Catalyst 6500 Series Switch and Cisco 7600 Series Router Firewall Services Module Command Reference, 4.1
aaa accounting command -- accounting-server-group
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aaa accounting command through accounting-server-group Commands

Table Of Contents

aaa accounting command through accounting-server-group Commands

aaa accounting command

aaa accounting console

aaa accounting include, exclude

aaa accounting match

aaa authentication challenge disable

aaa authentication clear-conn

aaa authentication console

aaa authentication include, exclude

aaa authentication match

aaa authentication secure-http-client

aaa authorization command

aaa authorization include, exclude

aaa authorization match

aaa local authentication attempts max-fail

aaa mac-exempt

aaa proxy-limit

aaa-server host

aaa-server

absolute

accept-subordinates

access-group

access-list alert-interval

access-list commit

access-list deny-flow-max

access-list ethertype

access-list extended

access-list mode

access-list optimization enable

access-list remark

access-list standard

accounting-mode

accounting-port

accounting-server-group


aaa accounting command through accounting-server-group Commands


aaa accounting command

To send accounting messages to the TACACS+ accounting server when you enter any command other than show commands at the CLI, use the aaa accounting command command in global configuration mode. To disable support for command accounting, use the no form of this command.

aaa accounting command [ privilege level ] server-tag

no aaa accounting command [ privilege level ] server-tag

Syntax Description

privilege level

If you customize the command privilege level using the privilege command, you can limit which commands the FWSM accounts for by specifying a minimum privilege level. The FWSM does not account for commands that are below the minimum privilege level.

Note If you enter a deprecated command and enabled the privilege keyword, then the FWSM does not send accounting information for the deprecated command. If you want to account for deprecated commands, be sure to disable the privilege keyword. Many deprecated commands are still accepted at the CLI, and are often converted into the currently-accepted command at the CLI; they are not included in CLI help or this guide.

server-tag

Specifies the server or group of TACACS+ servers to which accounting records are sent, as specified by the aaa-server protocol command.


Defaults

The default privilege level is 0.

Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Global configuration


Command History

Release
Modification

3.1(1)

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

When you configure the aaa accounting command command, each command other than show commands entered by an administrator is recorded and sent to the accounting server or servers.

Examples

The following example specifies that accounting records will be generated for any supported command, and that these records are sent to the server from the group named adminserver.

hostname(config)# aaa accounting command adminserver

Related Commands

Command
Description

aaa accounting

Enables or disables TACACS+ or RADIUS user accounting (on a server designated by the aaa-server command).

clear configure aaa

Remove/reset the configured AAA accounting values.

show running-config aaa

Display the AAA configuration.


aaa accounting console

To enable support for AAA accounting for administrative access, use the aaa accounting console command in global configuration mode. To disable support for accounting for administrative access, use the no form of this command.

aaa accounting {telnet | ssh | enable} console server-tag

no aaa accounting {telnet | ssh | enable} console server-tag

Syntax Description

enable

Enables accounting records to mark the entry to and exit from privileged EXEC mode.

server-tag

Specifies the server or group of servers to which accounting records are sent. Valid server group protocols are RADIUS and TACACS+. You must specify the name of the server group, previously specified in an aaa-server command.

ssh

Enables accounting records to mark the establishment and termination of admin sessions created over SSH. 

telnet

Enables accounting records to mark the establishment and termination of admin sessions created over Telnet. This command does not account for sessions from the switch to the FWSM (system execution space).s


Defaults

By default, AAA accounting for administrative access is disabled.

Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Global configuration


Command History

Release
Modification

1.1(1)

This command was introduced on the FWSM.

2.2(1)

This command was modified to support fallback to LOCAL.


Usage Guidelines

Sessions from the switch to the FWSM are not accounted for in the admin context, even if you have Telnet authentication enabled.

Examples

The following example specifies that accounting records will be generated for enable access, and that these records are sent to the server named adminserver.

hostname(config)# aaa accounting enable console adminserver

Related Commands

Command
Description

aaa accounting match

Enables or disables TACACS+ or RADIUS user accounting.

aaa accounting command

Specifies that each command, or commands of a specified privilege level or higher, entered by an administrator/user is recorded and sent to the accounting server or servers.

clear configure aaa

Removes/resets the configured AAA accounting values.

show running-config aaa

Display the AAA configuration.


aaa accounting include, exclude

To enable accounting for connections through the FWSM, use the aaa accounting include command in global configuration mode. To exclude addresses from accounting, use the aaa accounting exclude command. To disable accounting, use the no form of this command.

aaa accounting {include | exclude} service  interface_name inside_ip inside_mask [outside_ip outside_mask] server_tag

no aaa accounting {include | exclude} service  interface_name inside_ip inside_mask [outside_ip outside_mask] server_tag

Syntax Description

exclude

Excludes the specified service and address from accounting if it was already specified by an include command.

include

Specifies the services and IP addresses that require accounting. Traffic that is not specified by an include statement is not processed.

inside_ip

Specifies the IP address on the higher security interface. This address might be the source or the destination address, depending on the interface to which you apply this command. If you apply the command to the lower security interface, then this address is the destination address. If you apply the command to the higher security interface, then this address is the source address. Use 0 to mean all hosts.

inside_mask

Specifies the network mask for the inside IP address. Use 0 if the IP address is 0. Use 255.255.255.255 for a host.

interface_name

Specifies the interface name from which users require accounting.

outside_ip

(Optional) Specifies the IP address on the lower security interface. This address might be the source or the destination address, depending on the interface to which you apply this command. If you apply the command to the lower security interface, then this address is the source address. If you apply the command to the higher security interface, then this address is the destination address. Use 0 to mean all hosts.

outside_mask

(Optional) Specifies the network mask for the outside IP address. Use 0 if the IP address is 0. Use 255.255.255.255 for a host.

server_tag

Specifies the AAA server group defined by the aaa-server host command.

service

Specifies the services that require accounting. You can specify one of the following values:

any or tcp/0 (specifies all TCP traffic)

ftp

http

https

ip

ssh

telnet

tcp/port

udp/port


Defaults

By default, AAA accounting for administrative access is disabled.

Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Global configuration


Command History

Release
Modification

1.1(1)

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

The FWSM can send accounting information to a RADIUS or TACACS+ server about any TCP or UDP traffic that passes through the FWSM. If that traffic is also authenticated, then the AAA server can maintain accounting information by username. If the traffic is not authenticated, the AAA server can maintain accounting information by IP address. Accounting information includes when sessions start and stop, username, the number of bytes that pass through the FWSM for the session, the service used, and the duration of each session.

Before you can use this command, you must first designate a AAA server with the aaa-server command.

To enable accounting for traffic that is specified by an access list, use the aaa accounting match command. You cannot use the match command in the same configuration as the include and exclude commands. We suggest that you use the match command instead of the include and exclude commands; the include and exclude commands are not supported by ASDM.

You cannot use the aaa accounting include and exclude commands between same-security interfaces. For that scenario, you must use the aaa accounting match command.

Examples

The following example enables accounting on all TCP connections:

hostname(config)# aaa-server mygroup protocol tacacs+
hostname(config)# aaa-server mygroup (inside) host 192.168.10.10 thekey timeout 20
hostname(config)# aaa accounting include any inside 0 0 0 0 mygroup

Related Commands

Command
Description

aaa accounting match

Enables accounting for traffic specified by an access list.

aaa accounting command

Enables accounting of administrative access.

aaa-server host

Configures the AAA server.

clear configure aaa

Clears the AAA configuration.

show running-config aaa

Displays the AAA configuration.


aaa accounting match

To enable accounting for TCP and UDP connections through the FWSM, use the aaa accounting match command in global configuration mode. To disable accounting for traffic, use the no form of this command.

aaa accounting match acl_name  interface_name server_tag

no aaa accounting match acl_name  interface_name server_tag

Syntax Description

acl_name

Specifies the traffic that requires accounting my matching an access-list name. Permit entries in the access list are accounted, while deny entries are exempt from accounting. This command is only supported for TCP and UDP traffic. A warning message is displayed if you enter this command and it references an access list that permits other protocols.

interface_name

Specifies the interface name from which users require accounting.

server_tag

Specifies the AAA server group tag defined by the aaa-server command.


Defaults

No default behavior or values.

Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Global configuration


Command History

Release
Modification

1.1(1)

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

The FWSM can send accounting information to a RADIUS or TACACS+ server about any TCP or UDP traffic that passes through the FWSM. If that traffic is also authenticated, then the AAA server can maintain accounting information by username. If the traffic is not authenticated, the AAA server can maintain accounting information by IP address. Accounting information includes when sessions start and stop, username, the number of bytes that pass through the FWSM for the session, the service used, and the duration of each session.

