Cisco PIX Firewall and VPN Configuration Guide, Version 6.2
Accessing and Monitoring PIX Firewall
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Accessing and Monitoring PIX Firewall

Table Of Contents

Accessing and Monitoring PIX Firewall

Command Authorization and LOCAL User Authentication

Privilege Levels

User Authentication

Creating User Accounts in the LOCAL Database

User Authentication Using the LOCAL Database

Viewing the Current User Account

Command Authorization

Overview

Configuring LOCAL Command Authorization

Enabling LOCAL Command Authorization

Viewing LOCAL Command Authorization Settings

TACACS+ Command Authorization

Recovering from Lockout

Using Network Time Protocol

Overview

Enabling NTP

Viewing NTP Status and Configuration

Managing the PIX Firewall Clock

Viewing System Time

Setting the System Clock

Setting Daylight Savings Time and Timezones

Using Telnet for Remote System Management

Configuring Telnet Console Access to the Inside Interface

Allowing a Telnet Connection to the Outside Interface

Overview

Using Cisco Secure VPN Client

Using Cisco VPN 3000 Client

Using Telnet

Trace Channel Feature

Using SSH for Remote System Management

Overview

Obtaining an SSH Client

Identifying the Host Using an SSH Client

Configuring Authentication for an SSH Client

Connecting to the PIX Firewall with an SSH Client

Viewing SSH Status

Enabling Auto Update Support

Overview

Identifying the Auto Update Server

Managing Auto Update Support

Viewing the Auto Update Configuration

Capturing Packets

Overview

Configuration Procedure

Packet Capture Output Formats

Packet Capture Examples

IDS Syslog Messages

Using SNMP

Overview

MIB Support

SNMP CPU Utilization

SNMP Usage Notes

SNMP Traps

Receiving Requests and Sending Syslog Traps

Compiling Cisco Syslog MIB Files

Using the Firewall and Memory Pool MIBs

ipAddrTable Notes

Viewing Failover Status

Verifying Memory Usage

Viewing The Connection Count

Viewing System Buffer Usage


Accessing and Monitoring PIX Firewall


This chapter describes how to configure and use the tools and features provided by the PIX Firewall for monitoring and configuring the system, and for monitoring network activity. It contains the following sections:

Command Authorization and LOCAL User Authentication

Using Network Time Protocol

Managing the PIX Firewall Clock

Using Telnet for Remote System Management

Using SSH for Remote System Management

Enabling Auto Update Support

Capturing Packets

IDS Syslog Messages

Using SNMP

Command Authorization and LOCAL User Authentication

This section describes the Command Authorization feature and related topics, introduced with PIX Firewall version 6.2. It includes the following topics:

Privilege Levels

User Authentication

Command Authorization

Recovering from Lockout

Privilege Levels

PIX Firewall version 6.2 introduces support for up to 16 privilege levels. This is similar to what is available with Cisco IOS software. With this feature, you can assign PIX Firewall commands to one of 16 levels. Also, users logging into the PIX Firewall are assigned privilege levels.


Note Users with a privilege level greater than or equal to 2 have access to the enable and configuration mode and therefore the PIX Firewall prompt changes to #. Users with a privilege level 0 or 1 see the prompt >.

When a user tries to access enable mode, if the message "T+ enable privilege too low" appears on the AAA server, set the Max privilege of the AAA client to Level1 in the Advanced TACACS options.


To enable different privilege levels on the PIX Firewall, use the enable command in configuration mode. To assign a password to a privilege level, enter the following command:

pix(config)# enable password [password] [level level] [encrypted]

Replace password with a character string from three to sixteen characters long, with no spaces. Replace level with the privilege level you want to assign to the enable password.


Note The encrypted keyword indicates to the PIX Firewall that the password supplied with the enable command is already encrypted.


For example, the following command assigns the enable password Passw0rD to privilege Level 10:

enable password Passw0rD level 10

The following example shows the usage of the enable password command with the encrypted keyword:

enable password .SUTWWLlTIApDYYx level 9 encrypted


Note Encrypted passwords that are associated with a level can only be moved among PIX Firewall units along with the associated levels.


Once the different privilege levels are created, you can gain access to a particular privilege level from the > prompt by entering the enable command, as shown below:

pix> enable [privilege level]

Replace privilege level with the privilege level to which you want to gain access. If the privlege level is not specified, the default of 15 is used. By default, privilege level 15 is assigned the password cisco. It will always have a password associated with it unless someone assigns it a blank password using the enable password command.

User Authentication

This section describes how to configure the PIX Firewall to use LOCAL user authentication. It includes the following topics:

Creating User Accounts in the LOCAL Database

User Authentication Using the LOCAL Database

Viewing the Current User Account

Creating User Accounts in the LOCAL Database

To define a user account in the LOCAL database, enter the following command:

username username {nopassword|password password [encrypted]} [privilege level]

Replace username with a character string from four to fifteen characters long. Replace password with a character string from three to sixteen characters long. Replace privilege level with the privilege level you want to assign to the new user account (from 0 to 15). Use the nopassword keyword to create a user account with no password. Use the encrypted keyword if the password you are supplying is already encrypted.


Note The username database that you configure can be moved among PIX Firewall units with the rest of the configuration. Encrypted passwords can only be moved along with the associated username in the database.


For example, the following command assigns a privilege level of 15 to the user account admin.

username admin password passw0rd privilege 15

If no privilege level is specified, the user account is created with a privilege level of 2. You can define as many user accounts as you need.

Use the following command to create a user account with no password:

username username nopassword

Replace username with the user account that you want to create without a password.

To delete an existing user account, enter the following command:

no username username

Replace username with the user account that you want to delete. For example, the following command deletes the user account admin.

no username admin

To remove all the entries from the user database, enter the following command:

clear username

User Authentication Using the LOCAL Database

User authentication can be completed using the LOCAL database after user accounts are created in this database.


Note The LOCAL database can be used only for controlling access to the PIX Firewall, and not for controlling access through the PIX Firewall.


To enable authentication using the LOCAL database, enter the following command:

pix(config)# aaa authentication serial|telnet|ssh|http|enable console LOCAL

After entering this command, the LOCAL user accounts are used for authentication.

You can also use the login command, as follows, to access the PIX Firewall with a particular username and password:

pix> login 

The login command only checks the local database while authenticating a user and does not check any authentication or authorization (AAA) server.

When you enter the login command, the system prompts for a username and password as follows:

Username:admin
 Password:********


Note Users with a privilege level greater than or equal to 2 have access to the enable and configuration modes and the PIX Firewall prompt changes to #. Users with the privilege level 0 or 1 see the prompt >.


Use the following command to log out from the currently logged in user account:

logout 

Viewing the Current User Account

The PIX Firewall maintains usernames in the following authentication mechanisms:

LOCAL

TACACS+

RADIUS

To view the user account that is currently logged in, enter the following command:

show curpriv

The system displays the current user name and privilege level, as follows:

Username:admin
Current privilege level: 15
Current Mode/s:P_PRIV

As mentioned in the section "Privilege Levels," you use the enable command to obtain access to different privilege levels with the following command:

pix> enable [privielge level]

When you assign a password to a privilege level, the privilege level is associated with the password in the LOCAL database in the same way a username is associated with a password. When you obtain access to a privilege level using the enable command, the show curpriv command displays the current privilege level as a username in the format enable_n, where n is a privilege level from 1 to 15.

An example follows:

pix# show curpriv
Username : enable_9
Current privilege level : 9
Current Mode/s : P_PRIV

When you enter the enable command without specifying the privilege level, the default privilege level (15) is assumed and the username is set to enable_15.

When you log into the PIX Firewall for the first time or exit from the current session, the default user name is enable_1, as follows:

pix> show curpriv
Username : enable_1
Current privilege level : 1
Current Mode/s : P_UNPR

Command Authorization

This section describes how to assign commands to different privilege levels. It includes the following topics:

Overview

Configuring LOCAL Command Authorization

Enabling LOCAL Command Authorization

Viewing LOCAL Command Authorization Settings

TACACS+ Command Authorization

Overview

LOCAL and TACACS+ Command Authorization is supported in PIX Firewall version 6.2. With the LOCAL command authorization feature, you can assign PIX Firewall commands to one of 16 levels.


Caution When configuring the Command Authorization feature, do not save your configuration until you are sure it works the way you want. If you get locked out because of a mistake, you can usually recover access by simply restarting the PIX Firewall from the configuration that is saved in Flash memory. If you still get locked out, refer to the section " Recovering from Lockout."

Configuring LOCAL Command Authorization

In the default configuration, each PIX Firewall command is assigned to either privilege level 0 or privilege level 15. To reassign a specific command to a different privilege level, enter the following command:

[no] privilege [{show | clear | configure}] level level [mode {enable|configure}] command 
command

Replace level with the privilege level and command with the command you want to assign to the specified level. You can use the show, clear, or configure parameter to optionally set the privilege level for the show, clear, or configure command modifiers of the specified command. Replace command with the command for which you wish to assign privileges. For the full syntax of this command, including additional options, refer to the PIX Firewall Command Reference Guide.

For example, the following commands set the privilege of the different command modifiers of the access-list command:

privilege show level 10 command access-list
privilege configure level 12 command access-list
privilege clear level 11 command access-list

The first line sets the privilege of show access-list (show modifier of cmd access-list) to 10. The second line sets the privilege level of the the configure modifier to 12, and the last line sets the privilege level of the clear modifier to 11.

To set the privilege of all the modifiers of the access-list command to a single privilege level of 10, you would enter the following command:

privilege level 10  command access-list

For commands that are available in multiple modes, use the mode parameter to specify the mode in which the privilege level applies.

The following are examples of setting privilege levels for mode-specific commands:

privilege show level 15 mode configure command configure
privilege clear level 15 mode configure command configure
privilege configure level 15 mode configure command configure
privilege configure level 15 mode enable command configure

privilege configure level 0 mode enable command enable
privilege show level 15 mode configure command enable
privilege configure level 15 mode configure command enable

privilege configure level 15 mode configure command igmp
privilege show level 15 mode configure command igmp
privilege clear level 15 mode configure command igmp

privilege show level 15 mode configure command logging
privilege clear level 15 mode configure command logging
privilege configure level 15 mode configure command logging
privilege clear level 15 mode enable command logging
privilege configure level 15 mode enable command logging


Note Do not use the mode parameter for commands that are not mode-specific.


