Cisco Nexus 4001I and 4005I Switch Module for IBM BladeCenter NX-OS Configuration Guide
Configuring MST
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Configuring MST

Table Of Contents

Configuring MST

Information About MST

MST Overview

MST Regions

MST BPDUs

MST Configuration Information

IST, CIST, and CST

IST, CIST, and CST Overview

Spanning Tree Operation Within an MST Region

Spanning Tree Operations Between MST Regions

MST Terminology

Hop Count

Boundary Ports

Detecting Unidirectional Link Failure

Port Cost and Port Priority

Interoperability with IEEE 802.1D

Interoperability with Rapid PVST+: Understanding PVST Simulation

Configuring MST

MST Configuration Guidelines

Enabling MST

Entering MST Configuration Mode

Specifying the MST Name

Specifying the MST Configuration Revision Number

Specifying the Configuration on an MST Region

Mapping and Unmapping VLANs to MST Instances

Mapping Secondary VLANs to Same MSTI as Primary VLANs for Private VLANs

Configuring the Root Bridge

Configuring a Secondary Root Bridge

Configuring the Port Priority

Configuring the Port Cost

Configuring the Switch Priority

Configuring the Hello Time

Configuring the Forwarding-Delay Time

Configuring the Maximum-Aging Time

Configuring the Maximum-Hop Count

Configuring PVST Simulation Globally

Configuring PVST Simulation Per Port

Specifying the Link Type

Restarting the Protocol

Verifying MST Configurations


Configuring MST


Multiple Spanning Tree (MST), which is the IEEE 802.1s standard, allows you to assign two or more VLANs to a spanning tree instance. MST is not the default spanning tree mode; Rapid per VLAN Spanning Tree (Rapid PVST+) is the default mode. MST instances with the same name, revision number, and VLAN-to-instance mapping combine to form an MST region. The MST region appears as a single bridge to spanning tree configurations outside the region. MST fails over to IEEE 802.1D Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) when it receives an 802.1D message from a neighboring switch.


Note Spanning tree is used to refer to IEEE 802.1w and IEEE 802.1s. If the text is discussing the IEEE 802.1D Spanning Tree Protocol, 802.1D is stated specifically.


This chapter includes the following sections:

Information About MST

Configuring MST


Note See Chapter 8 "Configuring Rapid PVST+" for complete information on STP and Rapid PVST+ and Chapter 10 "Configuring STP Extensions" for complete information on STP extensions.


Information About MST

This section includes the following topics:

MST Overview

MST Regions

MST BPDUs

MST Configuration Information

IST, CIST, and CST

Hop Count

Boundary Ports

Detecting Unidirectional Link Failure

Port Cost and Port Priority

Interoperability with IEEE 802.1D

Interoperability with Rapid PVST+: Understanding PVST Simulation

MST Overview


Note You must enable MST; Rapid PVST+ is the default spanning tree mode.


MST maps multiple VLANs into a spanning tree instance, with each instance having a spanning tree topology independent of other spanning tree instances. This architecture provides multiple forwarding paths for data traffic, enables load balancing, and reduces the number of STP instances required to support a large number of VLANs. MST improves the fault tolerance of the network because a failure in one instance (forwarding path) does not affect other instances (forwarding paths).

MST provides rapid convergence through explicit handshaking as each MST instance uses the IEEE 802.1w standard, which eliminates the 802.1D forwarding delay and quickly transitions root bridge ports and designated ports to the forwarding state. (See Chapter 8 "Configuring Rapid PVST+" for complete information on the explicit handshake agreement.)

MAC address reduction is always enabled while you are using MST. (See Chapter 8 "Configuring Rapid PVST+" for complete information on MAC address reduction.) You cannot disable this feature.

MST improves spanning tree operation and maintains backward compatibility with these STP versions:

Original 802.1D spanning tree

Rapid per-VLAN spanning tree (Rapid PVST+)


NoteIEEE 802.1w defined the Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) and was incorporated into IEEE 802.1D.

IEEE 802.1s defined MST and was incorporated into IEEE 802.1Q.


MST Regions

To allow switches to participate in MST instances, you must consistently configure the switches with the same MST configuration information (see the "MST Configuration Information" section).

A collection of interconnected switches that have the same MST configuration is an MST region. An MST region is a linked group of MST bridges with the same MST configuration.

The MST configuration controls the MST region to which each switch belongs. The configuration includes the name of the region, the revision number, and the MST VLAN-to-instance assignment map.

A region can have one or multiple members with the same MST configuration. Each member must be capable of processing 802.1w Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs). There is no limit to the number of MST regions in a network.

Each region can support up to 65 MST instances (MSTIs). Instances are identified by any number in the range from 1 to 4094. The system reserves Instance 0 for a special instance, which is the IST. You can assign a VLAN to only one MST instance at a time. (See the "IST, CIST, and CST" section for more information on the IST.)

The MST region appears as a single bridge to adjacent MST regions and to other Rapid PVST+ regions and 802.1D spanning tree protocols.


Note We do not recommend that you partition the network into a large number of regions.


MST BPDUs

Each region has only one MST BPDU, and that BPDU carries an M-record for each MSTI within the region (see Figure 9-1). Only the IST sends BPDUs for the MST region; all M-records are encapsulated in that one BPDU that the IST sends (see the "IST, CIST, and CST Overview" section for more information on IST). Because the MST BPDU carries information for all instances, the number of BPDUs that need to be processed to support MSTIs is significantly reduced.