Before you can use this command, you must first designate a AAA server with the aaa-server command.

Accounting information is sent only to the active server in a server group unless you enable simultaneous accounting using the accounting-mode command in aaa-server protocol configuration mode.

You cannot use the aaa accounting match command in the same configuration as the aaa accounting include and exclude commands. We suggest that you use the match command instead of the include and exclude commands; the include and exclude commands are not supported by ASDM.

Examples

The following example enables accounting for traffic matching a specific access list acl2:

hostname(config)# access-list acl12 extended permit tcp any any

hostname(config)# aaa accounting match acl2 outside radserver1

Related Commands

Command
Description

aaa accounting include, exclude

Enables accounting by specifying the IP addresses directly in the command.

access-list extended

Creates an access list.

clear configure aaa

Removes AAA configuration.

show running-config aaa

Displays the AAA configuration.


aaa authentication challenge disable

To disable authentication challenge for FTP, Telnet, HTTP, or HTTPS, use the aaa authentication challenge disable command in global configuration mode. To reset the FWSM to default authentication, use the no form of this command.

aaa authentication {ftp | telnet | http | https } challenge disable

no aaa authentication {ftp | telnet | http | https } challenge disable

Syntax Description

ftp

Disables the authentication challenge for FTP connections.

http

Disables the authentication challenge for HTTP connections.

https

Disables the authentication challenge for HTTPS connections.

telnet

Disables the authentication challenge for Telnet connections.


Defaults

By default, if you enable authentication using the aaa authentication match or aaa authentication [include | exclude] commands, authentication challenge is enabled for FTP, Telnet, HTTP, and HTTPS.

Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Global configuration


Command History

Release
Modification

3.1(1)

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

You can configure whether the FWSM challenges users for a username and password. By default, the FWSM prompts the user when a AAA rule enforces authentication for traffic in a new session and the protocol of the traffic is FTP, Telnet, HTTP, or HTTPS. In some cases, you may want to disable the authentication challenge for one or more of these protocols. You can use the aaa authentication challenge command to do so.

If you disable challenge authentication for a particular protocol, traffic using that protocol is allowed only if the traffic belongs to a session previously authenticated. This authentication can be accomplished by traffic using a protocol whose authentication challenge remains enabled. For example, if you disable challenge authentication for FTP, the FWSM denies a new session using FTP if the traffic is included in an authentication rule. If the user establishes the session with a protocol whose authentication challenge is enabled (such as HTTP), FTP traffic is allowed.

Examples

The following example permits inbound access to a TCP IP address in the range of 209.165.201.1 through 209.165.201.30 indicated by the 209.165.201.0 network address (subnet mask 255.255.255.224). All services are permitted by the access-list command, and the aaa authentication command requires authentication. The authentication server is at IP address 10.16.1.20 on the inside interface. The final command disables challenge authentication for FTP, which means that users whose sessions are identifed by the aaa authentication include command must be authenticated by Telnet, HTTP, or HTTPS, and not by FTP.

hostname(config)# aaa-server AuthIn protocol tacacs+
hostname(config)# aaa-server AuthIn (inside) host 10.16.1.20 thisisakey timeout 20
hostname(config)# access-list acl-out permit tcp 10.16.1.0 255.255.255.0 209.165.201.0 
255.255.255.224
hostname(config)# access-group acl-out in interface outside
hostname(config)# aaa authentication include tcp inside 0 0 0 0 AuthIn
hostname(config)# aaa authentication ftp challenge disable

Related Commands

Command
Description

aaa authentication

Enables or disables authentication by including or excluding traffic.

aaa authentication match

Specifies the name of an access list, previously defined in an access-list command, that must be matched, and then provides authentication for that match.

aaa authentication secure-http-client

Provides a secure method for user authentication to the FWSM prior to allowing HTTP requests to traverse the FWSM.

aaa-server protocol

Configures group-related server attributes.

aaa-server host

Configures host-related attributes.


aaa authentication clear-conn

To force any active connections to close immediately after the user authentication times out or when you clear the authentication session with the clear uauth command, use the aaa authentication clear-conn command in global configuration mode. To disable this feature, use the no form of this command. Without this command, active connections are not terminated even though the user authentication session expired.

aaa authentication clear-conn  interface-name source_ip source_mask

no aaa authentication clear-conn  interface-name source_ip source_mask

Syntax Description

interface-name

Sets the interface name connected to the source IP address.

source_ip

Specifies the source IP address of the user for which you want to terminate connections.

source_mask

Specifies the source IP subnet mask.


Defaults

No default behavior or values.

Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Global configuration


Command History

Release
Modification

3.2(1)

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

To set the authentication timeout values, see the timeout uauth command.

When a connection is ended because of this command, system log message 109036 is generated.

Examples

The following example authenticates users on the inside interface from the 10.0.0.0/24 network when they access 192.168.2.0/24. These same user connections are terminated when their authentication times out.

hostname(config)# access-list mylist permit tcp 10.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.2.0 
255.255.255.0
hostname(config)# aaa authentication mylist inside radius1
hostname(config)# aaa authentication clear-conn inside 10.0.0.0 255.255.255.0

Related Commands

Command
Description

aaa authentication match

Enables authentication for traffic through the FWSM.

clear configure aaa

Removes AAA configuration.

clear uauth

Clears the authentication sessions.

show running-config aaa

Displays the AAA configuration.

timeout uauth

Sets the timeout for the authentication sessions.


aaa authentication console

To authenticate users who access the FWSM CLI over an SSH, HTTP (ASDM), or Telnet connection, or to authenticate users who access privileged EXEC mode using the enable command, use the aaa authentication console command in global configuration mode. To disable authentication, use the no form of this command.

aaa authentication {enable | telnet | ssh | http} console {LOCAL | server_group [LOCAL]}

no aaa authentication {enable | telnet | ssh | http} console {LOCAL | server_group [LOCAL]}

Syntax Description

enable

Authenticates users who access privileged EXEC mode when they use the enable command.

http

Authenticates ASDM users who access the FWSM over HTTPS. You only need to configure HTTPS authentication if you want to use a RADIUS or TACACS+ server. By default, ASDM uses the local database for authentication even if you do not configure this command.

LOCAL

Uses the local database for authentication. LOCAL is case sensitive. If the local database is empty, the following warning message appears:

Warning:local database is empty! Use 'username' command to define 
local users.

If the local database becomes empty when LOCAL is still present in the configuration, the following warning message appears:

Warning:Local user database is empty and there are still commands 
using 'LOCAL' for authentication.

server_group [LOCAL]

Specifies the AAA server group tag defined by the aaa-server command. You can use a RADIUS or TACACS+ server group.

If you use the LOCAL keyword in addition to the server_group, you can configure the FWSM to use the local database as a fallback method if the AAA server is unavailable. LOCAL is case sensitive. We recommend that you use the same username and password in the local database as the AAA server because the FWSM prompt does not give any indication which method is being used.

ssh

Authenticates users who access the FWSM using SSH.

telnet

Authenticates users who access the FWSM using Telnet. If you enter this command in the admin context in multiple context mode, then authentication also applies to sessions from the switch to the FWSM (which enters the system execution space). You cannot enter any AAA commands directly in the system execution space.


Defaults

By default, fallback to the local database is disabled.

If the aaa authentication telnet console command is not defined, you can gain access to the FWSM CLI with the FWSM login password (set with the password command). If you enter the aaa authentication telnet console command in the admin context in multiple context mode, then authentication also applies to sessions from the switch to the FWSM (which enters the system execution space). You cannot enter any AAA commands directly in the system execution space.

If a aaa authentication http console command is not defined, you can gain access to the FWSM (via ASDM) with no username and the FWSM enable password (set with the enable password command). If the aaa commands are defined, but the HTTP authentication requests a time out, which implies the AAA servers might be down or not available, you can gain access to the FWSM using the default administrator username and the enable password. By default, the enable password is not set.

If a aaa authentication ssh console command is not defined, you can gain access to the FWSM CLI with the username pix and with the FWSM enable password (set with the enable password command). By default, the enable password is blank. This behavior differs from when you log into the FWSM without AAA configured; in that case, you use the login password (set by the passwd command).

Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Global configuration


Command History

Release
Modification

1.1(1)

This command was introduced.

2.2(1)

This command was modified to support fallback to LOCAL.

3.2(1)

Support for Telnet authentication (sessioning from the switch to the FWSM) was added for the system execution space when you configure this command in the admin context.