By default, the following commands are assigned to privilege level 0:

privilege show level 0 command checksum
privilege show level 0 command curpriv
privilege configure level 0 command help
privilege show level 0 command history
privilege configure level 0 command login
privilege configure level 0 command logout
privilege show level 0 command pager
privilege clear level 0 command pager
privilege configure level 0 command pager
privilege configure level 0 command quit
privilege show level 0 command version
 
   

Enabling LOCAL Command Authorization

Once you have reassigned privileges to commands from the defaults, as necessary, enable the command authorization feature by entering the following command:

aaa authorization command LOCAL

By specifying LOCAL, the user's privilege level and the privilege settings that have been assigned to the different commands are used to make authorization decisions.

When users log in to the PIX Firewall, they can enter any command assigned to their privilege level or to lower privilege levels. For example, a user account with a privilege level of 15 can access every command because this is the highest privilege level. A user account with a privilege level of 0 can only access the commands assigned to level 0.

Viewing LOCAL Command Authorization Settings

To view the CLI command assignments for each privilege level, enter the following command:

show privilege all

The system displays the current assignment of each CLI command to a privilege level. The following example illustrates the first part of the display:

pix(config)# show privilege all
privilege show level 15 command aaa
privilege clear level 15 command aaa
privilege configure level 15 command aaa
privilege show level 15 command aaa-server
privilege clear level 15 command aaa-server
privilege configure level 15 command aaa-server
privilege show level 15 command access-group
privilege clear level 15 command access-group
privilege configure level 15 command access-group
privilege show level 15 command access-list
privilege clear level 15 command access-list
privilege configure level 15 command access-list
privilege show level 15 command activation-key
privilege configure level 15 command activation-key

To view the command assignments for a specific privilege level, enter the following command:

show privilege level level

Replace level with the privilege level for which you want to display the command assignments.

For example, the following command displays the command assignments for privilege Level 15:

show privilege level 15

To view the privilege level assignment of a specific command, enter the following command:

show privilege command command

Replace command with the command for which you want to display the assigned privilege level.

For example, the following command displays the command assignment for the access-list command:

show privilege command access-list

TACACS+ Command Authorization


Caution Only enable this feature with TACACS+ if you are absolutely sure that you have fulfilled the following requirements.

1. You have created entries for enable_1, enable_15, and any other levels to which you have assigned commands.

2. If you are enabling authentication with usernames:

You have a user profile on the TACACS+ server with all the commands that the user is permitted to execute.

You have tested authentication with the TACACS+ server.

3. You are logged in as a user with the necessary privileges. You can see this by entering the show curpriv command.

4. Your TACACS+ system is completely stable and reliable. The necessary level of reliability typically requires that you have a fully redundant TACACS+ server system and fully redundant connectivity to the PIX Firewall.


Caution When configuring the Command Authorization feature, do not save your configuration until you are sure it works the way you want. If you get locked out because of a mistake, you can usually recover access by simply restarting the PIX Firewall from the configuration that is saved in Flash memory. If you still get locked out, refer to the section " Recovering from Lockout."

After command authorization with a TACACS+ server is enabled, for each command entered, the PIX Firewall sends the username, command, and command arguments to the TACACS+ server for authorization.

To enable command authorization with a TACACS+ server, enter the following command:

aaa authorization command tacacs_server_tag

To create the tacacs_server_tag, use the aaa-server command, as follows:

aaa-server tacacs_server_tag [(if_name)] host ip_address [key] [timeout seconds]

Use the tacacs_server_tag parameter to identify the TACACS+ server and use the if_name parameter if you need to specifically identify the PIX Firewall interface connected to the TACACS+ server. Replace ip_address with the IP address of the TACACS+ server. Replace the optional key parameter with a keyword of up to 127 characters (including special characters but excluding spaces) to use for encrypting data exchanged with the TACACS+ server. This value must match the keyword used on the TACACS+ server. Replace seconds with a number up to 30 that determines how long the PIX Firewall waits before retrying the connection to the TACACS+ server. The default value is 5 seconds.

The PIX Firewall only expands the command and the command modifier (show, clear, no) when it sends these to the TACACS+ server. The command arguments are not expanded.

For effective operation, it is a good idea to permit the following basic commands on the AAA server:

show curpriv

show version

show aaa

enable

disable

quit

exit

login

logout

help

For Cisco PIX Device Manager (PDM) to work with Command Authorization using a TACACS+ Server, the AAA server administrator should authorize the user for the following commands:

write terminal or show running-config

show pdm

show version

show curpriv

Recovering from Lockout

If you get locked out because of a mistake in configuring Command Authorization, you can usually recover access by simply restarting the PIX Firewall from the configuration that is saved in Flash memory.

If you have already saved your configuration and you find that you configured authentication using the LOCAL database but did not configure any usernames you created a lockout problem. You can also encounter a lockout problem by configuring command authorization using a TACACS+ server if the TACACS+ server is unavailable, down or misconfigured.

If you cannot recover access to the PIX Firewall by restarting your PIX Firewall, use your web browser to access the following website:

http://www.cisco.com/warp/customer/110/34.shtml

This website provides a downloadable file with instructions for using it to remove the lines in the PIX Firewall configuration that enable authentication and cause the lockout problem.

You can encounter a different type of lockout problem if you use the aaa authorization command tacacs_server_tag command and you are not logged as the correct user. For every command you type, the PIX Firewall will display the following message:

Command Authorization failed

This occurs because the TACACS+ server does not have a user profile for the user account that you used for logging in. To prevent this problem, make sure that the TACACS+ server has all the users configured with the commands that they can execute. Also make sure that you are logged in as a user with the required profile on the TACACS+ server.

Using Network Time Protocol

This section describes how to use the Network Time Protocol (NTP) client, introduced with PIX Firewall version 6.2. It includes the following topics:

Overview

Enabling NTP

Viewing NTP Status and Configuration

Overview

The Network Time Protocol (NTP) is used to implement a hierarchical system of servers that provide a source for precisely synchronized time among network systems. This kind of accuracy is required for time-sensitive operations such as validating a certificate revocation lists (CRL), which includes a precise time stamp.

PIX Firewall version 6.2 introduces an NTP client that allows the PIX Firewall to obtain its system time from NTP version 3 servers, like those provided with Cisco IOS routers.

Enabling NTP

To enable the PIX Firewall NTP client, enter the following command:

[no] ntp server ip_address [key number] source if_name [prefer]

This command causes the PIX Firewall to synchronize with the time server identified by ip_address. The key option requires a authentication key when sending packets to this server. When using this option, replace number with the authentication key. The interface specified by if_name is used to send packets to the time server. If the source keyword is not specified, the routing table will be used to determine the interface. The prefer option makes the specified server the preferred server to provide synchronization, which reduces switching back and forth between servers.

To enable authentication for NTP messages, enter the following command:

[no] ntp authenticate
[no] ntp authentication-key number md5 value
[no] ntp trusted-key number

The ntp authenticate command enables NTP authentication. If you enter this command, the PIX Firewall will not synchronize to an NTP server unless the server is configured with one of the authentication keys specified using the ntp trusted-key command.

The ntp authentication-key command is used to define authentication keys for use with other NTP commands to provide a higher degree of security. The number parameter is the key number (1 to 4294967295). The value parameter is the key value (an arbitrary string of up to 32 characters). The key value will be replaced with `********' when the configuration is viewed with either the write terminal, show configuration, or show tech-support commands.

Use the ntp trusted-key command to define one or more key numbers corresponding to the keys defined with the ntp authentication-key command. The PIX Firewall will require the NTP server to provide this key number in its NTP packets. This provides protection against synchronizing the PIX Firewall system clock with an NTP server that is not trusted.

To remove NTP configuration, enter the following command:

clear ntp

This command removes the NTP configuration, disables authentication, and removes all the authentication keys.

Viewing NTP Status and Configuration

This section describes the information available about NTP status and associations. To view information about NTP status and configuration, use any of the following commands:

show ntp associations—displays information about the configured time servers.

show ntp associations detail—provides detailed information.

show ntp status—displays information about the NTP clock.

The following examples show sample output for each command and the following tables define the meaning of the values in each column of the output.

Example 9-1 shows sample output from the show ntp associations command:

Example 9-1 Sample Output for show ntp association Command

PIX> show ntp associations
     address         ref clock     st  when  poll  reach  delay  offset    disp
 ~172.31.32.2      172.31.32.1       5    29  1024  377     4.2   -8.59     1.6
+~192.168.13.33    192.168.1.111     3    69   128  377     4.1    3.48     2.3
*~192.168.13.57    192.168.1.111     3    32   128  377     7.9   11.18     3.6
* master (synced), # master (unsynced), + selected, - candidate, ~ configured

The first characters in a display line can be one or more of the following characters:

* —Synchronized to this peer

# —Almost synchronized to this peer

+ —Peer selected for possible synchronization

- —Peer is a candidate for selection

~ —Peer is statically configured

Table 9-1 describes the meaning of the values in each column:

Table 9-1 Output Description for show ntp association Command

Output Column Heading
Description

address

Address of peer.

ref clock

Address of reference clock of peer.

st

Stratum of peer.

when

Time since last NTP packet was received from peer.

poll

Polling interval (in seconds).

reach

Peer reachability (bit string, in octal).

delay

Round-trip delay to peer (in milliseconds).

offset

Relative time of peer clock to local clock (in milliseconds).

disp

Dispersion.