Figure 9-1 MST BPDU with M-Records for MSTIs

MST Configuration Information

The MST configuration that must be identical on all switches within a single MST region is configured by the user.

You can configure the following three parameters of the MST configuration:

Name—32-character string, null padded and null terminated, identifying the MST region

Revision number—Unsigned 16-bit number that identifies the revision of the current MST configuration


Note You must set the revision number when required as part of the MST configuration. The revision number is not incremented automatically each time that the MST configuration is committed.


MST configuration table—4096-element table that associates each of the potential 4094 VLANs supported to a given instance with the first (0) and last element (4095) set to 0. The value of element number X represents the instance to which VLAN X is mapped.


Caution When you change the VLAN-to-MSTI mapping, the system restarts MST.

MST BPDUs contain these three configuration parameters. An MST bridge accepts an MST BPDU into its own region only if these three configuration parameters match exactly. If one configuration attribute differs, the MST bridge considers the BPDU to be from another MST region.

IST, CIST, and CST

These sections describe internal spanning tree (IST), common and internal spanning tree (CIST), and common spanning tree (CST):

IST, CIST, and CST Overview

Spanning Tree Operation Within an MST Region

Spanning Tree Operations Between MST Regions

MST Terminology

IST, CIST, and CST Overview

Unlike Rapid PVST+ (see Chapter 8 "Configuring Rapid PVST+" for more information on this subject), in which all the STP instances are independent, MST establishes and maintains IST, CIST, and CST spanning trees, as follows:

An IST is the spanning tree that runs in an MST region.

MST establishes and maintains additional spanning trees within each MST region; these spanning trees are called, multiple spanning tree instances (MSTIs).

Instance 0 is a special instance for a region, known as the IST. The IST always exists on all ports; you cannot delete the IST, or Instance 0. By default, all VLANs are assigned to the IST. All other MST instances are numbered from 1 to 4094.

The IST is the only STP instance that sends and receives BPDUs. All of the other MSTI information is contained in MST records (M-records), which are encapsulated within MST BPDUs.

All MSTIs within the same region share the same protocol timers, but each MSTI has its own topology parameters, such as the root bridge ID, the root path cost, and so forth.

An MSTI is local to the region; for example, MSTI 9 in region A is independent of MSTI 9 in region B, even if regions A and B are interconnected.

The CST interconnects the MST regions and any instance of 802.1D and 802.1w STP that may be running on the network. The CST is the one STP instance for the entire bridged network and encompasses all MST regions and 802.1w and 802.1D instances.

A CIST is a collection of the ISTs in each MST region. The CIST is the same as an IST inside an MST region, and the same as a CST outside an MST region.

The spanning tree computed in an MST region appears as a subtree in the CST that encompasses the entire switched domain. The CIST is formed by the spanning tree algorithm running among switches that support the 802.1w, 802.1s, and 802.1D standards. The CIST inside an MST region is the same as the CST outside a region.

For more information, see the "Spanning Tree Operation Within an MST Region" section and the "Spanning Tree Operations Between MST Regions" section.

Spanning Tree Operation Within an MST Region

The IST connects all the MST switches in a region. When the IST converges, the root of the IST becomes the CIST regional root as shown in Figure 9-2. The CIST regional root is also the CIST root if there is only one region in the network. If the CIST root is outside the region, the protocol selects one of the MST switches at the boundary of the region as the CIST regional root.

When an MST switch initializes, it sends BPDUs that identify itself as the root of the CIST and the CIST regional root, with both the path costs to the CIST root and to the CIST regional root set to zero. The switch also initializes all of its MSTIs and claims to be the root for all of them. If the switch receives superior MST root information (lower switch ID, lower path cost, and so forth) than the information that is currently stored for the port, it relinquishes its claim as the CIST regional root.

During initialization, an MST region might have many subregions, each with its own CIST regional root. As switches receive superior IST information from a neighbor in the same region, they leave their old subregions and join the new subregion that contains the true CIST regional root. This action causes all subregions to shrink except for the subregion that contains the true CIST regional root.

All switches in the MST region must agree on the same CIST regional root. Any two switches in the region will only synchronize their port roles for an MSTI if they converge to a common CIST regional root.

Spanning Tree Operations Between MST Regions

If you have multiple regions or 802.1 w or 802.1D STP instances within a network, MST establishes and maintains the CST, which includes all MST regions and all 802.1w and 802.1D STP switches in the network. The MSTIs combine with the IST at the boundary of the region to become the CST.

The IST connects all the MST switches in the region and appears as a subtree in the CIST that encompasses the entire switched domain. The root of the subtree is the CIST regional root. The MST region appears as a virtual switch to adjacent STP switches and MST regions.

Figure 9-2 shows a network with three MST regions and an 802.1D switch (D). The CIST regional root for region 1 (A) is also the CIST root. The CIST regional root for region 2 (B) and the CIST regional root for region 3 (C) are the roots for their respective subtrees within the CIST.