Usage Guidelines

Before the FWSM can authenticate a Telnet or SSH user, you must first configure access to the FWSM using the telnet or ssh commands. These commands identify the IP addresses that are allowed to communicate with the FWSM. The exception is for access to the system in multiple context mode; a session from the switch to the FWSM is a Telnet session, but the telnet command is not required.

After you connect to the FWSM, you log in and access user EXEC mode.

If you do not enable any authentication for Telnet, you do not enter a username; you enter the login password (set with the password command). For SSH, you enter "pix" as the username, and enter the login password.

If you enable Telnet or SSH authentication according to this section, you enter the username and password as defined on the AAA server or local user database.

To enter privileged EXEC mode, enter the enable command or the login command (if you are using the local database only).

If you do not configure enable authentication, enter the system enable password when you enter the enable command (set by the enable password command). However, if you do not use enable authentication, after you enter the enable command, you are no longer logged in as a particular user. To maintain your username, use enable authentication.

If you configure enable authentication, the FWSM prompts you for your username and password.

For authentication using the local database, you can use the login command, which maintains the username but requires no configuration to turn on authentication.

By default, you can log in to ASDM with a blank username and the enable password set by the enable password command. However, if you enter a username and password at the login screen (instead of leaving the username blank), ASDM checks the local database for a match.

Although you can configure HTTP authentication using this command and specify the local database, that functionality is always enabled by default. You should only configure HTTP authentication if you want to use a RADIUS or TACACS+ server for authentication. The maximum username prompt for HTTP authentication is 30 characters. The maximum password length is 16 characters.

In multiple context mode, you cannot configure any AAA commands in the system configuration. However, if you configure Telnet authentication in the admin context, then authentication also applies to sessions from the switch to the FWSM (which enters the system execution space).

As the following table shows, the action of the prompts for authenticated access to the FWSM CLI differ, depending on the option you choose with the aaa authentication console command.

Option
Number of Login Attempts Allowed

enable

3 tries before access is denied

ssh

3 tries before access is denied

telnet

Continual until success

http

Continual until success


Examples

The following example shows use of the aaa authentication console command for a Telnet connection to a RADIUS server with the server tag "radius":

hostname(config)# aaa authentication telnet console radius

The following example identifies the server group "AuthIn" for enable authentication:

hostname(config)# aaa authentication enable console AuthIn

The following example shows use of the aaa authentication console command with fallback to the LOCAL user database if all the servers in the group "svrgrp1" fail:

hostname(config)# aaa-server svrgrp1 protocol tacacs
hostname(config)# aaa authentication ssh console svrgrp1 LOCAL

Related Commands

Command
Description

aaa authentication match

Enables user authentication.

aaa-server host

Specifies the AAA server to use for user authentication.

clear configure aaa

Clears the AAA configuration.

show running-config aaa

Displays the AAA configuration.


aaa authentication include, exclude

To enable authentication for connections through the FWSM, use the aaa authentication include command in global configuration mode. To exclude addresses from authentication, use the aaa authentication exclude command. To disable authentication, use the no form of this command.

aaa authentication {include | exclude} service  interface_name inside_ip inside_mask [outside_ip outside_mask] {server_tag | LOCAL}

no aaa authentication {include | exclude} service  interface_name inside_ip inside_mask [outside_ip outside_mask] server_tag

Syntax Description

exclude

Excludes the specified service and address from authentication if it was already specified by an include command.

include

Specifies the services and IP addresses that require authentication. Traffic that is not specified by an include statement is not processed.

inside_ip

Specifies the IP address on the higher security interface. This address might be the source or the destination address, depending on the interface to which you apply this command. If you apply the command to the lower security interface, then this address is the destination address. If you apply the command to the higher security interface, then this address is the source address. Use 0 to mean all hosts.

inside_mask

Specifies the network mask for the inside IP address. Use 0 if the IP address is 0. Use 255.255.255.255 for a host.

interface_name

Specifies the interface name from which users require authentication.

LOCAL

Specifies the local user database.

outside_ip

(Optional) Specifies the IP address on the lower security interface. This address might be the source or the destination address, depending on the interface to which you apply this command. If you apply the command to the lower security interface, then this address is the source address. If you apply the command to the higher security interface, then this address is the destination address. Use 0 to mean all hosts.

outside_mask

(Optional) Specifies the network mask for the outside IP address. Use 0 if the IP address is 0. Use 255.255.255.255 for a host.

server_tag

Specifies the AAA server group defined by the aaa-server command.

service

Specifies the services that require authentication. You can specify one of the following values:

any or tcp/0 (specifies all TCP traffic)

ftp

http

https

ip

ssh

telnet

tcp/port

udp/port

icmp/type

protocol[/port]

Although you can configure the FWSM to require authentication for network access to any protocol or service, users can authenticate directly with HTTP, HTTPS, Telnet, or FTP only. A user must first authenticate with one of these services before the FWSM allows other traffic requiring authentication. See "Usage Guidelines" for more information.


Defaults

No default behavior or values.

Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Global configuration


Command History

Release
Modification

1.1(1)

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

To enable authentication for traffic that is specified by an access list, use the aaa authentication match command. You cannot use the match command in the same configuration as the include and exclude commands. We suggest that you use the match command instead of the include and exclude commands; the include and exclude commands are not supported by ASDM.

You cannot use the aaa authentication include and exclude commands between same-security interfaces. For that scenario, you must use the aaa authentication match command.

TCP sessions might have their sequence numbers randomized even if you disable sequence randomization. This occurs when a AAA server proxies the TCP session to authenticate the user before permitting access.

For HTTP, when you need to use a separate username and password for the AAA server and for the destination web server, use the virtual http command.

One-Time Authentication

A user at a given IP address only needs to authenticate one time for all rules and types, until the authentication session expires. (See the timeout uauth command for timeout values.) For example, if you configure the FWSM to authenticate Telnet and FTP, and a user first successfully authenticates for Telnet, then as long as the authentication session exists, the user does not also have to authenticate for FTP.

For HTTP or HTTPS authentication, once authenticated, a user never has to reauthenticate, no matter how low the timeout uauth command is set, because the browser caches the string "Basic=Uuhjksdkfhk==" in every subsequent connection to that particular site. This can be cleared only when the user exits all instances of the web browser and restarts. Flushing the cache is of no use.

Applications Required to Receive an Authentication Challenge

Although you can configure the FWSM to require authentication for network access to any protocol or service, users can authenticate directly with HTTP, HTTPS, Telnet, or FTP only. A user must first authenticate with one of these services before the FWSM allows other traffic requiring authentication.

The authentication ports that the FWSM supports for AAA are fixed:

Port 21 for FTP

Port 23 for Telnet

Port 80 for HTTP

Port 443 for HTTPS

For Telnet and FTP, the FWSM generates an authentication prompt. After you authenticate correctly, the FWSM redirects you to your original destination. If the destination server also has its own authentication, you enter another username and password.

For HTTP, you log in using basic HTTP authentication supplied by the browser. For HTTPS, the FWSM generates custom login windows.


Note If you use HTTP authentication without using the aaa authentication secure-http-client command, the username and password are sent from the client to the FWSM in clear text. We recommend that you use the aaa authentication secure-http-client command whenever you enable HTTP authentication.


For FTP, a user has the option of entering the FWSM username followed by an at sign (@) and then the FTP username (name1@name2). For the password, the user enters the FWSM password followed by an at sign (@) and then the FTP password (password1@password2). For example, enter the following text.

name> jang@jgray
password> letmein@he110

This feature is useful when you have cascaded firewalls that require multiple logins. You can separate several names and passwords by multiple at signs (@).

The number of login attempts allowed differs between the supported protocols:

Protocol
Number of Login Attempts Allowed

FTP

Incorrect password causes the connection to be dropped immediately.

HTTP

HTTPS

Continual reprompting until successful login.

Telnet

4 tries before dropping the connection.


Static PAT and HTTP

For HTTP authentication, the FWSM checks real ports when static PAT is configured. If it detects traffic destined for real port 80, regardless of the mapped port, the FWSM intercepts the HTTP connection and enforces authentication.

For example, assume that outside TCP port 889 is translated to port 80 (www) and that any relevant access lists permit the traffic:

static (inside,outside) tcp 10.48.66.155 889 192.168.123.10 www netmask 255.255.255.255

Then when users try to access 10.48.66.155 on port 889, the FWSM intercepts the traffic and enforces HTTP authentication. Users see the HTTP authentication page in their web browsers before the FWSM allows HTTP connection to complete.