 

Example 9-2 provides sample output for the show ntp association detail command:

Example 9-2 Sample Output for show ntp association detail Command

pix(config)# show ntp associations detail
172.23.56.249 configured, our_master, sane, valid, stratum 4
ref ID 172.23.56.225, time c0212639.2ecfc9e0 (20:19:05.182 UTC Fri Feb 22
2002)
our mode client, peer mode server, our poll intvl 128, peer poll intvl 128
root delay 38.04 msec, root disp 9.55, reach 177, sync dist 156.021
delay 4.47 msec, offset -0.2403 msec, dispersion 125.21
precision 2**19, version 3
org time c02128a9.731f127b (20:29:29.449 UTC Fri Feb 22 2002)
rcv time c02128a9.73c1954b (20:29:29.452 UTC Fri Feb 22 2002)
xmt time c02128a9.6b3f729e (20:29:29.418 UTC Fri Feb 22 2002)
filtdelay =     4.47    4.58    4.97    5.63    4.79    5.52    5.87
0.00
filtoffset =   -0.24   -0.36   -0.37    0.30   -0.17    0.57   -0.74
0.00
filterror =     0.02    0.99    1.71    2.69    3.66    4.64    5.62
16000.0

Table 9-2 describes the meaning of the values in each column:

Table 9-2 Output Description for show ntp association detail Command 

Output Column Heading
Description

configured

Peer was statically configured.

dynamic

Peer was dynamically discovered.

our_master

Local machine is synchronized to this peer.

selected

Peer is selected for possible synchronization.

candidate

Peer is a candidate for selection.

sane

Peer passes basic sanity checks.

insane

Peer fails basic sanity checks.

valid

Peer time is believed to be valid.

invalid

Peer time is believed to be invalid.

leap_add

Peer is signalling that a leap second will be added.

leap-sub

Peer is signalling that a leap second will be subtracted.

unsynced

Peer is not synchronized to any other machine.

ref ID

Address of machine peer is synchronized to.

time

Last time stamp peer received from its master.

our mode

Our mode relative to peer (active/passive/client/server/bdcast/bdcast client).

peer mode

Peer's mode relative to us.

our poll intvl

Our poll interval to peer.

peer poll intvl

Peer's poll interval to us.

root delay

Delay along path to root (ultimate stratum 1 time source).

root disp

Dispersion of path to root.

reach

Peer reachability (bit string in octal).

sync dist

Peer synchronization distance.

delay

Round-trip delay to peer.

offset

Offset of peer clock relative to our clock.

dispersion

Dispersion of peer clock.

precision

Precision of peer clock in hertz.

version

NTP version number that peer is using.

org time

Originate time stamp.

rcv time

Receive time stamp.

xmt time

Transmit time stamp.

filtdelay

Round-trip delay (in milliseconds) of each sample.

filtoffset

Clock offset (in milliseconds) of each sample.

filterror

Approximate error of each sample.


Example 9-3 provides sample output for the show ntp status command:

Example 9-3 Output of the show ntp status Command

pixfirewall(config)#  show ntp status
Clock is synchronized, stratum 5, reference is 172.23.56.249
nominal freq is 99.9984 Hz, actual freq is 100.0266 Hz, precision is 2**6
reference time is c02128a9.73c1954b (20:29:29.452 UTC Fri Feb 22 2002)
clock offset is -0.2403 msec, root delay is 42.51 msec
root dispersion is 135.01 msec, peer dispersion is 125.21 msec

Table 9-3 describes the meaning of the values in each column:

Table 9-3 Output Description for show ntp status Command 

Output Column Heading
Description

synchronized

System is synchronized to an NTP peer.

unsynchronized

System is not synchronized to any NTP peer.

stratum

NTP stratum of this system.

reference

Address of peer to which the system is synchronized.

nominal freq

Nominal frequency of system hardware clock.

actual freq

Measured frequency of system hardware clock.

precision

Precision of the clock of this system (in hertz).

reference time

Reference time stamp.

clock offset

Offset of the system clock to synchronized peer.

root delay

Total delay along path to root clock.

root dispersion

Dispersion of root path.

peer dispersion

Dispersion of synchronized peer.


Managing the PIX Firewall Clock

This section describes how to manage the PIX Firewall system clock and includes the following topics:

Viewing System Time

Setting the System Clock

Setting Daylight Savings Time and Timezones

Viewing System Time

To view the current system time, enter the following command:

show clock [detail]

This command displays the system time. The detail option displays the clock source and the current summer-time setting. PIX Firewall version 6.2 provides milliseconds, timezone, and day.

For example:

16:52:47.823 PST Wed Feb 21 2001

Setting the System Clock

To set the system time, enter the following command:

clock set hh:mm:ss month day year

Replace hh:mm:ss with the current hours (1-24), minutes, and seconds. Replace month with the first three characters of the current month. Replace day with the numeric date within the month (1-31), and replace year with the four-digit year (permitted range is 1993 to 2035).

Setting Daylight Savings Time and Timezones

PIX Firewall version 6.2 also provides enhancements to the clock command to support daylight savings (summer) time and time zones.

To configure daylight savings (summer) time, enter the following command:

clock summer-time zone recurring [week weekday month hh:mm week weekday month hh:mm 
[offset]]

The summer-time keyword automatically switches to summer time (for display purposes only).

The recurring keyword indicates that summer time should start and end on the days specified by the values that follow this keyword. If no values are specified, the summer time rules default to United States rules. The week option is the week of the month (1 to 5 or last). The weekday option is the day of the week (Sunday, Monday,...). The month parameter is the full name of the month (January, February,...). The hh:mm parameter is the time (24-hour military format) in hours and minutes. The offset option is the number of minutes to add during summer time (default is 60).

Use either of the following commands when the recurring keyword cannot be used:

clock summer-time zone date date month year hh:mm date month year hh:mm [offset]
clock summer-time zone date month date year hh:mm month date year hh:mm [offset]

The date keyword causes summer time to start on the first date listed in the command and to end on the second specific date in the command. Two forms of the command are included to enter dates either in the form month date (for example, January 31) or date month (for example, 31 January).

In both forms of the command, the first part of the command specifies when summer time begins, and the second part specifies when it ends. All times are relative to the local time zone.

If the starting month is after the ending month, the Southern Hemisphere is assumed.

The zone parameter is the name of the time zone (for example, PDT) to be displayed when summer time is in effect. The week option is the week of the month (1 to 5 or last). The weekday option is the day of the week (Sunday, Monday,...). The date parameter is the date of the month (1 to 31). The month parameter is the full name of the month (January, February,...). The year parameter is the four-digit year (1993 to 2035). The hh:mm parameter is the time (24-hour military format) in hours and minutes. The offset option is the number of minutes to add during summer time (default is 60).

To set the time zone for display purposes only, enter the following command:

clock timezone zone hours [minutes]

The clock timezone command sets the time zone for display purposes (internally, the time is kept in UTC). The no form of the command is used to set the time zone to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). The zone parameter is the name of the time zone to be displayed when standard time is in effect. The hours parameter is the hours offset from UTC. The minutes option is the minutes offset from UTC.

The clear clock command will remove the summer time setting and set the time zone to UTC.

Using Telnet for Remote System Management

The serial console lets a single user configure the PIX Firewall, but often this is not convenient for a site with more than one administrator. PIX Firewall lets you access the console via Telnet from hosts on any internal interface. With IPSec configured, you can use Telnet to remotely administer the console of a PIX Firewall from lower security interfaces.


Note SSH provides another option for remote management of the PIX Firewall using a lower security interface. For further information, refer to "Using SSH for Remote System Management."


This section includes the following topics:

Configuring Telnet Console Access to the Inside Interface

Allowing a Telnet Connection to the Outside Interface

Using Telnet

Trace Channel Feature

Configuring Telnet Console Access to the Inside Interface


Note See the telnet command page within the Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference for more information about this command.


Follow these steps to configure Telnet console access:


Step 1 Enter the PIX Firewall telnet command.

For example, to let a host on the internal interface with an address of 192.168.1.2 access the PIX Firewall, enter the following:

telnet 192.168.1.2 255.255.255.255 inside

To Telnet to a lower security interface, refer to "Allowing a Telnet Connection to the Outside Interface."

Step 2 If required, set the duration for how long a Telnet session can be idle before PIX Firewall disconnects the session.

The default duration, 5 minutes, is too short in most cases and should be increased until all pre-production testing and troubleshooting has been completed. Set a longer idle time duration as shown in the following example.

telnet timeout 15

Step 3 To protect access to the console with an authentication server, use the aaa authentication telnet console command.

This requires that you have a username and password on the authentication server. When you access the console, PIX Firewall prompts you for these login credentials. If the authentication server is off line, you can still access the console by using the username pix and the password set with the enable password command.

Step 4 Save the commands in the configuration using the write memory command.

Example 9-4 shows commands for using Telnet to permit host access to the PIX Firewall console.

Example 9-4 Using Telnet

telnet 10.1.1.11 255.255.255.255
telnet 192.168.3.0 255.255.255.0

The first telnet command permits a single host, 10.1.1.11 to access the PIX Firewall console with Telnet. The 255 value in the last octet of the netmask means that only the specified host can access the console.

The second telnet command permits PIX Firewall console access from all hosts on the 192.168.3.0 network. The 0 value in the last octet of the netmask permits all hosts in that network access. However, Telnet only permits 16 hosts simultaneous access to the PIX Firewall console over Telnet.


Allowing a Telnet Connection to the Outside Interface

This section tells you how to configure a Telnet connection to a lower security interface of the PIX Firewall. It includes the following topics:

Overview

Using Cisco Secure VPN Client

Using Cisco VPN 3000 Client

Overview

This section also applies when using the Cisco Secure Policy Manager version 2.0 or higher. It is assumed you are using the Cisco VPN Client version 3.x, Cisco Secure VPN Client version 1.1, or the Cisco VPN 3000 Client version 2.5/2.6, to initiate the Telnet connection.


Note Use the auth-prompt command for changing the login prompt for Telnet sessions through the PIX Firewall. It does not change the login prompt for Telnet sessions to the PIX Firewall.


Once you have configured Telnet access, refer to "Using Telnet" for more information about using this command.


Note You must have two security policies set up on your VPN client. One security policy is used to secure your Telnet connection and another is used to secure your connection to the inside network.