Figure 9-2 MST Regions, CIST Regional Roots, and CST Root

Only the CST instance sends and receives BPDUs. MSTIs add their spanning tree information into the BPDUs (as M-records) to interact with neighboring switches and compute the final spanning tree topology. Because of this, the spanning tree parameters related to the BPDU transmission (for example, hello time, forward time, max-age, and max-hops) are configured only on the CST instance but affect all MSTIs. You can configure the parameters related to the spanning tree topology (for example, the switch priority, the port VLAN cost, and the port VLAN priority) on both the CST instance and the MSTI.

MST switches use Version 3 BPDUs or 802.1D STP BPDUs to communicate with 802.1D-only switches. MST switches use MST BPDUs to communicate with MST switches.

MST Terminology

MST naming conventions include identification of some internal or regional parameters. These parameters are used only within an MST region, compared to external parameters that are used throughout the whole network. Because the CIST is the only spanning tree instance that spans the whole network, only the CIST parameters require the external qualifiers and not the internal or regional qualifiers. The MST terminology is as follows:

The CIST root is the root bridge for the CIST, which is the unique instance that spans the whole network.

The CIST external root path cost is the cost to the CIST root. This cost is left unchanged within an MST region. An MST region looks like a single switch to the CIST. The CIST external root path cost is the root path cost calculated between these virtual switches and switches that do not belong to any region.

If the CIST root is in the region, the CIST regional root is the CIST root. Otherwise, the CIST regional root is the closest switch to the CIST root in the region. The CIST regional root acts as a root bridge for the IST.

The CIST internal root path cost is the cost to the CIST regional root in a region. This cost is only relevant to the IST, instance 0.

Hop Count

MST does not use the message-age and maximum-age information in the configuration BPDU to compute the STP topology inside the MST region. Instead, the protocol uses the path cost to the root and a hop-count mechanism similar to the IP time-to-live (TTL) mechanism.

By using the spanning-tree mst max-hops global configuration command, you can configure the maximum hops inside the region and apply it to the IST and all MST instances in that region.

The hop count achieves the same result as the message-age information (triggers a reconfiguration). The root bridge of the instance always sends a BPDU (or M-record) with a cost of 0 and the hop count set to the maximum value. When a switch receives this BPDU, it decrements the received remaining hop count by one and propagates this value as the remaining hop count in the BPDUs that it generates. When the count reaches zero, the switch discards the BPDU and ages the information held for the port.

The message-age and maximum-age information in the 802.1w portion of the BPDU remain the same throughout the region (only on the IST), and the same values are propagated by the region-designated ports at the boundary.

You configure a maximum aging time as the number of seconds that a switch waits without receiving spanning tree configuration messages before attempting a reconfiguration.

Boundary Ports

A boundary port is a port that connects to a LAN, the designated bridge of which is either a bridge with a different MST configuration (and so, a separate MST region) or a Rapid PVST+ or 802.1D STP bridge. A designated port knows that it is on the boundary if it detects an STP bridge or receives an agreement proposal from an MST bridge with a different configuration or a Rapid PVST+ bridge. This definition allows two ports that are internal to a region to share a segment with a port that belongs to a different region, creating the possibility of receiving both internal and external messages on a port (see Figure 9-3).

Figure 9-3 MST Boundary Ports

At the boundary, the roles of MST ports do not matter; the system forces their state to be the same as the IST port state. If the boundary flag is set for the port, the MST port-role selection process assigns a port role to the boundary and assigns the same state as the state of the IST port. The IST port at the boundary can take up any port role except a backup port role.

Detecting Unidirectional Link Failure

Currently, this feature is not present in the IEEE MST standard, but it is included in the standard-compliant implementation. The software checks the consistency of the port role and state in the received BPDUs to detect unidirectional link failures that could cause bridging loops.

When a designated port detects a conflict, it keeps its role, but reverts to a discarding state because disrupting connectivity in case of inconsistency is preferable to opening a bridging loop.

Figure 9-4 shows a unidirectional link failure that typically creates a bridging loop. Switch A is the root bridge, and its BPDUs are lost on the link leading to switch B. Rapid PVST+ (802.1w) and MST BPDUs include the role and state of the sending port. With this information, switch A can detect that switch B does not react to the superior BPDUs that it sends and that switch B is the designated, not root port. As a result, switch A blocks (or keeps blocking) its port, which prevents the bridging loop. The block is shown as an STP dispute.

Figure 9-4 Detecting a Unidirectional Link Failure

Port Cost and Port Priority

Spanning tree uses port costs to break a tie for the designated port. Lower values indicate lower port costs, and spanning tree chooses the least costly path. Default port costs are taken from the bandwidth of the interface, as follows:

10 Mbps—2,000,000

100 Mbps—200,000

1 Gigabit Ethernet—20,000

10 Gigabit Ethernet—2,000

You can configure the port costs in order to influence which port is chosen.


Note MST always uses the long path cost calculation method, so the range of valid values is between 1 and 200,000,000.


The system uses port priorities to break ties among ports with the same cost. A lower number indicates a higher priority. The default port priority is 128. You can configure the priority to values between 0 and 224, in increments of 32.

Interoperability with IEEE 802.1D

A switch that runs MST supports a built-in protocol migration feature that enables it to interoperate with 802.1D STP switches. If this switch receives an 802.1D configuration BPDU (a BPDU with the protocol version set to 0), it sends only 802.1D BPDUs on that port. In addition, an MST switch can detect that a port is at the boundary of a region when it receives an 802.1D BPDU, an MST BPDU (Version 3) associated with a different region, or an 802.1w BPDU (Version 2).