If the local port is different than port 80, as in the following example:

static (inside,outside) tcp 10.48.66.155 889 192.168.123.10 111 netmask 255.255.255.255

Then users do not see the authentication page. Instead, the FWSM sends to the web browser an error message indicating that the user must be authenticated prior using the requested service.

Authenticating Directly with the FWSM

If you do not want to allow HTTP(S), Telnet, or FTP through the FWSM but want to authenticate other types of traffic, you can configure virtual Telnet or virtual SSH. With virtual Telnet or SSH, the user connects using Telnet or SSH to a given IP address configured on the FWSM, and the FWSM provides a prompt. See the virtual telnet and virtual ssh commands.

Examples

The following example includes for authentication TCP traffic on the outside interface, with an inside IP address of 192.168.0.0 and a netmask of 255.255.0.0, with an outside IP address of all hosts, and using a server named "tacacs+". The second command line excludes Telnet traffic on the outside interface with a local address of 192.168.38.0, with a remote/foreign IP address of all hosts:

hostname(config)# aaa authentication include tcp outside 192.168.0.0 255.255.0.0 0.0.0.0 
0.0.0.0 tacacs+
hostname(config)# aaa authentication exclude telnet outside 192.168.38.0 255.255.255.0 
0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 tacacs+

Example 2:

The following examples demonstrate ways to use the interface-name parameter. The FWSM has an inside network of 192.168.1.0, an outside network of 209.165.201.0 (subnet mask 255.255.255.224), and a perimeter network of 209.165.202.128 (subnet mask 255.255.255.224).

This example enables authentication for connections originated from the inside network to the outside network:

hostname(config)# aaa authentication include tcp inside 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 
209.165.201.0 255.255.255.224 tacacs+ 

Example 3:

This example enables authentication for connections originated from the inside network to the perimeter network:

hostname(config)#aaa authentication include tcp inside 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 
209.165.202.128 255.255.255.224 tacacs+

Example 4:

This example enables authentication for connections originated from the outside network to the inside network:

hostname(config)# aaa authentication include tcp outside 209.165.201.0 255.255.255.224 
192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 tacacs+

Example 5:

This example enables authentication for connections originated from the outside network to the perimeter network:

hostname(config)# aaa authentication include tcp outside 209.165.201.0 255.255.255.224 
209.165.202.128 255.255.255.224 tacacs+

Example 6:

This example enables authentication for connections originated from the perimeter network to the outside network:

hostname(config)#aaa authentication include tcp inside 209.165.202.128 255.255.255.224 
209.165.201.0 255.255.255.224 tacacs+

Example 7:

This example specifies that IP addresses 10.0.0.1 through 10.0.0.254 must be authenticated by the FWSM when establishing connections through the outside interface. In this example, the first aaa authentication command requires authentication of all FTP, HTTP, and Telnet sessions. The second aaa authentication command lets host 10.0.0.42 start outbound connections without being authenticated. This example uses a server group named tacacs+.

hostname(config)# nat (inside) 1 10.0.0.0 255.255.255.0
hostname(config)# aaa authentication include tcp inside 0 0 tacacs+
hostname(config)# aaa authentication exclude tcp inside 10.0.0.42 255.255.255.255 tacacs+

Example 8:

This example permits inbound access to a TCP IP address in the range of 209.165.201.1 through 209.165.201.30 indicated by the 209.165.201.0 network address (subnet mask 255.255.255.224). All services are permitted by the access-list command, and the aaa authentication command requires authentication on HTTP. The authentication server is at IP address 10.16.1.20 on the inside interface.

hostname(config)# aaa-server AuthIn protocol tacacs+
hostname(config)# aaa-server AuthIn (inside) host 10.16.1.20 thisisakey timeout 20
hostname(config)# access-list acl-out permit tcp 10.16.1.0 255.255.255.0 209.165.201.0 
255.255.255.224
hostname(config)# access-group acl-out in interface outside
hostname(config)# aaa authentication include http inside 0 0 0 0 AuthIn

Related Commands

Command
Description

aaa authentication console

Enables or disables authentication on entry to privileged mode or requires authentication verification to access the FWSM via the specified type of connection.

aaa authentication match

Specifies the name of an access list, previously defined in an access-list command, that must be matched, and then provides authentication for that match.

aaa authentication secure-http-client

Provides a secure method for user authentication to the FWSM prior to allowing HTTP requests to traverse the FWSM.

aaa-server protocol

Configures group-related server attributes.

aaa-server host

Configures host-related attributes.


aaa authentication match

To enable authentication for connections through the FWSM, use the aaa authentication match command in global configuration mode. To disable authentication, use the no form of this command.

aaa authentication match acl_name  interface_name {server_tag | LOCAL}

no aaa authentication match acl_name  interface_name {server_tag | LOCAL}

Syntax Description

acl_name

Specifies an extended access list name.

interface_name

Specifies the interface name from which to authenticate users.

LOCAL

Specifies the local user database.

server_tag

Specifies the AAA server group tag defined by the aaa-server command.


Defaults

No default behavior or values.

Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Global configuration


Command History

Release
Modification

1.1(1)

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

You cannot use the aaa authentication match command in the same configuration as the include and exclude commands. We suggest that you use the match command instead of the include and exclude commands; the include and exclude commands are not supported by ASDM.

TCP sessions might have their sequence numbers randomized even if you disable sequence randomization. This occurs when a AAA server proxies the TCP session to authenticate the user before permitting access.

For HTTP, when you need to use a separate username and password for the AAA server and for the destination web server, use the virtual http command.

One-Time Authentication

A user at a given IP address only needs to authenticate one time for all rules and types, until the authentication session expires. (See the timeout uauth command for timeout values.) For example, if you configure the FWSM to authenticate Telnet and FTP, and a user first successfully authenticates for Telnet, then as long as the authentication session exists, the user does not also have to authenticate for FTP.

For HTTP or HTTPS authentication, once authenticated, a user never has to reauthenticate, no matter how low the timeout uauth command is set, because the browser caches the string "Basic=Uuhjksdkfhk==" in every subsequent connection to that particular site. This can be cleared only when the user exits all instances of the web browser and restarts. Flushing the cache is of no use.

Applications Required to Receive an Authentication Challenge

Although you can configure the FWSM to require authentication for network access to any protocol or service, users can authenticate directly with HTTP, HTTPS, Telnet, or FTP only. A user must first authenticate with one of these services before the FWSM allows other traffic requiring authentication.

The authentication ports that the FWSM supports for AAA are fixed:

Port 21 for FTP

Port 23 for Telnet

Port 80 for HTTP

Port 443 for HTTPS

For Telnet and FTP, the FWSM generates an authentication prompt. After you authenticate correctly, the FWSM redirects you to your original destination. If the destination server also has its own authentication, you enter another username and password.

For HTTP, you log in using basic HTTP authentication supplied by the browser. For HTTPS, the FWSM generates custom login windows.


Note If you use HTTP authentication without using the aaa authentication secure-http-client command, the username and password are sent from the client to the FWSM in clear text. We recommend that you use the aaa authentication secure-http-client command whenever you enable HTTP authentication.


For FTP, a user has the option of entering the FWSM username followed by an at sign (@) and then the FTP username (name1@name2). For the password, the user enters the FWSM password followed by an at sign (@) and then the FTP password (password1@password2). For example, enter the following text.

name> jang@jgray
password> letmein@he110

This feature is useful when you have cascaded firewalls that require multiple logins. You can separate several names and passwords by multiple at signs (@).

The number of login attempts allowed differs between the supported protocols:

Protocol
Number of Login Attempts Allowed

FTP

Incorrect password causes the connection to be dropped immediately.

HTTP

HTTPS

Continual reprompting until successful login.

Telnet

4 tries before dropping the connection.


Static PAT and HTTP

For HTTP authentication, the FWSM checks real ports when static PAT is configured. If it detects traffic destined for real port 80, regardless of the mapped port, the FWSM intercepts the HTTP connection and enforces authentication.

For example, assume that outside TCP port 889 is translated to port 80 (www) and that any relevant access lists permit the traffic:

static (inside,outside) tcp 10.48.66.155 889 192.168.123.10 www netmask 255.255.255.255

Then when users try to access 10.48.66.155 on port 889, the FWSM intercepts the traffic and enforces HTTP authentication. Users see the HTTP authentication page in their web browsers before the FWSM allows HTTP connection to complete.

If the local port is different than port 80, as in the following example:

static (inside,outside) tcp 10.48.66.155 889 192.168.123.10 111 netmask 255.255.255.255

Then users do not see the authentication page. Instead, the FWSM sends to the web browser an error message indicating that the user must be authenticated prior using the requested service.