Using Cisco Secure VPN Client

This section applies only if you are using a Cisco Secure VPN Client. In the example, the IP address of the PIX Firewall's outside interface is 168.20.1.5, and the Cisco Secure VPN Client's IP address, derived from the virtual pool of addresses, is 10.1.2.0.

To encrypt your Telnet connection to a PIX Firewall lower interface, perform the following steps as part of your PIX Firewall configuration:


Step 1 Create an access-list command statement to define the traffic to protect from the PIX Firewall to the VPN client using a destination address from the virtual local pool of addresses:

access-list 80 permit ip host 168.20.1.5 10.1.2.0 255.255.255.0

Step 2 Specify which host can access the PIX Firewall console with Telnet:

telnet 10.1.2.0 255.255.255.0 outside

Specify the VPN client's address from the local pool and the outside interface.

Step 3 Within the VPN client, create a security policy that specifies the Remote Party Identity IP address and gateway IP address as the same IP address—the IP address of the PIX Firewall's outside interface. In this example, the IP address of the PIX Firewall's outside is 168.20.1.5.

Step 4 Configure the rest of the security policy on the VPN client to match the PIX Firewall's security policy.


Using Cisco VPN 3000 Client

This section applies only if you are using a Cisco VPN 3000 Client. To encrypt your Telnet connection to the PIX Firewall's outside interface, perform the following step as part of your PIX Firewall configuration. In the following example, the IP address of the PIX Firewall's outside interface is 168.20.1.5, and the Cisco VPN 3000 Client's IP address stemming from the virtual pool of addresses is 10.1.2.0.

Specify which host can access the PIX Firewall console with Telnet. Specify the VPN client's address from the local pool and the outside interface.

telnet 10.1.2.0 255.255.255.0 outside


Note To complete the configuration of the VPN client, refer to the vpngroup command in the Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference.


Using Telnet

Perform the following steps to test Telnet access:


Step 1 From the host, start a Telnet session to a PIX Firewall interface IP address.

If you are using Windows 95 or Windows NT, click Start>Run to start a Telnet session. For example, if the inside interface IP address is 192.168.1.1, enter the following command.

telnet 192.168.1.1

Step 2 The PIX Firewall prompts you with a password:

PIX passwd: 

Enter cisco and press the Enter key. You are then logged into the PIX Firewall.

The default password is cisco, which you can change with the passwd command.

You can enter any command on the Telnet console that you can set from the serial console, but if you reboot the PIX Firewall, you will must log back into the PIX Firewall after it restarts.

Some Telnet applications such as the Windows 95 or Windows NT Telnet sessions may not support access to the PIX Firewall's command history feature used with the arrow keys. However, you can access the last entered commands by pressing Ctrl-P.

Step 3 Once you have Telnet access available, you may want to view ping information while debugging.

You can view ping information from Telnet sessions with the debug icmp trace command. The Trace Channel feature also affects debug displays, which is explained in "Trace Channel Feature."

Messages from a successful ping appear as follows:

Outbound ICMP echo request (len 32 id 1 seq 512) 209.165.201.2 > 209.165.201.1
Inbound ICMP echo reply (len 32 id 1 seq 256) 209.165.201.1 > 209.165.201.23

Step 4 In addition, you can use the Telnet console session to view syslog messages:

a. Start message displays with the logging monitor 7 command. The "7" will cause all syslog message levels to display.

If you are using the PIX Firewall in production mode, you may wish to use the logging buffered 7 command to store messages in a buffer that you can view with the show logging command, and clear the buffer for easier viewing with the clear logging command. To stop buffering messages, use the no logging buffered command.

You can also lower the number from 7 to a lesser value, such as 3, to limit the number of messages that appear.

b. If you entered the logging monitor command, then enter the terminal monitor command to cause the messages to display in your Telnet session. To disable message displays, use the terminal no monitor command.


Trace Channel Feature

The debug packet command sends its output to the Trace Channel. All other debug commands do not. Use of Trace Channel changes the way you can view output on your screen during a PIX Firewall console or Telnet session.

If a debug command does not use Trace Channel, each session operates independently, which means any commands started in the session only appear in the session. By default, a session not using Trace Channel has output disabled by default.

The location of the Trace Channel depends on whether you have a simultaneous Telnet console session running at the same time as the console session, or if you are using only the PIX Firewall serial console:

If you are only using the PIX Firewall serial console, all debug commands display on the serial console.

If you have both a serial console session and a Telnet console session accessing the console, then no matter where you enter the debug commands, the output displays on the Telnet console session.

If you have two or more Telnet console sessions, the first session is the Trace Channel. If that session closes, the serial console session becomes the Trace Channel. The next Telnet console session that accesses the console then becomes the Trace Channel.

The debug commands are shared between all Telnet and serial console sessions.


Note The downside of the Trace Channel feature is that if one administrator is using the serial console and another administrator starts a Telnet console session, the output from the debug commands on the serial console will suddenly stop without warning. In addition, the administrator on the Telnet console session will suddenly be viewing debug command output, which may be unexpected. If you are using the serial console and debug command output is not appearing, use the who command to see if a Telnet console session is running.


Using SSH for Remote System Management

This section describes how to use Secure Shell (SSH) for remote access to the PIX Firewall console. It includes the following topics:

Overview

Obtaining an SSH Client

Identifying the Host Using an SSH Client

Configuring Authentication for an SSH Client

Connecting to the PIX Firewall with an SSH Client

Viewing SSH Status

Overview

SSH (Secure Shell) is an application running on top of a reliable transport layer, such as TCP/IP that provides strong authentication and encryption capabilities. PIX Firewall supports the SSH remote shell functionality provided in SSH version 1. SSH version 1 also works with Cisco IOS software devices. Up to five SSH clients are allowed simultaneous access to the PIX Firewall console.


Note Before trying to use SSH, generate an RSA key-pair for the PIX Firewall. To use SSH, your PIX Firewall requires a DES or 3DES activation key.


Another method of remotely configuring a PIX Firewall unit involves using a Telnet connection to the PIX Firewall to start a shell session and then entering configuration mode. This connection method can only provide as much security as Telnet provides, which is only provided as lower-layer encryption (for example, IPSec) and application security (username/password authentication at the remote host).


Note The PIX Firewall SSH implementation provides a secure remote shell session without IPSec, and only functions as a server, which means that the PIX Firewall cannot initiate SSH connections.


Obtaining an SSH Client


Note SSH v1.x and v2 are entirely different protocols and are not compatible. Make sure that you download a client that supports SSH v1.x.


Download an SSH v1.x client from one of the following websites.

Windows 3.1, Windows CE, Windows 95, and Windows NT 4.0—download the free Tera Term Pro SSH v1.x client from the following website:

http://hp.vector.co.jp/authors/VA002416/teraterm.html

The TTSSH security enhancement for Tera Term Pro is available at the following website:

http://www.zip.com.au/~roca/ttssh.html


Note To use Tera Term Pro with SSH, download TTSSH. TTSSH provides a Zip file that you copy to your system. Extract the zipped files into the same folder that you installed Tera Term Pro.


Linux, Solaris, OpenBSD, AIX, IRIX, HP/UX, FreeBSD, and NetBSD—download the SSH v1.x client from the following website:

http://www.openssh.com

Macintosh (international users only)—download the Nifty Telnet 1.1 SSH client from the following website:

http://www.lysator.liu.se/~jonasw/freeware/niftyssh/

Identifying the Host Using an SSH Client

Identify each host to be used to access the PIX Firewall console using SSH by entering the following command:

[no] ssh ip_address  [netmask] [interface_name]

To use this command:

Replace ip_address with the IP address of the host or network authorized to initiate an SSH connection to the PIX Firewall.

Replace netmask with the network mask for ip_address.


Note The netmask parameter is optional if you omit the interface name and if you use the default subnet mask (255.255.255.255). The netmask parameter is required if you specify the interface name or if you do not use the default subnet mask.


Replace interface_name with the PIX Firewall interface name on which the host or network initiating the SSH connection resides.

To specify the duration in minutes that a session can be idle before being disconnected, enter the following command:

ssh timeout number

Replace number with a value from 1 to 60 (minutes). The default duration is 5 minutes.

To disconnect a specific session, enter the following command:

ssh disconnect session_id

Replace session_id with the identifier for the specific session that you want to disconnect. To display the identifiers for the active sessions, use the show ssh sessions command.

To remove all ssh command statements from the configuration, enter the following command:

clear ssh 

Use the no keyword to remove selected ssh command statements from the configuration.


Note To use SSH, your PIX Firewall must have a DES or 3DES activation key and you must generate an RSA key-pair for the PIX Firewall before clients can connect to the PIX Firewall console. Use the ca generate rsa key 512 command to generate a key; change the modulus size from 512, as needed. After generating the RSA key, save the key using the ca save all command.


Configuring Authentication for an SSH Client

To configure local authentication for an SSH client accessing the PIX Firewall from a Linux or UNIX command line, enter the following command:

ssh -c 3des -1 pix -v ipaddress

Use the -c option to identify the cipher used. PIX Firewall accepts 3des and des. Use the -l option to identify the password used for connecting to the PIX Firewall. If no authentication is enabled on the SSH connection, use the default user name pix. Use the -v option to enable verbose mode, and replace ipaddress with the address of the PIX Firewall.


Note Windows and Macintosh SSH clients typically have graphic interfaces where you enter the required information.


The password used to perform local authentication is the same as the one used for Telnet access. The default for this password is cisco. To change this password, enter the following command:

passwd string

SSH permits up to 100 characters for a username and up to 50 characters for the password.

To enable authentication using a AAA server, enter the following command:

aaa authenticate ssh console server_tag

Replace server_tag with the identifier for the AAA server.

Connecting to the PIX Firewall with an SSH Client

To gain access to the PIX Firewall console using SSH, at the SSH client, enter the username pix and enter the Telnet password.

When starting an SSH session, a dot (.) displays on the PIX Firewall console before the SSH user authentication prompt appears, as follows:

pixfirewall(config)# .