However, the switch does not automatically revert to the MST mode if it no longer receives 802.1D BPDUs because it cannot detect whether the 802.1D switch has been removed from the link unless the 802.1D switch is the designated switch. A switch might also continue to assign a boundary role to a port when the switch to which this switch is connected has joined the region.

To restart the protocol migration process (force the renegotiation with neighboring switches), enter the clear spanning-tree detected-protocols command.

All Rapid PVST+ switches (and all 8021.D STP switches) on the link can process MST BPDUs as if they are 802.1w BPDUs. MST switches can send either Version 0 configuration and topology change notification (TCN) BPDUs or Version 3 MST BPDUs on a boundary port. A boundary port connects to a LAN, the designated switch of which is either a single spanning tree switch or a switch with a different MST configuration.


Note MST interoperates with the Cisco prestandard MSTP whenever it receives prestandard MSTP on an MST port; no explicit configuration is necessary.


Interoperability with Rapid PVST+: Understanding PVST Simulation

MST interoperates with Rapid PVST+ with no need for user configuration. The PVST simulation feature enables this seamless interoperability.


Note PVST simulation is enabled by default. That is, by default, all interfaces on the switch interoperate between MST and Rapid PVST+.


However, you may want to control the connection between MST and Rapid PVST+ to protect against accidentally connecting an MST-enabled port to a Rapid PVST+-enabled port. Because Rapid PVST+ is the default STP mode, you may encounter many Rapid PVST+-enabled connections.

Disabling Rapid PVST+ simulation, which can be done per port or globally for the entire switch, moves the MST-enabled port to the blocking state once it detects it is connected to a Rapid PVST+-enabled port. This port remains in the inconsistent state until the port stops receiving Rapid PVST+/SSTP BPDUs, and then the port resumes the normal STP transition process.

Configuring MST

This section includes the following topics:

MST Configuration Guidelines

Enabling MST

Entering MST Configuration Mode

Specifying the MST Name

Specifying the MST Configuration Revision Number

Mapping and Unmapping VLANs to MST Instances

Mapping Secondary VLANs to Same MSTI as Primary VLANs for Private VLANs

Configuring the Root Bridge

Configuring a Secondary Root Bridge

Configuring the Port Priority

Configuring the Port Cost

Configuring the Switch Priority

Configuring the Hello Time

Configuring the Forwarding-Delay Time

Configuring the Maximum-Aging Time

Configuring the Maximum-Hop Count

Configuring PVST Simulation Globally

Configuring PVST Simulation Per Port

Specifying the Link Type

Restarting the Protocol

MST Configuration Guidelines

When configuring MST, follow these guidelines:

When you work with private VLANs, enter the private-vlan synchronize command to map the secondary VLANs to the same MST instance as the primary VLAN.

When you are in the MST configuration submode, the following guidelines apply:

Each command reference line creates its pending regional configuration.

The pending region configuration starts with the current region configuration.

To leave the MST configuration submode without committing any changes, enter the abort command.

To leave the MST configuration submode and commit all the changes that you made before you left the submode, enter the exit command.

Enabling MST

You must enable MST; Rapid PVST+ is the default.


Note Changing the spanning tree mode disrupts traffic because all spanning tree instances are stopped for the previous mode and started for the new mode.


To enable MST on the switch, perform this task:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

switch# configure terminal

Enters configuration mode.

Step 2 

switch(config)# spanning-tree mode mst

Enables MST on the switch.

The following example shows how to enable MST on the switch:

switch# configure terminal 
switch(config)# spanning-tree mode mst 
 
   

To disable MST on the switch, perform this task:

Command
Purpose

switch(config)# no spanning-tree mode mst

Disables MST on the switch and returns you to Rapid PVST+.



Caution Changing the spanning tree mode can disrupt traffic because all spanning tree instances are stopped for the previous mode and restarted in the new mode.


Note Because STP is enabled by default, entering a show running command to view the resulting configuration does not display the command that you entered to enable STP.


Entering MST Configuration Mode

You enter MST configuration mode to configure the MST name, VLAN-to-instance mapping, and MST revision number on the switch.

For two or more switches to be in the same MST region, they must have the identical MST name, VLAN-to-instance mapping, and MST revision number.


Note Each command reference line creates its pending regional configuration in MST configuration mode. In addition, the pending region configuration starts with the current region configuration.


To enter MST configuration mode, perform this task (note the difference between exit and abort):

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

switch# configure terminal

Enters configuration mode.

Step 2 

switch(config)# spanning-tree mst configuration

Enters MST configuration submode on the system. You must be in the MST configuration submode to assign the MST configuration parameters, as follows:

MST name

Instance-to-VLAN mapping

MST revision number

Synchronize primary and secondary VLANs in private VLANs

Step 3 

switch(config-mst)# exit

Commits all the changes and exits MST configuration submode.

switch(config-mst)# abort

Exits the MST configuration submode without committing any of the changes.