Authenticating Directly with the FWSM

If you do not want to allow HTTP(S), Telnet, or FTP through the FWSM but want to authenticate other types of traffic, you can configure virtual Telnet or virtual SSH. With virtual Telnet or SSH, the user connects using Telnet or SSH to a given IP address configured on the FWSM, and the FWSM provides a prompt. See the virtual telnet and virtual ssh commands.

Examples

The following set of examples illustrates how to use the aaa authentication match command:

hostname(config)# show access-list 
access-list mylist permit tcp 10.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.2.0 255.255.255.0 (hitcnt=0) 
access-list yourlist permit tcp any any (hitcnt=0)

hostname(config)# show running-config aaa 
aaa authentication match mylist outbound TACACS+ 

In this context, the following command:

hostname(config)# aaa authentication match yourlist outbound tacacs

is equivalent to this command:

hostname(config)# aaa authentication include TCP/0 outbound 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 
0.0.0.0 tacacs

The aaa command statement list is order-dependent between access-list command statements. If you enter the following command:

hostname(config)# aaa authentication match mylist outbound TACACS+

before this command:

hostname(config)# aaa authentication match yourlist outbound tacacs

the FWSM tries to find a match in the mylist access-list command statement group before it tries to find a match in the yourlist access-list command statement group.

Related Commands

Command
Description

aaa authorization

Enables or disable LOCAL or TACACS+ user authorization services.

access-list extended

Creates an access list or use a downloadable access list.

clear configure aaa

Removes/resets the configured AAA accounting values.

show running-config aaa

Display the AAA configuration.


aaa authentication secure-http-client

To enable SSL and secure username and password exchange between HTTP clients and the FWSM, use the aaa authentication secure-http-client command in global configuration mode. To disable this function, use the no form of this command. The aaa authentication secure-http-client command offers a secure method for user authentication to the FWSM prior to allowing user HTTP-based web requests to traverse the FWSM.

aaa authentication secure-http-client

no aaa authentication secure-http-client

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Defaults

No default behavior or values.

Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Global configuration


Command History

Release
Modification

2.3(1)

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

The aaa authentication secure-http-client command secures HTTP client authentication (through SSL). This command is used for HTTP cut-through proxy authentication.

The aaa authentication secure-http-client command has the following limitations:

A maximum of 128 concurrent HTTPS authentication processes is allowed. If all 128 HTTPS authentication processes are running, any new HTTPS connections requiring authentication are not allowed.

When uauth timeout 0 is configured (the uauth timeout is set to 0), HTTPS authentication might not work. If a browser initiates multiple TCP connections to load a web page after HTTPS authentication, the first connection is let through, but the subsequent connections trigger authentication. As a result, users are continuously presented with an authentication page, even if the correct username and password are entered each time. To work around this, set the uauth timeout to 1 second with the timeout uauth 0:0:1 command. However, this workaround opens a 1-second window of opportunity that might allow non-authenticated users to go through the firewall if they are coming from the same source IP address.

Because HTTPS authentication occurs on the SSL port 443, users must not configure an access-list command statement to block traffic from the HTTP client to HTTP server on port 443. Furthermore, if static PAT is configured for web traffic on port 80, it must also be configured for the SSL port. In the following example, the first line configures static PAT for web traffic and the second line must be added to support the HTTPS authentication configuration:

static (inside,outside) tcp 10.132.16.200 www 10.130.16.10 www
static (inside,outside) tcp 10.132.16.200 443 10.130.16.10 443

HTTP users see a pop-up window generated by the browser itself if aaa authentication secure-http-client is not configured. If aaa authentication secure-http-client is configured, a form loads in the browser to collect username and password. In either case, if a user enters an incorrect password, the user is reprompted. When the web server and the authentication server are on different hosts, use the virtual command to get the correct authentication behavior.

Examples

The following example configures HTTP traffic to be securely authenticated:

hostname(config)# aaa authentication secure-http-client
hostname(config)# aaa authentication include http...

where "..." represents your values for authen_service  if_name local_ip local_mask [foreign_ip foreign_mask] server_tag.

The following command configures HTTPS traffic to be securely authenticated:

hostname (config)# aaa authentication include https...

where "..." represents your values for authentication -service  interface-name local-ip local-mask [foreign-ip foreign-mask] server-tag.


Note The aaa authentication secure-https-client command is not needed for HTTPS traffic.


Related Commands

Command
Description

aaa authentication

Enables user authentication.

virtual telnet

Accesses the FWSM virtual server.


aaa authorization command

The aaa authorization command command specifies whether command execution at the CLI is subject to authorization. To enable command authorization, use the aaa authorization command command in global configuration mode. To disable command authorization, use the no form of this command.

aaa authorization command {LOCAL | server_tag [LOCAL]}

no aaa authorization command {LOCAL | server_tag [LOCAL]}

Syntax Description

LOCAL

Specifies the use of the FWSM local user database for local command authorization (using privilege levels). If LOCAL is specified after a TACACS+ server group tag, the local user database is used for command authorization only as a fallback when the TACACS+ server group is unavailable.

server_tag

Specifies a predefined server group tag for the TACACS+ authorization server. The AAA server group tag as defined by the aaa-server command.


Defaults

Fallback to the local database for authorization is disabled by default.

Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Global configuration


Command History

Release
Modification

1.1(1)

This command was introduced.

2.2(1)

Support added for fallback to LOCAL authorization when a TACACS+ server group is temporarily unavailable.


Usage Guidelines

You can use one of two command authorization methods:

Local database—Configure the command privilege levels on the FWSM using the privilege command. When a local user authenticates with the enable command (or logs in with the login command), the FWSM places that user in the privilege level that is defined by the local database. The user can then access commands at the user privilege level and below.

You can use local command authorization without any users in the local database and without CLI or enable authentication. To do so, when you enter the enable command, use the system enable password, and the FWSM places you in level 15 as the default "enable_15" username. You can create enable passwords for every level, so that when you enter enable n (2 to 15), the FWSM places you in level n. These levels are not used unless you turn on local command authorization.

TACACS+ server—On the TACACS+ server, configure the commands that a user or group can use after they authenticate for CLI access. Every command that a user enters at the CLI is checked with the TACACS+ server.

Security Contexts and Command Authorization

The following are important points to consider when implementing command authorization with multiple security contexts:

AAA settings are discrete per context, not shared between contexts.

When configuring command authorization, you must configure each security context separately. This provides you the opportunity to enforce different command authorizations for different security contexts.

When switching between security contexts, administrators should be aware that the commands permitted for the username specified when they login may be different in the new context session or that command authorization may not be configured at all in the new context. Failure to understand that command authorizations may differ between security contexts could confuse an administrator. This behavior is further complicated by the next point.

New context sessions started with the changeto command always use the default "enable_15" username as the administrator identity, regardless of what username was used in the previous context session. This behavior can lead to confusion if command authorization is not configured for the enable_15 user or if authorizations are different for the enable_15 user than for the user in the previous context session.

This behavior also affects command accounting, which is useful only if you can accurately associate each command that is issued with a particular administrator. Because all administrators with permission to use the changeto command can use the enable_15 username in other contexts, command accounting records may not readily identify who was logged in as the enable_15 username. If you use different accounting servers for each context, tracking who was using the enable_15 username requires correlating the data from several servers.

When configuring command authorization, consider the following:

An administrator with permission to use the changeto command effectively has permission to use all commands permitted to the enable_15 user in each of the other contexts.

If you intend to authorize commands differently per context, ensure that in each context the enable_15 username is denied use of commands that are also denied to administrators who are permitted use of the changeto command.

When switching between security contexts, administrators can exit privileged EXEC mode and enter the enable command again to use the username they need.


Note The system execution space does not support AAA commands; therefore, command authorization is not available in the system execution space.


TACACS+ Command Authorization

If you enable TACACS+ command authorization, and a user enters a command at the CLI, the FWSM sends the command and username to the TACACS+ server to determine if the command is authorized.

When configuring command authorization with a TACACS+ server, do not save your configuration until you are sure it works the way you want. If you get locked out because of a mistake, you can usually recover access by restarting the FWSM.

Be sure that your TACACS+ system is completely stable and reliable. The necessary level of reliability typically requires that you have a fully redundant TACACS+ server system and fully redundant connectivity to the FWSM. For example, in your TACACS+ server pool, include one server connected to interface 1, and another to interface 2. You can also configure local command authorization as a fallback method if the TACACS+ server is unavailable. In this case, you need to configure local users and command privilege levels.