The display of the dot does not affect the functionality of SSH. The dot appears at the console when generating a server key or decrypting a message using private keys during SSH key exchange before user authentication occurs. These tasks can take up to two minutes or longer. The dot is a progress indicator that verifies that the PIX Firewall is busy and has not hung.

Viewing SSH Status

To view the status of SSH sessions, enter the following command:

show ssh [sessions [ip_address]]

The show ssh sessions command provides the following display:

Session ID      Client IP       Version Encryption      State   Username
    0           172.16.25.15    1.5     3DES            4       -
    1           172.16.38.112   1.5     DES             6       pix
    2           172.16.25.11    1.5     3DES            4       -

The Session ID is a unique number that identifies an SSH session. The Client IP is the IP address of the system running an SSH client. The Version lists the protocol version number that the SSH client supports. The Encryption column lists the type of encryption the SSH client is using. The State column lists the progress the client is making as it interacts with the PIX Firewall. The Username column lists the login username that has been authenticated for the session. The "pix" username appears when non-AAA authentication is used.

Enabling Auto Update Support

Auto Update is a protocol specification introduced with PIX Firewall version 6.2. This section describes how to enable support for this specification on a PIX Firewall and includes the following topics:

Overview

Identifying the Auto Update Server

Managing Auto Update Support

Viewing the Auto Update Configuration

Overview

The Auto Update specification provides the infrastructure necessary for remote management applications to download PIX Firewall configurations, software images, and to perform basic monitoring from a centralized location.

The Auto Update specification allows the Auto Update Server to either push configuration information and send requests for information to the PIX Firewall, or to cause the PIX Firewall to periodically poll the Auto Update Server. The Auto Update Server can also send a command to the PIX Firewall to send an immediate polling request at any time. Communication between the Auto Update Server and the PIX Firewall requires a communications path and local CLI configuration on each PIX Firewall.

Identifying the Auto Update Server

To specify the URL of the Auto Update Server, use the following command:

[no] auto-update server url [verify-certificate]

Only one server can be configured. Replace url with a URL using the following syntax:

[http[s]://][user:password@]location[:port]/pathname

SSL will be used when https is specified. The user and password segment is used for Basic Authentication when logging in to the server. The user and password are replaced with `********' when the configuration is viewed with either the write terminal, show configuration or show tech-support commands.

Replace location with the IP address (or a DNS host name that resolves to the IP address) of the server. The port segment specifies the port to contact on the server. The default is 80 for HTTP and 443 for HTTPS. The pathname segment is the name of the resource.

The verify-certificate option specifies that the certificate returned by the server should be verified.

The no auto-update server command disables polling for updates by terminating the Auto Update daemon running on the PIX Firewall.

Managing Auto Update Support

To enable the PIX Firewall for polling a Auto Update Server, use the following command:

[no] auto-update device-id hardware-serial | hostname | ipaddress [if-name] | mac-address 
[if-name] | string text

The auto-update device-id command is used to identify the device ID to send when communicating with the Auto Update Server. The identifier used is determined by using one of the following parameters:

hardware-serial—Use the PIX Firewall serial number

hostname option—Use the PIX Firewall host name

ipaddress option—Use the IP address of the interface with the name if-name. If the interface name is not specified, it will use the IP address of the interface used to communicate with the Auto Update Server.

mac-address option—Use the MAC address of the interface with the name if-name. If the interface name is not specified, it will use the MAC address of the interface used to communicate with the Auto Update Server.

string—Use the specified text identifier, which cannot contain white space or the characters `, ", , >, & and ?.

Use the no auto-update device-id command to reset the device ID to the default of host name.

To specify how often to poll the Auot Update server for configuration or image updates, enter the following command:

[no] auto-update poll-period poll-period [retry-count [retry-period]]

The poll-period parameter specifies how often (in minutes) to check for an update. The default is 720 minutes (12 hours). The retry-count option specifies how many times to try re-connecting to the server if the first attempt fails. The default is 0. The retry-period option specifies how long to wait (in minutes) between retries. The default is 5.

Use the no auto-update poll-period command to reset the poll period to the default.

To cause the PIX Firewall to stop all new connections if the Auto Update server has not been contacted for a period of time, enter the following command:

[no] auto-update timeout period

Use this command to ensure that the PIX Firewall has the most recent image and configuration. This condition will be reported with the existing syslog %PIX-3-201008.

To remove the entire Auto Update configuration, enter the following command:

clear auto-update

Viewing the Auto Update Configuration

To display the Auto Update Server, poll time, timeout period, device ID, poll statistics and update statistics, enter the following command:

show auto-update

The following is sample output from the show auto-update command:

show auto-update
Server: https://********@172.23.58.115:1742/management.cgi?1276
Certificate will be verified
Poll period: 720 minutes, retry count: 2, retry period: 5 minutes
Timeout: none
Device ID: host name [jeffryp-pix-pri]
Next poll in 4.93 minutes
Last poll: 11:36:46 PST Tue Nov 13 2001
Last PDM update: 23:36:46 PST Tue Nov 12 2001

Capturing Packets

This section describes the packet capture utility introduced with PIX Firewall version 6.2. It includes the following topics:

Overview

Configuration Procedure

Packet Capture Output Formats

Packet Capture Examples

Overview

Capturing packets is sometimes useful when troubleshooting connectivity problems or monitoring suspicious activity. You can use the PIX Firewall packet capture utility to capture specific types of traffic on any PIX Firewall interface.

The packet capture utility provides the following features:

Capture of packets to a linear buffer

Capture of ARP and other Layer 2 packets

Timestamp of captured packets based from the PIX Firewall clock (in milliseconds)

Selective packet capture and display based on access lists

Display of captured buffer on any console or using a web browser

Brief and expanded view of capture data

Export of captured packets in libpcap format

Configuration Procedure

To capture and display packets on a PIX Firewall interface, perform the following steps:


Step 1 To define a packet capture and begin capturing packets on a specific interface, enter the following command:

capture capture-name [access-list acl_id][buffer bytes] [ethernet-type type][interface 
name][packet-length bytes]

Replace capture-name with an alphanumeric identifier that you will use to display or copy the captured packets. The PIX Firewall captures packets on the interface specified by name until the packet capture buffer is full.

Replace acl_id with the name of any existing access list, which can limit the capture based on one or more of the following selection criteria:

IP protocol type

Source or destination addresses

TCP or UDP port

ICMP type

For information about configuring an access control list, refer to "Controlling Outbound Connectivity" in Chapter 3, "Controlling Network Access and Use."

To use the buffer option, replace bytes with the number of bytes you want to assign to the packet capture buffer, subject to the memory available on the PIX Firewall. The default buffer size is 512 K. You can run multiple packet captures on different interfaces concurrently if the PIX Firewall has sufficient memory.

To use the ethernet option, replace type with one of the following packet types: ip, arp, rarp, vlan, 802.1Q, ipx, ip6, pppoed, pppoes, or any number in the range from 1 to 65536 (corresponding to the protocol type specified in the Ethernet packet). When using 802.1Q (VLAN), the 802.1Q tag is automatically skipped and the inner ethernet-type is used for matching. If you enter ethernet-type 0, all packet types are captured.

To use the packet-length option, replace bytes with the maximum number of bytes from each packet that you want copied to the capture buffer. By default, the limit is 68 bytes.

Step 2 To view the contents of the packet capture buffer, enter the following command:

show capture [capture-name][access-list acl_id][count count][detail] [dump]

Replace capture-name with the identifier you assigned to the packet capture. Replace acl_id with the name of an access control list to restrict the display of the captured packets. Replace count with the number of packets to display.

The fields included when you use the detail option are listed within square brackets ([]) in Table 9-4.

The dump option displays a hexadecimal display of the packet transported over the data link transport. Note that Media Access Control (MAC) information is not shown. A dump is also displayed if no protocol is available.

Use the show capture command without any parameters to display the current runtime configuration for packet captures.

Step 3 To view a packet capture using a web browser, enter the following command:

https://pix-host/capture/capture-name[/pcap]

Replace pix-host with the IP address or host name of the PIX Firewall where the packet capture occurred. Replace capture-name with the name of the packet capture you want to view.

The pcap option causes the packet capture to be downloaded to the web browser in libpcap format. After you save the packet capture from the browser, you can view a libpcap file with tcpdump or other applications.

Step 4 To copy the contents of the packet capture buffer to a TFTP server, enter the following command:

copy capture:capture-name tftp://location/path [pcap]

Replace capture-name with the name of the packet capture you want to view. Replace location and path with the host name, path name, and file name of the file where you want to store the captured packets. Some TFTP servers may require that the file already exists with write permission assigned to "world." The pcap option causes the file to be created in libpcap format, which can be viewed with tcpdump or other applications.

Step 5 To clear the packet capture buffer, enter the following command:

clear capture capture-name

Step 6 To clear the packet capture definition and release the resources allocated for it, enter the following command:

no capture capture-name

Replace capture-name with the name of the packet capture you want to clear.

Step 7 To stop the packet capture and save the current contents of the packet capture buffer, enter the following command:

no capture capture-name [interface name]

Replace capture-name with the name of the packet capture you want to stop. When you use the interface option to identify a specific interface, replace name with the name assigned to the interface.

Step 8 To remove the access list from a running packet capture, enter the following command:

no capture capture-name access-list acl_id

Replace capture-name with the name of the packet capture and replace acl_id with the name of the access list.


Packet Capture Output Formats

Table 9-4 shows the output formats for packet captures of different protocol types. The decoded output of the packets is dependent on the protocol of the packet. The output in square brackets is displayed when you use the capture command with the detail option.