The following example shows how to enter MST configuration submode on the switch:

switch# configure terminal 
switch(config)# spanning-tree mst configuration 
 
   

The following example shows how to commit the changes and leave MST configuration submode on the switch:

sswitch(config-mst)# exit 
 
   

The following example shows how to leave MST-submode configuration on the switch without committing the changes:

sswitch(config-mst)# abort 
 
   

To disable MST configuration mode, perform this task:

Command
Purpose

switch(config-mst)# no spanning-tree mst configuration

Returns the MST region configuration to the following default values:

The region name is an empty string.

No VLANs are mapped to any MST instance (all VLANs are mapped to the CIST instance).

The revision number is 0.


Specifying the MST Name

You configure a region name on the bridge. For two or more bridges to be in the same MST region, they must have the identical MST name, VLAN-to-instance mapping, and MST revision number.

To specify an MST name, perform this task:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

switch# configure terminal

Enters configuration mode.

Step 2 

switch(config)# spanning-tree mst configuration

Enters MST configuration submode.

Step 3 

switch(config-mst)# name name

Specifies the name for MST region. The name string has a maximum length of 32 characters and is case-sensitive. The default is an empty string.

The following example shows how to set the name of the MST region:

switch# configure terminal 
switch(config)# spanning-tree mst configuration 
switch(config-mst)# name accounting 

Specifying the MST Configuration Revision Number

You configure the revision number on the bridge. For two or more bridges to be in the same MST region, they must have the identical MST name, VLAN-to-instance mapping, and MST revision number.

To specify an MST revision number, perform this task:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

switch# configure terminal

Enters configuration mode.

Step 2 

switch(config)# spanning-tree mst configuration

Enters MST configuration submode.

Step 3 

switch(config-mst)# revision version

Specifies the revision number for the MST region. The range is from 0 to 65535, and the default value is 0.

The following example shows how to configure the revision number of the MSTI region for 5:

switch# configure terminal 
switch(config)# spanning-tree mst configuration 
switch(config-mst)# revision 5 

Specifying the Configuration on an MST Region

For two or more switches to be in the same MST region, they must have the same VLAN-to-instance mapping, the same configuration revision number, and the same MST name.

A region can have one member or multiple members with the same MST configuration; each member must be capable of processing IEEE 802.1w RSTP BPDUs. There is no limit to the number of MST regions in a network, but each region can support only up to 65 MST instances. You can assign a VLAN to only one MST instance at a time.

To specify the configuration on an MST region, perform this task:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

switch# configure terminal

Enters configuration mode.

Step 2 

switch(config)# spanning-tree mst configuration

Enters MST configuration submode.

Step 3 

switch(config-mst)# instance instance-id vlan vlan-range

Maps VLANs to an MST instance as follows:

For instance-id, the range is from 1 to 4094.

For vlan vlan-range, the range is from 1 to 4094.

When you map VLANs to an MST instance, the mapping is incremental, and the VLANs specified in the command are added to or removed from the VLANs that were previously mapped.

To specify a VLAN range, enter a hyphen; for example, enter the instance 1 vlan 1-63 command to map VLANs 1 through 63 to MST instance 1.

To specify a VLAN series, enter a comma; for example, enter the instance 1 vlan 10, 20, 30 command to map VLANs 10, 20, and 30 to MST instance 1.

Step 4 

switch(config-mst)# name name

Specifies the instance name. The name string has a maximum length of 32 characters and is case sensitive.

Step 5 

switch(config-mst)# revision version

Specifies the configuration revision number. The range is from 0 to 65535.

To return to defaults, do the following:

To return to the default MST region configuration settings, enter the no spanning-tree mst configuration global configuration command.

To return to the default VLAN-to-instance map, enter the no instance instance_id vlan vlan-range MST configuration command.

To return to the default name, enter the no name MST configuration command.

To return to the default revision number, enter the no revision MST configuration command.

To reenable Rapid PVST+, enter the no spanning-tree mode or the spanning-tree mode rapid-pvst global configuration command.

The following example shows how to enter MST configuration mode, map VLANs 10 to 20 to MST instance 1, name the region region1, set the configuration revision to 1, display the pending configuration, apply the changes, and return to global configuration mode:

switch(config)# spanning-tree mst configuration 
switch(config-mst)# instance 1 vlan 10-20 
switch(config-mst)# name region1 
switch(config-mst)# revision 1 
switch(config-mst)# show pending 
Pending MST configuration
Name      [region1]
Revision  1
Instances configured 2
Instance  Vlans Mapped
--------  ---------------------
0         1-9,21-4094
1         10-20
-------------------------------

Mapping and Unmapping VLANs to MST Instances


Caution When you change the VLAN-to-MSTI mapping, the system restarts MST.


Note You cannot disable an MSTI.


For two or more bridges to be in the same MST region, they must have the identical MST name, VLAN-to-instance mapping, and MST revision number.

To map VLANs to MST instances, perform this task:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

switch# configure terminal

Enters configuration mode.

Step 2 

switch(config)# spanning-tree mst configuration

Enters MST configuration submode.

Step 3 

switch(config-mst)# instance instance-id vlan vlan-range

Maps VLANs to an MST instance, as follows:

For instance_id, the range is from 1 to 4094.

Instance 0 is reserved for the IST for each MST region.

For vlan-range, the range is from 1 to 4094.

When you map VLANs to an MSTI, the mapping is incremental, and the VLANs specified in the command are added to or removed from the VLANs that were previously mapped.