Examples

The following example shows how to enable command authorization using a TACACS+ server group named tplus1:

hostname(config)# aaa authorization command tplus1

The following example shows how to configure administrative authorization to support fallback to the local user database if all servers in the tplus1 server group are unavailable.

hostname(config)# aaa authorization command tplus1 LOCAL

Related Commands

Command
Description

aaa authorization

Enables or disables user authorization.

aaa-server host

Configures host-related attributes.

aaa-server

Configures group-related server attributes.

clear configure aaa

Removes/resets the configured AAA accounting values.

show running-config aaa

Displays the AAA configuration.


aaa authorization include, exclude

To enable authorization for connections through the FWSM, use the aaa authorization include command in global configuration mode. To exclude addresses from authorization, use the aaa authorization exclude command. To disable authorization, use the no form of this command.

aaa authorization {include | exclude} service  interface_name inside_ip inside_mask [outside_ip outside_mask] server_tag

no aaa authorization {include | exclude} service  interface_name inside_ip inside_mask [outside_ip outside_mask] server_tag

Syntax Description

exclude

Excludes the specified service and address from authorization if it was already specified by an include command.

include

Specifies the services and IP addresses that require authorization. Traffic that is not specified by an include statement is not processed.

inside_ip

Specifies the IP address on the higher security interface. This address might be the source or the destination address, depending on the interface to which you apply this command. If you apply the command to the lower security interface, then this address is the destination address. If you apply the command to the higher security interface, then this address is the source address. Use 0 to mean all hosts.

inside_mask

Specifies the network mask for the inside IP address. Use 0 if the IP address is 0. Use 255.255.255.255 for a host.

interface_name

Specifies the interface name from which users require authorization.

outside_ip

(Optional) Specifies the IP address on the lower security interface. This address might be the source or the destination address, depending on the interface to which you apply this command. If you apply the command to the lower security interface, then this address is the source address. If you apply the command to the higher security interface, then this address is the destination address. Use 0 to mean all hosts.

outside_mask

(Optional) Specifies the network mask for the outside IP address. Use 0 if the IP address is 0. Use 255.255.255.255 for a host.

server_tag

Specifies the AAA server group defined by the aaa-server command.

service

Specifies the services that require authorization. You can specify one of the following values:

any or tcp/0 (specifies all TCP traffic)

ftp

http

https

ip

ssh

telnet

tcp/port[-port]

udp/port[-port]

icmp/type

protocol[/port[-port]]


Defaults

An IP address of 0 means "all hosts." Setting the local IP address to 0 lets the authorization server decide which hosts are authorized.

Fallback to the local database for authorization is disabled by default.

Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Global configuration


Command History

Release
Modification

1.1(1)

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

To enable authorization for traffic that is specified by an access list, use the aaa authorization match command. You cannot use the match command in the same configuration as the include and exclude commands. We suggest that you use the match command instead of the include and exclude commands; the include and exclude commands are not supported by ASDM.

You cannot use the aaa authorization include and exclude commands between same-security interfaces. For that scenario, you must use the aaa authorization match command.

You can configure the FWSM to perform network access authorization with TACACS+. Authentication and authorization statements are independent; however, any unauthenticated traffic matched by an authorization statement will be denied. For authorization to succeed, a user must first authenticate with the FWSM. Because a user at a given IP address only needs to authenticate one time for all rules and types, if the authentication session has not expired, authorization can occur even if the traffic is matched by an authentication statement.

After a user authenticates, the FWSM checks the authorization rules for matching traffic. If the traffic matches the authorization statement, the FWSM sends the username to the TACACS+ server. The TACACS+ server responds to the FWSM with a permit or a deny for that traffic, based on the user profile. The FWSM enforces the authorization rule in the response.

See the documentation for your TACACS+ server for information about configuring network access authorizations for a user.

For each IP address, one aaa authorization include command is permitted.

If the first attempt at authorization fails and a second attempt causes a timeout, use the service resetinbound command to reset the client that failed the authorization so that it will not retransmit any connections. An example authorization timeout message in Telnet follows.

Unable to connect to remote host: Connection timed out


Note Specifying a port range might produce unexpected results at the authorization server. The FWSM sends the port range to the server as a string, with the expectation that the server will parse it out into specific ports. Not all servers do this. In addition, you might want users to be authorized on specific services, which does not occur if a range is accepted.


Examples

The following example uses the TACACS+ protocol:

hostname(config)# aaa-server tplus1 protocol tacacs+
hostname(config)# aaa-server tplus1 (inside) host 10.1.1.10 thekey timeout 20
hostname(config)# aaa authentication include any inside 0 0 0 0 tplus1
hostname(config)# aaa authorization include any inside 0 0 0 0
hostname(config)# aaa accounting include any inside 0 0 0 0 tplus1
hostname(config)# aaa authentication ssh console tplus1

In this example, the first command statement creates a server group named tplus1 and specifies the TACACS+ protocol for use with this group. The second command specifies that the authentication server with the IP address 10.1.1.10 resides on the inside interface and is in the tplus1 server group. The next three command statements specify that any users starting connections through the outside interface to any foreign host will be authenticated using the tplus1 server group, that the users who are successfully authenticated are authorized to use any service, and that all outbound connection information will be logged in the accounting database. The last command statement specifies that SSH access to the FWSM console requires authentication from the tplus1 server group.

The following example enables authorization for DNS lookups from the outside interface:

hostname(config)# aaa authorization include udp/53 outside 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0

The following example enables authorization of ICMP echo-reply packets arriving at the inside interface from inside hosts:

hostname(config)# aaa authorization include 1/0 inside 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0

This means that users cannot ping external hosts if they have not been authenticated using Telnet, HTTP, or FTP.

The following example enables authorization only for ICMP echoes (pings) that arrive at the inside interface from an inside host:

hostname(config)# aaa authorization include 1/8 inside 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0

Related Commands

Command
Description

aaa authorization command

Specifies whether command execution is subject to authorization, or configure administrative authorization to support fallback to the local user database if all servers in the specified server group are disabled.

aaa authorization match

Enables or disables the LOCAL or TACACS+ user authorization services for a specific access-list command name.

clear configure aaa

Removes/resets the configured AAA accounting values.

show running-config aaa

Display the AAA configuration.


aaa authorization match

To enable authorization for connections through the FWSM, use the aaa authorization match command in global configuration mode. To disable authorization, use the no form of this command.

aaa authorization match acl_name  interface_name server_tag

no aaa authorization match acl_name  interface_name server_tag

Syntax Description

acl_name

Specifies an extended access list name. See the access-list extended command. The permit ACEs mark matching traffic for authorization, while deny entries exclude matching traffic from authorization.

interface_name

Specifies the interface name from which users require authentication.

server_tag

Specifies the AAA server group tag as defined by the aaa-server command.


Defaults

No default behavior or values.

Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Global configuration


Command History

Release
Modification

1.1(1)

This command was introduced.

3.1(1)

This command was modified to support RADIUS servers for VPN management connection authorization.


Usage Guidelines

You cannot use the aaa authorization match command in the same configuration as the include and exclude commands. We suggest that you use the match command instead of the include and exclude commands; the include and exclude commands are not supported by ASDM.

You can configure the FWSM to perform network access authorization with TACACS+. RADIUS authorization with the aaa authorization match command only supports authorization of VPN management connections to the FWSM.

After a user authenticates, the FWSM checks the authorization rules for matching traffic. If the traffic matches the authorization statement, the FWSM sends the username to the TACACS+ server. The TACACS+ server responds to the FWSM with information that the FWSM treats as a dynamic access list for that traffic, based on the user profile. Note that for interface access lists, the access-list per-user-override keyword applies for authorized traffic.

Authentication and authorization statements are independent; however, any unauthenticated traffic matched by an authorization statement will be denied. For authorization to succeed, a user must first authenticate with the FWSM.


Note We suggest that you identify the same traffic for authentication as for authorization. Due to the way the FWSM uses the dynamic access list, if you have a more restrictive authorization statement than authentication, then some connections are unexpectedly denied. When a user first authenticates, if the connection matches the authentication statement and not the authorization statement, then later connections for that user that match the authorization statement are denied (for as long as the uauth session exists). Conversely, if the first connection matches the authorization statement, then later connections that do not match the authorization statement but that match the authentication statement are denied. Therefore, you need to match the authentication and authorization configurations.


See the documentation for your TACACS+ server for information about configuring network access authorizations for a user.

If the first attempt at authorization fails and a second attempt causes a timeout, use the service resetinbound command to reset the client that failed the authorization so that it will not retransmit any connections. An example authorization timeout message in Telnet follows.