Table 9-4 Packet Capture Formats 

Capture Type
Syntax

ICMP packet

HH:MM:SS.ms [ether-hdr] ip-source ip-destination: icmp: icmp-type icmp-code [checksum-failure]

UDP packet

HH:MM:SS.ms [ether-hdr] src-addr.src-port dest-addr.dst-port:[checksum-info] udp payload-len

TCP packet

HH:MM:SS.ms [ether-hdr] src-addr.src-port dest-addr.dst-port: tcp-flags [header-check] [checksum-info] sequence-number ack-number tcp-window urgent-info tcp-options

Other IP packets

HH:MM:SS.ms [ether-hdr] src-addr dest-addr: ip-protocol ip-length

ARP packets

HH:MM:SS.ms [ether-hdr] arp-type arp-info

Other packets

HH:MM:SS.ms ether-hdr: hex-dump


Packet Capture Examples

This section includes examples of different types of packet captures.

Example 9-5 illustrates an HTTP packet capture.

Example 9-5 Capturing an HTTP Session

In the following example, traffic is captured from an outside client at 209.165.200.225 to an inside HTTP server:

access-list http permit tcp host 10.120.56.15 eq http host 209.165.200.225
access-list http permit tcp host 209.165.200.225 host 10.120.56.15 eq http
capture capweb access-list http packet-length 74 interface inside

Example 9-6 illustrates how to display a packet capture using a web browser.

Example 9-6 Displaying a libpcap File with a Web Browser

The following command downloads a libpcap file to a local machine, using a web browser such as Internet Explorer or Netscape Communicator:

https://209.165.200.226/capture/http/pcap

Example 9-7 copies an FTP trace to the file "ftp-dump" on the TFTP server 209.165.200.226.

Example 9-7 Saving to a Remote TFTP Server

pixfirewall# copy capture:ftp tftp://209.165.200.226/ftp-dump        
Writing to file '/tftpboot/ftp-dump' at 209.165.200.226 on outside   
                                                                   
 
   
Example 9-8 illustrates a packet capture of ARP packets:

Example 9-8 ARP Packet Capture

    +-----------------------------------------------------------------+
    | pixfirewall# capture arp ethernet-type arp interface outside    |
    | pixfirewall# show capture                                       |
    | capture arp ethernet-type arp interface outside                 |
    | pixfirewall# show capture arp                                   |
    | 6 packets captured, 6   packets to be shown                     |
    | 10:46:25.452369 arp who-has 209.165.200.225 (ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff) |
    |         tell 209.165.200.235                                    |
    | 10:46:26.312850 arp who-has 209.165.201.2 tell 209.165.200.227  |
    | 10:46:26.392283 arp who-has 209.165.200.225 (ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff) |
    |         tell 209.165.200.235                                    |
    | 10:46:28.923368 arp who-has 209.165.200.226 (ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  |
    |         tell 209.165.200.235                                    |
    | 10:46:29.255998 arp who-has 209.165.202.129                     |
    |         tell 209.165.202.130 (0:2:b9:45:bf:7b)                  |
    | 10:46:29.256136 arp reply 209.165.202.129 is-at 0:a0:c9:86:8e:9c|
    +-----------------------------------------------------------------+

Example 9-9 illustrates a packet capture of PPPoE discovery packets:

Example 9-9 Capturing PPPoE Discovery

    +--------------------------------------------------------------------+
    | pixfirewall# capture pppoed ethernet-type pppoed interface outside |
    | pixfirewall(config)# show capture                                  |
    | capture pppoed ethernet-type pppoed interface outside              |
    | pixfirewall(config)# show capture pppoed                           |
    | 3 packets captured, 3 packets to be shown                          |
    | 02:13:21.844408 ffff.ffff.2ac5 ffff.ffff.ffff 0x8863 32:           |
    |                          1109 0000 000c 0101 0000 0103 0004 386c   |
    |                          f280                                      |
    | 02:13:25.841738 ffff.ffff.3cc0 ffff.ffff.ffff 0x8863 32:           |
    |                          1109 0000 000c 0101 0000 0103 0004 386c   |
    |                          f280                                      |
    | 02:13:33.841875 ffff.ffff.76c0 ffff.ffff.ffff 0x8863 32:           |
    |                          1109 0000 000c 0101 0000 0103 0004 386c   |
    |                          f280                                      |
    +--------------------------------------------------------------------+

Example 9-9 illustrates a packet capture on multiple interfaces. The example captures an FTP session to an FTP server at host 209.165.202.129.

Example 9-10 Capturing On Multiple Interfaces


    +--------------------------------------------------------------------------+
    | pixfirewall(config)# access-list ftp tcp any host 209.165.202.129 eq ftp |
    | pixfirewall(config)# access-list ftp tcp host 209.165.202.129 eq ftp any |
    | pixfirewall# capture ftp access-list ftp                                 |
    | pixfirewall# capture ftp interface inside interface outside              |
    | pixfirewall# show capture                                                |
    | capture ftp access-list ftp interface outside interface inside           |
    | pixfirewall#                                                             |
    | pixfirewall# show capture ftp                                            |
    | 5 packets captured, 5 packets to be shown                                |
    | 11:21:17.705041 10.1.1.15.2158 > 10.1.1.15.2158:                         |
    |                   S 3027585165:3027585165(0) win 512 <mss 1460>          |
    | 11:21:17.705133 209.165.202.130.2158 > 209.165.202.130.2158:             |
    |                   S 4192390209:4192390209(0) win 512 <mss 1380>          |
    | 11:21:17.705651 10.1.1.15.2158 > 10.1.1.15.2158:                         |
    |                   . ack 3463843411 win 32120                             |
    | 11:21:17.705667 209.165.202.130.2158 > 209.165.202.130.2158:             |
    |                   . ack 3463843411 win 32120                             |
    | 11:21:20.784337 10.1.1.15.2158 > 10.1.1.15.2158:                         |
    |                   . ack 3463843521 win 32120                             |
    +--------------------------------------------------------------------------+

IDS Syslog Messages

PIX Firewall lists single-packet (atomic) Cisco Intrusion Detection System (IDS) signature messages via syslog. Refer to Cisco PIX Firewall System Log Messages for a list of the supported messages. You can view this document online at the following website:

http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/iaabu/pix/pix_61/syslog/index.htm

All signature messages are not supported by PIX Firewall in this release. IDS syslog messages all start with PIX-4-4000nn and have the following format:

%PIX-4-4000nn IDS:sig_num sig_msg from ip_addr to ip_addr on interface int_name

For example:

%PIX-4-400013 IDS:2003 ICMP redirect from 10.4.1.2 to 10.2.1.1 on interface dmz
%PIX-4-400032 IDS:4051 UDP Snork attack from 10.1.1.1 to 192.168.1.1 on interface outside


Note Cisco IDS signature number 1101 is not supported by PIX Firewall. When an unsupported signature number is entered, PIX Firewall returns an error message.


Table 9-5 lists the values and the meaning of each syslog output parameter.

Table 9-5 Syslog Output Values 

Syslog Value
Meaning
sig_num

The signature number. Refer to the Cisco Secure Intrusion Detection System Version 2.2.1 User Guide for more information. You can view the "NSDB and Signatures" chapter from this guide at the following website:
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/iaabu/csids/csids1/csidsug/sigs.htm

sig_msg

The signature message—approximately the same as the NetRanger signature message.

ip_addr

The local to remote address to which the signature applies.

int_name

The name of the interface on which the signature originated.


Table 9-6 summarizes the commands that you can use to determine the messages that are displayed.

Table 9-6 Commands to Control Syslog Messages 

Command
Effect
ip audit signature signature_number disable

Attaches a global policy to a signature. Used to disable or exclude a signature from auditing.

no ip audit signature signature_number

Removes the policy from a signature. Used to reenable a signature.

show ip audit signature [signature_number]

Displays disabled signatures.

ip audit info [action [alarm] [drop] [reset]]

Specifies the default action to be taken for signatures classified as informational signatures. The alarm option indicates that when a signature match is detected in a packet, PIX Firewall reports the event to all configured syslog servers. The drop option drops the offending packet. The reset option drops the offending packet and closes the connection if it is part of an active connection. The default is alarm. To cancel event reactions, specify the ip audit info command without an action option.

no ip audit info

Sets the action to be taken for signatures classified as informational and reconnaissance to the default action.

show ip audit info

Displays the default informational actions.

ip audit attack [action [alarm] [drop] 
[reset]]

Specifies the default actions to be taken for attack signatures. The action options are as previously described.

no ip audit attack

Sets the action to be taken for attack signatures to the default action.

show ip audit attack

Displays the default attack actions. An audit policy (audit rule) defines the attributes for all signatures that can be applied to an interface along with a set of actions. Using an audit policy the user may limit the traffic that is audited or specify actions to be taken when the signature matches. Each audit policy is identified by a name and can be defined for informational or attack signatures. Each interface can have two policies; one for informational signatures and one for attack signatures. If a policy is defined without actions, then the configured default actions will take effect. Each policy requires a different name.

ip audit name audit_name info [action 
[alarm] [drop] [reset]]

All informational signatures except those disabled or excluded by the ip audit signature command are considered part of the policy. The actions are the same as described previously.

no ip audit name audit_name [info]

Remove the audit policy audit_name.

ip audit name audit_name attack [action 
[alarm] [drop] [reset]]

All attack signatures except those disabled or excluded by the ip audit signature command are considered part of the policy. The actions are the same as described previously.

no ip audit name audit_name [attack]

Removes the audit specification audit_name.

show ip audit name [name [info | attack]]

Displays all audit policies or specific policies referenced by name and possibly type.

ip audit interface if_name audit_name

Applies an audit specification or policy (via the ip audit name command) to an interface.

no ip audit interface [if_name]

Removes a policy from an interface.

show ip audit interface

Displays the interface configuration.


Using SNMP

This section describes how to enable SNMP for monitoring the PIX Firewall with a network management system (NMS). It includes the following topics:

Overview

MIB Support

SNMP CPU Utilization

SNMP Usage Notes

SNMP Traps

Compiling Cisco Syslog MIB Files

Using the Firewall and Memory Pool MIBs

Overview

The snmp-server command causes the PIX Firewall to send SNMP traps so that the PIX Firewall can be monitored remotely. Use snmp-server host command to specify which systems receive the SNMP traps.

The PIX Firewall SNMP MIB-II groups available are System and Interfaces. The Cisco Firewall MIB and Cisco Memory Pool MIB are also available.