The following example shows how to map VLAN 200 to MSTI 3:

switch# configure terminal 
switch(config)# spanning-tree mst configuration 
switch(config-mst)# instance 3 vlan 200 
 
   

To unmap VLAN to MST instances, perform this task:

Command
Purpose

switch(config-mst)# no instance instance-id vlan vlan-range

Deletes the specified instance and returns the VLANs to the default MSTI, which is the CIST.


Mapping Secondary VLANs to Same MSTI as Primary VLANs for Private VLANs

When you are working with private VLANs on the system, all secondary VLANs must be in the same MSTI and their associated primary VLAN.

To accomplish this synchronization automatically, perform this task:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

switch# configure terminal

Enters configuration mode.

Step 2 

switch(config)# spanning-tree mst configuration

Enters MST configuration submode.

Step 3 

switch(config-mst)# private-vlan synchronize

Automatically maps all secondary VLANs to the same MSTI and their associated primary VLAN for all private VLANs.

The following example shows how to automatically map all the secondary VLANs to the same MSTI as their associated primary VLANs in all private VLANs:

switch# configure terminal 
switch(config)# spanning-tree mst configuration 
switch(config-mst)# private-vlan synchronize 

Configuring the Root Bridge

You can configure the switch to become the root bridge.


Note The root bridge for each MSTI should be a backbone or distribution switch. Do not configure an access switch as the spanning tree primary root bridge.


Enter the diameter keyword, which is available only for MSTI 0 (or the IST), to specify the network diameter (that is, the maximum number of hops between any two end stations in the network). When you specify the network diameter, the switch automatically sets an optimal hello time, forward-delay time, and maximum-age time for a network of that diameter, which can significantly reduce the convergence time. You can enter the hello keyword to override the automatically calculated hello time.


Note With the switch configured as the root bridge, do not manually configure the hello time, forward-delay time, and maximum-age time using the spanning-tree mst hello-time, spanning-tree mst forward-time, and spanning-tree mst max-age global configuration commands.


To enable the root bridge configuration, perform this task:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

switch# configure terminal

Enters configuration mode.

Step 2 

switch(config)# spanning-tree mst instance-id root {primary | secondary} [diameter dia [hello-time hello-time]]

Configures a switch as the root bridge as follows:

For instance-id, you can specify a single instance, a range of instances separated by a hyphen, or a series of instances separated by a comma. The range is from 1 to 4094.

For diameter net-diameter, specify the maximum number of hops between any two end stations. The default is 7. This keyword is available only for MST instance 0.

For hello-time seconds, specify the interval in seconds between the generation of configuration messages by the root bridge. The range is from 1 to 10 seconds; the default is 2 seconds.

The following example shows how to configure the switch as the root switch for MSTI 5:

switch# configure terminal 
switch(config)# spanning-tree mst 5 root primary 
 
   

To disable the root bridge configuration, perform this task:

Command
Purpose

switch(config)# no spanning-tree mst instance-id root

Returns the switch priority, diameter, and hello time to default values.


Configuring a Secondary Root Bridge

You can execute this command on more than one switch to configure multiple backup root bridges. Enter the same network diameter and hello-time values that you used when you configured the primary root bridge with the spanning-tree mst root primary global configuration command.

To enable a secondary root bridge, perform this task:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

switch# configure terminal

Enters configuration mode.

Step 2 

switch(config)# spanning-tree mst instance-id root {primary | secondary} [diameter dia [hello-time hello-time]]

Configures a switch as the secondary root bridge as follows:

For instance-id, you can specify a single instance, a range of instances separated by a hyphen, or a series of instances separated by a comma. The range is from 1 to 4094.

For diameter net-diameter, specify the maximum number of hops between any two end stations. The default is 7. This keyword is available only for MST instance 0.

For hello-time seconds, specify the interval in seconds between the generation of configuration messages by the root bridge. The range is from 1 to 10 seconds; the default is 2 seconds.

The following example shows how to configure the switch as the secondary root switch for MSTI 5:

switch# configure terminal 
switch(config)# spanning-tree mst 5 root secondary 
 
   

To disable the secondary root bridge configuration, perform this task:

Command
Purpose

switch(config)# no spanning-tree mst instance-id root

Returns the switch priority, diameter, and hello-time to default values.


Configuring the Port Priority

If a loop occurs, MST uses the port priority when selecting an interface to put into the forwarding state. You can assign lower priority values to interfaces that you want selected first and higher priority values to the interface that you want selected last. If all interfaces have the same priority value, MST puts the interface with the lowest interface number in the forwarding state and blocks the other interfaces.

To configure the port priority, perform this task:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

switch# configure terminal

Enters configuration mode.

Step 2 

switch(config)# interface {{type slot/port} | {port-channel number}}

Specifies an interface to configure, and enters interface configuration mode.

Step 3 

switch(config-if)# spanning-tree mst instance-id port-priority priority

Configures the port priority as follows:

For instance-id, you can specify a single MSTI, a range of MSTIs separated by a hyphen, or a series of MSTIs separated by a comma. The range is from 1 to 4094.

For priority, the range is 0 to 224 in increments of 32. The default is 128. A lower number indicates a higher priority.

The priority values are 0, 32, 64, 96, 128, 160, 192, and 224. The system rejects all other values.

