cmap-qos)# match ip rtp port-number
               

              Configures the traffic class by matching packets based on a range of lower and upper UDP port numbers, which is likely to target applications using RTP. Values can range from 2000 to 65535.

               
              Step 4 switch(config-cmap-qos)# no match ip rtp port-number
               
              (Optional)

              Removes the match from the traffic class.

               
              The following example shows how to classify traffic by matching packets based on UDP port ranges that are typically used by RTP applications:

              switch# configure terminal
              switch(config)# class-map type qos match-any class_rtp
              switch(config-cmap-qos)# match  ip rtp 2000-2100, 4000-4100

              Use the show class-map command to display the RTP class-map configuration:

              switch# show class-map class_rtp

              Configuring ACL Classification

              You can classify traffic by matching packets based on an existing access control list (ACL). Traffic is classified by the criteria defined in the ACL. The permit and deny ACL keywords are ignored in the matching; even if a match criteria in the access-list has a deny action, it is still used for matching for this class.

              Procedure
                 Command or ActionPurpose
                Step 1 switch# configure terminal
                 

                Enters global configuration mode.

                 
                Step 2 switch(config)# class-map type qos class-name
                 

                Creates a named object that represents a class of traffic. Class-map names can contain alphabetic, hyphen, or underscore characters, are case sensitive, and can be up to 40 characters.

                 
                Step 3 switch(config-cmap-qos)# match access-group name acl-name
                 

                Configures a traffic class by matching packets based on the acl-name. The permit and deny ACL keywords are ignored in the matching.

                Note   

                You can only define a single ACL in a class map.

                You cannot add any other match criteria to a class with a match access-group defined.

                 
                Step 4 switch(config-cmap-qos)# no match access-group name acl-name
                 
                (Optional)

                Removes the match from the traffic class.

                 

                This example shows how to classify traffic by matching packets based on existing ACLs:

                switch# configure terminal
                switch(config)# class-map type qos class_acl
                switch(config-cmap-qos)# match access-group name acl-01
                 

                Use the show class-map command to display the ACL class-map configuration:

                switch# show class-map class_acl
                 

                QoS ACL Per-Entry Statistics

                Starting with Cisco NX-OS Release 7.2(0)N1(1), for ACLs associated with QoS Policy, statistics are shown per ACE.

                The following are the two limitations associated with this feature:

                • Statistics per ACE are not shown when the following conditions are met:

                  • There are more than one ACEs in the ACL.

                  • A policer is attached to the QoS policy.

                • Statistics per-ACE of ACL for QoS policies applied of FEX HIF ports will be shown only if policer is not present.

                Example: Enabling QoS Policy Statistics

                Statistics will be enabled if the user provides statistics per-entry in the ACL, which is used in QoS Policies.

                Switch(config-acl)# show ip access-lists test_ACL1
                
                IPV4 ACL test_ACL1
                        statistics per-entry
                        10 permit ip 10.10.10.1/24 20.2.2.2/24 ------>//Operation when a policer is attached//
                        20 deny ip 40.4.4.4/24 any
                        30 permit ip 30.3.3.3/24 11.11.11.1/24
                Switch(config-acl)#
                Switch(config-acl)# class-map type qos test_map
                Switch(config-cmap-qos)# match access-group name test_ACL1
                Switch(config-cmap-qos)# exit
                Switch(config)# policy-map type qos test_pmap
                Switch(config-pmap-qos)# class test_map
                Switch(config-pmap-c-qos)# set qos-group 4
                Switch(config-pmap-c-qos)# conf
                Switch(config)# int e1/26
                Switch(config-if)# service-policy type qos input test_pmap
                Switch(config-if)# conf
                Switch(config)# show ip access-lists test_ACL1
                
                IPV4 ACL test_ACL1
                        statistics per-entry
                        10 permit ip 10.10.10.1/24 20.2.2.2/24 [match=0]--->//Operation with no policer attached or ACL having only one entry//
                        20 deny ip 40.4.4.4/24 any [match=0]
                        30 permit ip 30.3.3.3/24 11.11.11.1/24 [match=0]

                Verifying the Classification Configuration

                Use one of the following commands to verify the configuration:

                Command

                Purpose

                show class-map

                Displays the class maps defined on the switch.

                show policy-map [name]

                Displays the policy maps defined on the switch. Optionally, you can display the named policy only.

                running-config ipqos

                Displays information about the running configuration for QoS.

                startup-config ipqos

                Displays information about the startup configuration for QoS.