All SNMP values are read only (RO).

Using SNMP, you can monitor system events on the PIX Firewall. SNMP events can be read, but information on the PIX Firewall cannot be changed with SNMP.

The PIX Firewall SNMP traps available to an SNMP management station are as follows:

Generic traps:

Link up and link down (cable connected to the interface or not; cable connected to an interface working or not working)

Cold start

Authentication failure (mismatched community string)

Security-related events sent via the Cisco Syslog MIB:

Global access denied

Failover syslog messages

syslog messages

Use CiscoWorks for Windows or any other SNMP V1, MIB-II compliant browser to receive SNMP traps and browse an MIB. SNMP traps occur at UDP port 162.

MIB Support


Note The PIX Firewall does not support browsing of the Cisco syslog MIB.


You can browse the System and Interface groups of MIB-II. Browsing an MIB is different from sending traps.  Browsing means doing an snmpget or snmpwalk of the MIB tree from the management station to determine values.

The Cisco Firewall MIB and Cisco Memory Pool MIB are available.

PIX Firewall does not support the following in the Cisco Firewall MIB:

cfwSecurityNotification NOTIFICATION-TYPE

cfwContentInspectNotification NOTIFICATION-TYPE

cfwConnNotification NOTIFICATION-TYPE

cfwAccessNotification NOTIFICATION-TYPE

cfwAuthNotification NOTIFICATION-TYPE

cfwGenericNotification NOTIFICATION-TYPE

SNMP CPU Utilization

PIX Firewall version 6.2 introduces support for monitoring CPU utilization through SNMP. This feature allows network administrators to monitor PIX Firewall CPU usage using SNMP management software, (such as HP OpenView) for capacity planning.

This functionality is implemented through support for the cpmCPUTotalTable of the Cisco Process MIB (CISCO-PROCESS-MIB.my.) The other two tables in the MIB, cpmProcessTable and cpmProcessExtTable are not supported in this release.

Each row of the cpmCPUTotalTable consists of the following five elements:

Index of each CPU


Note Because all current PIX Firewall hardware platforms support a single CPU, PIX Firewall returns only one row from cpmCPUTotalTable and the index is always 1.


entPhysicalIndex of the physical entity for which the CPU statistics in this entry are maintained (the value of this object will be zero because the entPhysicalTable of Entity MIB is not supported on the PIX SNMP agent)

Overall CPU busy percentage in the last five-second period

Overall CPU busy percentage in the last one-minute period

Overall CPU busy percentage in the last five-minute period

The values of the last three elements will be the same as the output of the show cpu usage command.

Table 9-7 CPU Utilization MIB Variables

MIB object name
Description

cpmCPUTotalIndex

The value of this object will be zero because the entPhysicalTable of Entity MIB is not supported on the PIX Firewall SNMP agent.

cpmCPUTotalPhysicalIndex

The value of this object will be zero because the entPhysicalTable of Entity MIB is not supported on the PIX Firewall SNMP agent.

cpmCPUTotal5sec

Overall CPU busy percentage in the last five-second period.

cpmCPUTotal1min

Overall CPU busy percentage in the last one-minute period.

cpmCPUTotal5min

Overall CPU busy percentage in the last five-minute period.


PIX Firewall does not support the following new MIB objects in the cpmCPUTotalTable:

cpmCPUTotal5secRev

cpmCPUTotal1minRev

cpmCPUTotal5minRev

SNMP Usage Notes

The MIB-II ifEntry.ifAdminStatus object returns 1 if the interface is accessible and 2 if you administratively shut down the interface using the shutdown option of the interface command.

The SNMP "ifOutUcastPkts" object now correctly returns the outbound packet count.

Syslog messages generated by the SNMP module now specify the interface name instead of an interface number.

SNMP Traps

Traps are different than browsing; they are unsolicited "comments" from the managed device to the management station for certain events, such as link up, link down, and syslog event generated.

An SNMP object ID (OID) for PIX Firewall displays in SNMP event traps sent from the PIX Firewall. PIX Firewall provides system OID in SNMP event traps & SNMP mib-2.system.sysObjectID variable based on the hardware platform.

Table 9-8 lists the system OID in PIX Firewall platforms:

Table 9-8 System OID in PIX Firewall Platforms

PIX Firewall Platform
System OID

PIX 506

.1.3.6.1.4.1.9.1.389

PIX 506E

.1.3.6.1.4.1.9.1.450

PIX 515

.1.3.6.1.4.1.9.1.390

PIX 515E

.1.3.6.1.4.1.9.1.451

PIX 520

.1.3.6.1.4.1.9.1.391

PIX 525

.1.3.6.1.4.1.9.1.392

PIX 535

.1.3.6.1.4.1.9.1.393

others

.1.3.6.1.4.1.9.1.227 (original PIX Firewall OID)


The SNMP service running on the PIX Firewall performs two different functions:

Replies to SNMP requests from management stations (also known as an SNMP client)

Sends traps (event notifications) to management stations or other devices that are registered to receive them from the PIX Firewall. PIX Firewall supports two types of traps: generic traps and syslog traps.

Receiving Requests and Sending Syslog Traps

Follow these steps to receive requests and send traps from the PIX Firewall to an SNMP management station:


Step 1 Identify the IP address of the SNMP management station with the snmp-server host command.

Step 2 Set the snmp-server options for location, contact, and the community password as required.

If you only want to send the cold start, link up, and link down generic traps, no further configuration is required.

If you only want to receive SNMP requests, no further configuration is required.

Step 3 Add an snmp-server enable traps command statement.

Step 4 Set the logging level with the logging history command:

logging history debugging

We recommend that you use the debugging level during initial set up and during testing. Thereafter, set the level from debugging to a lower value for production use.

(The logging history command sets the severity level for SNMP syslog messages.)

Step 5 Start sending syslog traps to the management station with the logging on command.

Step 6 To disable sending syslog traps, use the no logging on command or the no snmp-server enable traps command.


The commands in Example 9-11 specify that PIX Firewall can receive the SNMP requests from host 192.168.3.2 on the inside interface but does not send SNMP syslog traps to any host.

Example 9-11 Enabling SNMP

snmp-server host 192.168.3.2
snmp-server location building 42
snmp-server contact polly hedra
snmp-server community ohwhatakeyisthee

The location and contact commands identify where the host is and who administers it. The community command specifies the password in use at the PIX Firewall SNMP agent and the SNMP management station for verifying network access between the two systems.

Compiling Cisco Syslog MIB Files

To receive security and failover SNMP traps from the PIX Firewall, compile the Cisco SMI MIB and the Cisco syslog MIB into your SNMP management application. If you do not compile the Cisco syslog MIB into your application, you only receive traps for link up or down, firewall cold start and authentication failure.

You can select Cisco MIB files for PIX Firewall and other Cisco products from the following website:

http://www.cisco.com/public/sw-center/netmgmt/cmtk/mibs.shtml

From this page, select PIX Firewall from the Cisco Secure & VPN selection list.

Follow these steps to compile Cisco syslog MIB files into your browser using CiscoWorks for Windows (SNMPc):


Step 1 Get the Cisco syslog MIB files.

Step 2 Start SNMPc.

Step 3 Click Config>Compile MIB.

Step 4 Scroll to the bottom of the list, and click the last entry.

Step 5 Click Add.

Step 6 Find the Cisco syslog MIB files.


Note With certain applications, only files with a .mib extension may show in the file selection window of the SNMPc. The Cisco syslog MIB files with the .my extension will not be shown. In this case, you should manually change the .my extension to a .mib extension.


Step 7 Click CISCO-FIREWALL-MIB.my (CISCO-FIREWALL-MIB.mib) and click OK.

Step 8 Scroll to the bottom of the list, and click the last entry.

Step 9 Click Add.

Step 10 Find the file CISCO-MEMORY-POOL-MIB.my (CISCO-MEMORY-POOL-MIB.mib) and click OK.

Step 11 Scroll to the bottom of the list, and click the last entry.

Step 12 Click Add.

Step 13 Find the file CISCO-SMI.my (CISCO-SMI.mib) and click OK.

Step 14 Scroll to the bottom of the list, and click the last entry.

Step 15 Click Add.

Step 16 Find the file CISCO-SYSLOG-MIB.my (CISCO-SYSLOG-MIB.mib) and click OK.

Step 17 Click Load All.

Step 18 If there are no errors, restart SNMPc.


Note These instructions are only for SNMPc (CiscoWorks for Windows).



Using the Firewall and Memory Pool MIBs

The Cisco Firewall and Memory Pool MIBs let you poll failover and system status.

This section contains the following topics:

ipAddrTable Notes

Viewing Failover Status

Verifying Memory Usage

Viewing The Connection Count

Viewing System Buffer Usage

In the tables that follow in each section, the meaning of each returned value is shown in parentheses.

ipAddrTable Notes

Use of the SNMP ip.ipAddrTable entry requires that all interfaces have unique addresses. If interfaces have not been assigned IP addresses, by default, their IP addresses are all set to 127.0.0.1. Having duplicate IP addresses causes the SNMP management station to loop indefinitely. The workaround is to assign each interface a different address. For example, you can set one address to 127.0.0.1, another to 127.0.0.2, and so on.

SNMP uses a sequence of GetNext operations to traverse the MIB tree. Each GetNext request is based on the result of the previous request. Therefore, if two consecutive interfaces have the same IP 127.0.0.1 (table index), the GetNext function returns 127.0.0.1, which is correct; however, when SNMP generates the next GetNext request using the same result (127.0.0.1), the request is identical to the previous one, which causes the management station to loop infinitely.

For example:

GetNext(ip.ipAddrTable.ipAddrEntry.ipAdEntAddr.127.0.0.1) 

In SNMP protocol, the MIB table index should be unique for the agent to identify a row from the MIB table. The table index for ip.ipAddrTable is the PIX Firewall interface IP address, so the IP address should be unique; otherwise, the SNMP agent will get confused and may return information of another interface (row), which has the same IP (index).