The following example shows how to set the MST interface port priority for MSTI 3 on Ethernet port 1/1 to 64:

switch# configure terminal 
switch(config)# interface ethernet 1/1 
switch(config-if)# spanning-tree mst 3 port-priority 64 
 
   

You can only apply this command to a physical Ethernet interface.

Configuring the Port Cost

The MST path cost default value is derived from the media speed of an interface. If a loop occurs, MST uses the cost when selecting an interface to put in the forwarding state. You can assign lower cost values to interfaces that you want selected first and higher cost to interfaces values that you want selected last. If all interfaces have the same cost value, MST puts the interface with the lowest interface number in the forwarding state and blocks the other interfaces.


Note MST uses the long pathcost calculation method.


To configure the port cost, perform this task:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

switch# configure terminal

Enters configuration mode.

Step 2 

switch(config)# interface {{type slot/port} | {port-channel number}}

Specifies an interface to configure, and enters interface configuration mode.

Step 3 

switch(config-if)# spanning-tree mst instance-id cost [cost | auto]

Configures the cost.

If a loop occurs, MST uses the path cost when selecting an interface to place into the forwarding state. A lower path cost represents higher-speed transmission as follows:

For instance-id, you can specify a single instance, a range of instances separated by a hyphen, or a series of instances separated by a comma. The range is from 1 to 4094.

For cost, the range is from 1 to 200000000. The default value is auto, which is derived from the media speed of the interface.

The following example shows how to set the MST interface port cost on Ethernet 1/1 for MSTI 4:

switch# configure terminal 
switch(config)# interface ethernet 1/1 
switch(config-if)# spanning-tree mst 4 cost 17031970 

Configuring the Switch Priority

You can configure the switch priority for an MST instance so that it is more likely that the specified switch is chosen as the root bridge.


Note Exercise care when using this command. For most situations, we recommend that you enter the spanning-tree mst root primary and the spanning-tree mst root secondary global configuration commands to modify the switch priority.


To configure the switch priority for an MST instance, perform this task:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

switch# configure terminal

Enters configuration mode.

Step 2 

switch(config)# spanning-tree mst instance-id priority priority-value

Configures a switch priority as follows:

For instance-id, you can specify a single instance, a range of instances separated by a hyphen, or a series of instances separated by a comma. The range is from 1 to 4094.

For priority, the range is from 0 to 61440 in increments of 4096; the default is 32768. A lower number indicates that the switch will most likely be chosen as the root bridge.

Priority values are 0, 4096, 8192, 12288, 16384, 20480, 24576, 28672, 32768, 36864, 40960, 45056, 49152, 53248, 57344, and 61440. The system rejects all other values.

The following example shows how to configure the priority of the bridge to 4096 for MSTI 5:

switch# configure terminal 
switch(config)# spanning-tree mst 5 priority 4096 

Configuring the Hello Time

You can configure the interval between the generation of configuration messages by the root bridge for all instances on the switch by changing the hello time.


Note Exercise care when using this command. For most situations, we recommend that you enter the spanning-tree mst instance-id root primary and the spanning-tree mst instance-id root secondary global configuration commands to modify the hello time.


To configure the hello time, perform this task:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

switch# configure terminal

Enters configuration mode.

Step 2 

switch(config)# spanning-tree mst hello-time seconds

Configures the hello time for all MST instances. The hello time is the interval between the generation of configuration messages by the root bridge. These messages mean that the switch is alive. For seconds, the range is from 1 to 10, and the default is 2 seconds.

The following example shows how to configure the hello time of the switch to 1 second:

switch# configure terminal 
switch(config)# spanning-tree mst hello-time 1 

Configuring the Forwarding-Delay Time

You can set the forward delay timer for all MST instances on the switch with one command.

To configure the forward delay timer, perform this task:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

switch# configure terminal

Enters configuration mode.

Step 2 

switch(config)# spanning-tree mst forward-time seconds

Configures the forward time for all MST instances. The forward delay is the number of seconds that a port waits before changing from its spanning tree blocking and learning states to the forwarding state. For seconds, the range is from 4 to 30, and the default is 15 seconds.

The following example shows how to configure the forward-delay time of the switch to 10 seconds:

switch# configure terminal 
switch(config)# spanning-tree mst forward-time 10 

Configuring the Maximum-Aging Time

The maximum-aging timer is the number of seconds that a switch waits without receiving spanning tree configuration messages before attempting a reconfiguration.

You set the maximum-aging timer for all MST instances on the switch with one command (the maximum age time only applies to the IST).

To configure the maximum-aging timer, perform this task:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

switch# configure terminal

Enters configuration mode.

Step 2 

switch(config)# spanning-tree mst max-age seconds

Configures the maximum-aging time for all MST instances. The maximum-aging time is the number of seconds that a switch waits without receiving spanning tree configuration messages before attempting a reconfiguration. For seconds, the range is from 6 to 40, and the default is 20 seconds.

The following example shows how to configure the maximum-aging timer of the switch to 40 seconds:

switch# configure terminal 
switch(config)# spanning-tree mst max-age 40 

Configuring the Maximum-Hop Count

MST uses the path cost to the IST regional root and a hop-count mechanism similar to the IP time-to-live (TTL) mechanism. You configure the maximum hops inside the region and apply it to the IST and all MST instances in that region. The hop count achieves the same result as the message-age information (triggers a reconfiguration).