Unable to connect to remote host: Connection timed out


Note Specifying a port range might produce unexpected results at the authorization server. The FWSM sends the port range to the server as a string, with the expectation that the server will parse it out into specific ports. Not all servers do this. In addition, you might want users to be authorized on specific services, which does not occur if a range is accepted.


Examples

The following example uses the tplus1 server group with the aaa commands:

hostname(config)# access-list myacl extended permit ip any any
hostname(config)# aaa-server tplus1 protocol tacacs+
hostname(config)# aaa-server tplus1 (inside) host 10.1.1.10 thekey timeout 20
hostname(config)# aaa authentication match myacl inside tplus1
hostname(config)# aaa accounting match myacl inside tplus1
hostname(config)# aaa authorization match myacl inside tplus1

In this example, the first command statement defines the tplus1 server group as a TACACS+ group. The second command specifies that the authentication server with the IP address 10.1.1.10 resides on the inside interface and is in the tplus1 server group. The next three command statements specify that any connections traversing the inside interface to any foreign host are authenticated using the tplus1 server group, that all these connections are logged in the accounting database, and that they are authorized by the AAA servers in the tplus1 server group.

Related Commands

Command
Description

aaa authorization

Enables or disables user authorization.

clear configure aaa

Resets all aaa configuration parameters to the default values.

clear uauth

Deletes AAA authorization and authentication caches for one user or all users, which forces users to reauthenticate the next time that they create a connection.

show running-config aaa

Displays the AAA configuration.

show uauth

Displays the username provided to the authorization server for authentication and authorization purposes, the IP address to which the username is bound, and whether the user is only authenticated or has cached services.


aaa local authentication attempts max-fail

To limit the number of consecutive failed local login attempts that the FWSM allows any given user account, use the aaa local authentication attempts max-fail command in global configuration mode. This command only affects authentication with the local user database. To disable this feature and allow an unlimited number of consecutive failed local login attempts, use the no form of this command.

aaa local authentication attempts max-fail number

Syntax Description

number

The maximum number of times a user can enter a wrong password before being locked out. This number can be in the range 1-16.


Defaults

No default behavior or values.

Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Global configuration


Command History

Release
Modification

3.1(1)

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

If you omit this command, there is no limit on the number of times a user can enter an incorrect password when the local database is used for authentication.

After a user makes the configured number of attempts with the wrong password, the user is locked out and cannot log in successfully until an administrator unlocks the username. Locking or unlocking a username results in a syslog message.

The administrator cannot be locked out of the device.

The number of failed attempts resets to zero and the lockout status resets to No when the user successfully authenticates or when the FWSM reboots.

Examples

The following example shows use of the aaa local authentication attempts max-limits command to set the maximum number of failed attempts allowed to 2:

hostname(config)# aaa local authentication attempts max-limits 2
hostname(config)#

Related Commands

Command
Description

clear aaa local user lockout

Clears the lockout status of the specified users and set their failed-attempts counter to 0.

clear aaa local user fail-attempts

Resets the number of failed user authentication attempts to zero without modifying the locked-out status of the user.

show aaa local user

Shows the list of usernames that are currently locked.


aaa mac-exempt

To exempt MAC addresses from authentication and authorization (for through traffic only), use the aaa mac-exempt command in global configuration mode. You can only add one aaa mac-exempt command. To disable MAC exemption, use the no form of this command.

aaa mac-exempt match id

no aaa mac-exempt match id

Syntax Description

id

Specifies a MAC list number configured with the mac-list command.


Defaults

No default behaviors or values.

Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Global configuration


Command History

Release
Modification

3.1(1)

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

The FWSM can exempt from authentication and authorization any through traffic from specific MAC addresses. For example, if the FWSM authenticates TCP traffic originating on a particular network but you want to allow unauthenticated TCP connections from a specific server, you would use a MAC exempt rule to exempt from authentication and authorization any traffic from the server specified by the rule.

This feature is particularly useful to exempt devices such as IP phones that cannot respond to authentication prompts.

This command exempts the list of MAC addresses for through-the-box connections only. For commands like Telnet to the FWSM, the authentication or authorization is not exempted even if the MAC address of the device is in the MAC list used by the aaa mac-exempt command.

Configure the MAC addresses you want to exempt using the mac-list command before using the aaa mac-exempt command. permit entries in the MAC list exempt the MAC addresses from authentication and authorization, while deny entries require authentication and authorization for the MAC address, if enabled. Because you can only add one instance of the aaa mac-exempt command, be sure that your MAC list includes all the MAC addresses you want to exempt.

Examples

The following example bypasses authentication for a single MAC address:

hostname(config)# mac-list abc permit 00a0.c95d.0282 ffff.ffff.ffff
hostname(config)# aaa mac-exempt match abc

The following entry bypasses authentication for all Cisco IP Phones, which have the hardware ID 0003.E3:

hostname(config)# mac-list acd permit 0003.E300.0000 FFFF.FF00.0000
hostname(config)# aaa mac-exempt match acd

The following example bypasses authentication for a a group of MAC addresses except for 00a0.c95d.02b2:

hostname(config)# mac-list 1 deny 00a0.c95d.0282 ffff.ffff.ffff
hostname(config)# mac-list 1 permit 00a0.c95d.0000 ffff.ffff.0000
hostname(config)# aaa mac-exempt match 1

Related Commands

Command
Description

aaa authentication

Enables user authentication.

aaa authorization

Enables user authorization services.

aaa mac-exempt

Exempts a list of MAC addresses from authentication and authorization.

show running-config mac-list

Displays a list of MAC addresses previously specified in the mac-list command.

mac-list

Specifies a list of MAC addresses to be used to exempt MAC addresses from authentication and/or authorization.


aaa proxy-limit

To set the maximum number of concurrent proxy connections allowed per user, use the aaa proxy-limit command in global configuration mode. To disable proxies, use the disable parameter. To return to the default proxy-limit value of 16 concurrent proxy connections per user, use the no form of this command.

aaa proxy-limit proxy_limit

aaa proxy-limit disable

no aaa proxy-limit

Syntax Description

disable

No proxies allowed.

proxy_limit

Specify the number of concurrent proxy connections allowed per user, from 1 to 128.


Defaults

The default proxy-limit value is 16.

Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Global configuration


Command History

Release
Modification

1.1(1)

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

If a source address is a proxy server, consider excluding this IP address from authentication or increasing the number of allowable outstanding AAA requests.

Examples

The following example shows how to set the maximum number of outstanding authentication requests allowed per user:

hostname(config)# aaa proxy-limit 6

Related Commands

Command
Description

aaa authentication

Enables, disables, or views LOCAL, TACACS+, or RADIUS user authentication, on a server designated by the aaa-server command, or ASDM user authentication.

aaa authorization

Enables or disables user authorization services.

aaa-server host

Specifies a AAA server.

clear configure aaa

Removes/resets the configured AAA accounting values.

show running-config aaa

Displays the AAA configuration.


aaa-server host

To configure or add a AAA server to a AAA server group or to configure AAA server parameters that are host-specific, use the aaa-server host command in global configuration mode. When you use the aaa-server host command, you enter aaa-server host configuration mode, from which you can specify and manage host-specific AAA server connection data. To remove a host configuration, use the no form of this command:

aaa-server server_tag [(interface_name)] host server_ip [key] [timeout seconds]

no aaa-server server_tag [(interface_name)] host server_ip [key] [timeout seconds]

Syntax Description

(interface_name)

The network interface where the authentication server resides. The parentheses are required in this parameter. If you do not enter an interface, the interface named "inside" is used. If you do not have an interface named "inside," then an error message displays, and you need to specify this argument.

key

(Optional) Specifies a case-sensitive, alphanumeric keyword of up to 127 characters that is the same value as the key on the AAA server. Any characters entered past 127 are ignored. The key is used between the FWSM and the server for encrypting data between them. the key must be the same on both the FWSM and server systems. Spaces are not permitted in the key, but other special characters are allowed. You can add or modify the key using the key command in aaa-server host configuration mode.

server_ip

Specifies the IP address of the AAA server.

server_tag

Specifies the name of the AAA server group as defined by the aaa-server command. Each server group is specific to one type of server: Kerberos, LDAP, NT, RADIUS, SDI, or TACACS+.

timeout seconds

(Optional) Specifies the timeout interval for the request. This is the time after which the FWSM gives up on the request to the primary AAA server. If there is a standby AAA server, the FWSM sends the request to the backup server. You can modify the timeout interval using the timeout command in host mode.


Defaults

The default timeout value is 10 seconds.

Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Global configuration


Command History

Release
Modification

1.1(1)

This command was introduced.