Viewing Failover Status

The Cisco Firewall MIB's cfsHardwareStatusTable lets you determine whether failover is enabled and which unit is active. The Cisco Firewall MIB indicates failover status by two rows in the cfwHardwareStatusTable object. From the PIX Firewall command line, you can view failover status with the show failover command. You can access the object table from the following path:

.iso.org.dod.internet.private.enterprises.cisco.ciscoMgmt.ciscoFirewallMIB.
ciscoFirewallMIBObjects.cfwSystem.cfwStatus.cfwHardwareStatusTable

Table 9-9 lists which objects provide failover information.

Table 9-9 Failover Status Objects 

Object
Object Type
Row 1: Returned if Failover is Disabled
Row 1: Returned if Failover is Enabled
Row 2: Returned if Failover is Enabled

cfwHardwareType
(table index)

Hardware

6 (If primary unit)

6 (If primary unit)

7 (If secondary unit)

cfwHardwareInformation

SnmpAdminString

blank

blank

blank

cfwHardwareStatusValue

HardwareStatus

0 (Not used)

active or 9 (If active unit) or standby or 10 (If standby unit)

active or 9 (If active unit) or standby or 10 (If standby unit)

cfwHardwareStatusDetail

SnmpAdminString

Failover Off

blank

blank


In the HP OpenView Browse MIB application's "MIB values" window, if failover is disabled, a sample MIB query yields the following information:

cfwHardwareInformation.6 :
cfwHardwareInformation.7 :
cfwHardwareStatusValue.6 :0
cfwHardwareStatusValue.7 :0
cfwHardwareStatusDetail.6 :Failover Off
cfwHardwareStatusDetail.7 :Failover Off

From this listing, the table index, cfwHardwareType, appears as either .6 or .7 appended to the end of each of the subsequent objects. The cfwHardwareInformation field is blank, the cfwHardwareStatusValue is 0, and the cfwHardwareStatusDetail contains Failover Off, which indicates the failover status.

When failover is enabled, a sample MIB query yields the following information:

cfwHardwareInformation.6 :
cfwHardwareInformation.7 :
cfwHardwareStatusValue.6 : active
cfwHardwareStatusValue.7 : standby
cfwHardwareStatusDetail.6 :
cfwHardwareStatusDetail.7 :

In this listing, only the cfwHardwareStatusValue contains values, either active or standby to indicate the status of each unit.

Verifying Memory Usage

You can determine how much free memory is available with the Cisco Memory Pool MIB. From the PIX Firewall command line, memory usage is viewed with the show memory command. The following is sample output from the show memory command.

show memory
16777216 bytes total, 5595136 bytes free

You can access the MIB objects from the following path:

.iso.org.dod.internet.private.enterprises.cisco.ciscoMgmt.ciscoMemoryPoolMIB.
ciscoMemoryPoolObjects.ciscoMemoryPoolTable

Table 9-10 lists which objects provide memory usage information.

Table 9-10 Memory Usage Objects

Object
Object Type
Returned Value

ciscoMemoryPoolType
(table index)

CiscoMemoryPoolTypes

1 (Processor memory)

ciscoMemoryPoolName

DisplayString

PIX Firewall system memory

ciscoMemoryPoolAlternate

Integer32

0 (No alternate memory pool)

ciscoMemoryPoolValid

TruthValue

true (Means that the values of the remaining objects are valid)

ciscoMemoryPoolUsed

Gauge32

integer (Number of bytes currently in use—the total bytes minus the free bytes)

ciscoMemoryPoolFree

Gauge32

integer (Number of bytes currently free)

ciscoMemoryPoolLargestFree

Gauge32

0 (Information not available)


In the HP OpenView Browse MIB application's "MIB values" window a sample MIB query yields the following information:

ciscoMemoryPoolName.1 :PIX system memory
ciscoMemoryPoolAlternate.1 :0
ciscoMemoryPoolValid.1 :true
ciscoMemoryPoolUsed.1 :12312576
ciscoMemoryPoolFree.1 :54796288
ciscoMemoryPoolLargestFree.1 :0

From this listing, the table index, ciscoMemoryPoolName, appears as the .1 value at the end of each subsequent object value. The ciscoMemoryPoolUsed object lists the number of bytes currently in use, 12312576, and the ciscoMemoryPoolFree object lists the number of bytes currently free 54796288. The other objects always list the values described in Table 9-10.

Viewing The Connection Count

You can view the number of connections in use from the cfwConnectionStatTable in the Cisco Firewall MIB. From the PIX Firewall command line, you can view the connection count with the show conn command. The following is sample output from the show conn command to demonstrate where the information in cfwConnectionStatTable originates.

show conn
15 in use, 88 most used

The cfwConnectionStatTable object table can be accessed from the following path:

.iso.org.dod.internet.private.enterprises.cisco.ciscoMgmt.ciscoFirewallMIB.
ciscoFirewallMIBObjects.cfwSystem.cfwStatistics.cfwConnectionStatTable

Table 9-11 lists which objects provide connection count information.

Table 9-11 Connection Count Objects

Object
Object Type
Row 1: Returned Value
Row 2: Returned Value

cfwConnectionStatService
(Table index)

Services

40 (IP protocol)

40 (IP protocol)

cfwConnectionStatType
(Table index)

ConnectionStat

6 (Current connections in use)

7 (High)

cfwConnectionStatDescription

SnmpAdminString

number of connections currently in use by the entire firewall

highest number of connections in use at any one time since system startup

cfwConnectionStatCount

Counter32

0 (Not used)

0 (Not used)

cfwConnectionStatValue

Gauge32

integer (In use number)

integer (Most used number)


In the HP OpenView Browse MIB application's "MIB values" window a sample MIB query yields the following information:

cfwConnectionStatDescription.40.6 :number of connections currently in use by the entire firewall
cfwConnectionStatDescription.40.7 :highest number of connections in use at any one time since system startup
cfwConnectionStatCount.40.6 :0
cfwConnectionStatCount.40.7 :0
cfwConnectionStatValue.40.6 :15
cfwConnectionStatValue.40.7 :88

From this listing, the table index, cfwConnectionStatService, appears as the .40 appended to each subsequent object and the table index, cfwConnectionStatType, appears as either .6 to indicate the number of connections in use or .7 to indicate the most used number of connections. The cfwConnectionStatValue object then lists the connection count. The cfwConnectionStatCount object always returns 0 (zero).

Viewing System Buffer Usage

You can view the system buffer usage from the Cisco Firewall MIB in multiple rows of the cfwBufferStatsTable. The system buffer usage provides an early warning of the PIX Firewall reaching the limit of its capacity. On the command line, you can view this information with the show blocks command. The following is sample output from the show blocks command to demonstrate how cfwBufferStatsTable is populated.

show blocks
     SIZE     MAX      LOW     CNT
     4    1600     1600   1600
    80     100       97      97
   256      80       79      79
  1550     780      402    404
 65536       8        8       8

You can view cfwBufferStatsTable at the following path:

.iso.org.dod.internet.private.enterprises.cisco.ciscoMgmt.ciscoFirewallMIB.
ciscoFirewallMIBObjects.cfwSystem.cfwStatistics.cfwBufferStatsTable

Table 9-12 lists the objects required to view the system block usage.

Table 9-12 System Block Usage Objects

Object
Object Type
First Row: Returned Value
Next Row: Returned Value
Next Row: Returned Value

cfwBufferStatSize
(Table index)

Unsigned32

integer (SIZE value; for example, 4 for a 4-byte block)

integer (SIZE value; for example, 4 for a 4-byte block)

integer (SIZE value; for example, 4 for a 4-byte block)

cfwBufferStatType
(Table index)

ResourceStatistics

3 (MAX)

5 (LOW)

8 (CNT)

cfwBufferStatInformation

SnmpAdminString

maximum number of allocated integer byte blocks (integer is the number of bytes in a block)

fewest integer byte blocks available since system startup (integer is the number of bytes in a block)

current number of available integer byte blocks (integer is the number of bytes in a block)

cfwBufferStatValue

Gauge32

integer (MAX number)

integer (LOW number)

integer (CNT number)



Note The three rows repeat for every block size listed in the output of the show blocks command.


In the HP OpenView Browse MIB application's "MIB values" window a sample MIB query yields the following information:

cfwBufferStatInformation.4.3 :maximum number of allocated 4 byte blocks
cfwBufferStatInformation.4.5 :fewest 4 byte blocks available since system startup
cfwBufferStatInformation.4.8 :current number of available 4 byte blocks
cfwBufferStatInformation.80.3 :maximum number of allocated 80 byte blocks
cfwBufferStatInformation.80.5 fewest 80 byte blocks available since system startup
cfwBufferStatInformation.80.8 :current number of available 80 byte blocks
cfwBufferStatInformation.256.3 :maximum number of allocated 256 byte blocks
cfwBufferStatInformation.256.5 :fewest 256 byte blocks available since system startup
cfwBufferStatInformation.256.8 :current number of available 256 byte blocks
cfwBufferStatInformation.1550.3 :maximum number of allocated 1550 byte blocks
cfwBufferStatInformation.1550.5 :fewest 1550 byte blocks available since system startup
cfwBufferStatInformation.1550.8 :current number of available 1550 byte blocks
cfwBufferStatValue.4.3: 1600
cfwBufferStatValue.4.5: 1600
cfwBufferStatValue.4.8: 1600
cfwBufferStatValue.80.3: 400
cfwBufferStatValue.80.5: 396
cfwBufferStatValue.80.8: 400
cfwBufferStatValue.256.3: 1000
cfwBufferStatValue.256.5: 997
cfwBufferStatValue.256.8: 999
cfwBufferStatValue.1550.3: 1444
cfwBufferStatValue.1550.5: 928
cfwBufferStatValue.1550.8: 932

From this listing, the first table index, cfwBufferStatSize, appears as first number appended to the end of each object, such as .4 or .256. The other table index, cfwBufferStatType, appears as .3, .5, or .8 after the first index. For each block size, the cfwBufferStatInformation object identifies the type of value and the cfwBufferStatValue object identifies the number of bytes for each value.