To configure the maximum hop count, perform this task:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

switch# configure terminal

Enters configuration mode.

Step 2 

switch(config)# spanning-tree mst max-hops hop-count

Specifies the number of hops in a region before the BPDU is discarded, and the information held for a port is aged. For hop-count, the range is from 1 to 255, and the default value is 20 hops.

The following example shows how to set the maximum hops to 40:

switch# configure terminal 
switch(config)# spanning-tree mst max-hops 40 

Configuring PVST Simulation Globally

You can block this automatic feature either globally or per port. You can enter the global command, and change the PVST simulation setting for the entire switch while you are in interface command mode.

To configure PVST simulation, perform this task:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

switch# configure terminal

Enters configuration mode.

Step 2 

switch(config)# no spanning-tree mst simulate pvst global

Disables all interfaces on the switch from automatically interoperating with connected switch that is running in Rapid PVST+ mode. The default for this is enabled; that is, by default, all interfaces on the switch operate seamlessly between Rapid PVST+ and MST.

The following example shows how to prevent the switch from automatically interoperating with a connecting switch that is running Rapid PVST+:

switch# configure terminal 
switch(config)# no spanning-tree mst simulate pvst global 

Configuring PVST Simulation Per Port


Note PVST simulation is enabled by default; all interfaces on the switch interoperate between MST and Rapid PVST+.


MST interoperates seamlessly with Rapid PVST+. However, to prevent an accidental connection to a switch that does not run MST as the default STP mode, you may want to disable this automatic feature. If you disable PVST simulation, the MST-enabled port moves to the blocking state once it detects it is connected to a Rapid PVST+-enabled port. This port remains in the inconsistent state until the port stops receiving BPDUs, and then the port resumes the normal STP transition process.

You can block this automatic feature either globally or per port.

To disable PVST simulation, perform this task:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

switch# configure terminal

Enters configuration mode.

Step 2 

switch(config)# interface {{type slot/port} | {port-channel number}}

Specifies an interface to configure, and enters interface configuration mode.

Step 3 

switch(config-if)# spanning-tree mst simulate pvst disable

Disables specified interfaces from automatically interoperating with connected switch that is running in Rapid PVST+ mode.

By default, all interfaces on the switch operate seamlessly between Rapid PVST+ and MST.

switch(config-if)# spanning-tree mst simulate pvst

Re-enables seamless operation between MST and Rapid PVST+ on specified interfaces.

switch(config-if)# no spanning-tree mst simulate pvst

Sets the interface to the switch-wide MST and Rapid PVST+ interoperation that you configured using the spanning-tree mst simulate pvst global command.

The following example shows how to prevent the specified interfaces from automatically interoperating with a connecting switch that is not running MST:

switch# configure terminal 
switch(config)# interface ethernet 1/4 
switch(config-if)# spanning-tree mst simulate pvst disable 

Specifying the Link Type

Rapid connectivity (802.1w standard) is established only on point-to-point links. By default, the link type is controlled from the duplex mode of the interface. A full-duplex port is considered to have a point-to-point connection; a half-duplex port is considered to have a shared connection.

If you have a half-duplex link physically connected point-to-point to a single port on a remote switch, you can override the default setting on the link type and enable rapid transitions.

If you set the link to shared, STP reverts to 802.1D.

To specify the link type, perform this task:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

switch# configure terminal

Enters configuration mode.

Step 2 

switch(config)# interface type slot/port

Specifies the interface to configure, and enters interface configuration mode.

Step 3 

switch(config-if)# spanning-tree link-type {auto | point-to-point | shared}

Configures the link type to be either point to point or shared. The system reads the default value from the switch connection. Half-duplex links are shared and full-duplex links are point to point. If the link type is shared, the STP reverts to 802.1D. The default is auto, which sets the link type based on the duplex setting of the interface.

The following example shows how to configure the link type as point to point:

switch# configure terminal 
switch(config)# interface ethernet 1/4 
switch(config-if)# spanning-tree link-type point-to-point 
 
   

Restarting the Protocol

An MST bridge can detect that a port is at the boundary of a region when it receives a legacy BPDU or an MST BPDU that is associated with a different region. However, the STP protocol migration cannot determine whether the legacy switch, which is a switch that runs only IEEE 802.1D, has been removed from the link unless the legacy switch is the designated switch. Enter this command to restart the protocol negotiation (force the renegotiation with neighboring switches) on the entire switch or on specified interfaces.

To restart the protocol, perform this task:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

switch# clear spanning-tree detected-protocol [interface interface [interface-num | port-channel]]

Restarts MST on entire switch or specified interfaces.

The following example shows how to restart MST on the Ethernet interface on slot 2, port 8:

switch# clear spanning-tree detected-protocol interface ethernet 2/8 

Verifying MST Configurations

To display MST configuration information, perform one of the following tasks:

Command
Purpose

switch# show running-config spanning-tree [all]

Displays the current spanning tree configuration.

switch# show spanning-tree mst [options]

Displays detailed information for the current MST configuration.


The following example shows how to display current MST configuration:

switch# show spanning-tree mst configuration 
% Switch is not in mst mode
Name      [mist-attempt]
Revision  1     Instances configured 2
Instance  Vlans mapped
--------  ---------------------------------------------------------------------
0         1-12,14-41,43-4094
1         13,42
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------