3.1(1)

The aaa-server command is now two separate commands: the aaa-server command adds the group and specifies the protocol while the aaa-server host command adds a server IP address to the group.


Usage Guidelines

You can have up to 15 AAA server groups in single mode or 4 AAA server groups per context in multiple mode. Each group can have up to 16 servers in single mode or 4 servers in multiple mode.

When a user logs in, the servers are accessed one at a time starting with the first server you specify in the configuration, until a server responds.

If accounting is in effect, the accounting information goes only to the active server, unless you specify simultaneous accounting in the aaa-server protocol command.

Examples

The following example configures an SDI AAA server group named "svrgrp1" on host "209.165.200.225", sets the timeout interval to 6 seconds, sets the retry interval to 7 seconds, and configures the SDI version to version 5.

hostname(config)# aaa-server svrgrp1 protocol sdi
hostname(config-aaa-server-group)# aaa-server svrgrp1 host 209.165.200.225
hostname(config-aaa-server-host)# timeout 6
hostname(config-aaa-server-host)# retry 7
hostname(config-aaa-server-host)# sdi-version sdi-5
hostname(config-aaa-server-host)# exit
hostname(config)#

Related Commands

Command
Description

aaa-server protocol

Configures group-specific AAA server parameters.

clear configure aaa-server

Removes all AAA-server configuration.

show running-config aaa-server

Displays AAA server statistics for all AAA servers, for a particular server group, for a particular server within a particular group, or for a particular protocol.


aaa-server

To create a AAA server group and define parameters that are group-specific and common to all hosts, use the aaa-server command in global configuration mode. To remove the designated group, use the no form of this command.

aaa-server server_tag protocol {kerberos | ldap | nt | radius | sdi | tacacs+}

no aaa-server server_tag protocol server-protocol

Syntax Description

kerberos

Specifies the Kerberos server type.

ldap

Specifies the LDAP server type.

nt

Specifies the Windows NT server type.

radius

Specifies the RADIUS server type.

sdi

Specifies the SDI server type.

server_tag

Specifies the name of the server group. Other AAA commands make reference to the server_tag group.

tacacs+

Specifies the TACACS+ server type.


Defaults

No default behavior or values.

Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Global configuration


Command History

Release
Modification

1.1(1)

This command was introduced.

3.1(1)

Additional server types were added to RADIUS and TACACS+. The aaa-server command is now two separate commands: the aaa-server command adds the group and specifies the protocol while the aaa-server host command adds a server IP address to the group.


Usage Guidelines

Use the aaa-server host command to add a AAA server to the AAA server group.

You can have up to 15 AAA server groups in single mode or 4 AAA server groups per context in multiple mode. Each group can have up to 16 servers in single mode or 4 servers in multiple mode.

When a user logs in, the servers are accessed one at a time starting with the first server you specify in the configuration, until a server responds.

If accounting is in effect, the accounting information goes only to the active server, unless you specify simultaneous accounting in the aaa-server protocol command.

Examples

The following example adds a TACACS+ server group and assigns the server at 10.1.1.1 to it:

hostname(config)# aaa-server svrgrp1 protocol tacacs+
hostname(config-aaa-server-group)# accounting-mode simultaneous
hostname(config-aaa-server-group)# reactivation mode timed
hostname(config-aaa-server-group)# max-failed attempts 2
hostname(config-aaa-server-group)# aaa-server svrgrp1 host 10.1.1.1

Related Commands

Command
Description

aaa-server host

Configures parameters for specific AAA servers.

accounting-mode

Indicates whether accounting messages are sent to a single server (single mode) or sent to all servers in the group (simultaneous mode).

reactivation-mode

Specifes the method by which failed servers are reactivated.

max-failed-attempts

Specifies the number of failures that will be tolerated for any given server in the server group before that server is deactivated.

clear configure aaa-server

Removes all AAA server configurations.

show running-config aaa-server

Displays AAA server statistics for all AAA servers, for a particular server group, for a particular server within a particular group, or for a particular protocol.


absolute

To define an absolute time when a time range is in effect, use the absolute command in time-range configuration mode. To disable, use the no form of this command.

absolute [end time date] [start time date]

no absolute [end time date] [start time date]

Syntax Description

date

Specifies the date in the format day month year; for example, 1 January 2006. The valid range of years is 1993 through 2035.

time

Specifies the time in the format HH:MM. For example, 8:00 is 8:00 a.m. and 20:00 is 8:00 p.m.


Defaults

If no start time and date are specified, the permit or deny statement is in effect immediately and always on. Similarly, the maximum end time is 23:59 31 December 2035. If no end time and date are specified, the associated permit or deny statement is in effect indefinitely.

Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Time-range configuration


Command History

Release
Modification

3.1(1)

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

To implement a time-based ACL, use the time-range command to define specific times of the day and week. Then use the with the access-list extended time-range command to bind the time range to an ACL.

Examples

The following example activates an ACL at 8:00 a.m. on 1 January 2006:

hostname(config-time-range)# absolute start 8:00 1 January 2006

Because no end time and date are specified, the associated ACL is in effect indefinitely.

Related Commands

Command
Description

access-list extended

Configures a policy for permitting or denying IP traffic through the FWSM.

default

Restores default settings for the time-range command absolute and periodic keywords.

periodic

Specifies a recurring (weekly) time range for functions that support the time-range feature.

time-range

Defines access control to the FWSM based on time.


accept-subordinates

To configure the FWSM to accept subordinate CA certificates if delivered during phase one IKE exchange when not previously installed on the device, use the accept-subordinates command in crypto ca trustpoint configuration mode. To restore the default setting, use the no form of this command.

accept-subordinates

no accept-subordinates

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Defaults

The default setting is on (subordinate certificates are accepted).

Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Crypto ca trustpoint configuration


Command History

Release
Modification

3.1(1)

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

During phase 1 processing, an IKE peer might pass both a subordinate certificate and an identity certificate. The subordinate certificate might not be installed on the FWSM. This command lets an administrator support subordinate CA certificates that are not configured as trustpoints on the device without requiring that all subordinate CA certificates of all established trustpoints be acceptable; in other words, this command lets the device authenticate a certificate chain without installing the entire chain locally.

Examples

The following example enters crypto ca trustpoint configuration mode for trustpoint central, and allows the FWSM to accept subordinate certificates for trustpoint central:

hostname(config)# crypto ca trustpoint central
hostname(ca-trustpoint)# accept-subordinates

Related Commands

Command
Description

crypto ca trustpoint

Enters trustpoint configuration mode.

default enrollment

Returns enrollment parameters to their defaults.


access-group

To bind the access list to an interface, use the access-group command. To unbind the access list from the interface, use the no form of this command.

access-group access-list {in | out} interface interface_name [per-user-override]

no access-group access-list {in | out} interface interface_name [per-user-override]

Syntax Description

access-list

Specifies the access-list ID.

in

Filters the inbound packets at the specified interface.

Note "Inbound" and "outbound" refer to the application of an access list on an interface, either to traffic entering the FWSM on an interface or traffic exiting the FWSM on an interface. These terms do not refer to the movement of traffic from a lower security interface to a higher security interface, commonly known as inbound, or from a higher to lower interface, commonly known as outbound.

interface interface_name

Specifies the name of the interface on which you want to control access.

out

Filters the outbound packets at the specified interface. You might want to use an outbound access list to simplify your access list configuration. For example, if you want to allow three inside networks on three different interfaces to access each other, you can create a simple inbound access list that allows all traffic on each inside interface.

per-user-override

(Optional) Allows per-user access lists downloaded from a RADIUS server to override the existing interface access lists. This keyword is only available for an inbound access-group command.


Defaults

By default without an access-group command, no traffic can enter an interface. The exception to this rule is if a packet is part of an existing TCP or UDP connection; then returning traffic is allowed back through the FWSM. An access-group command is not required in this case on the destination interface. For connectionless protocols, you need to apply the access list to the source and destination interfaces if you want traffic to pass in both directions.

Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Global configuration


Command History

Release
Modification

1.1(1)

This command was introduced.

2.3(1)

The per-user-override keyword was added.


Usage Guidelines

The access-group command binds an access list to an interface. If you enter the permit option in an access-list command statement, the FWSM continues to process the packet. If you enter the deny option in an access-list command statement, the FWSM discards the packet and generates syslog message 106019.

You can apply one access list to each direction of the interface (in or out).

Traffic flowing across an interface in the FWSM can be controlled in two ways. Traffic that enters the FWSM can be controlled by attaching an inbound access list to the source interface (the in keyword). Traffic that exits the FWSM can be controlled by attaching an outbound access list to the destination interface (the out keyword). To allow any traffic to enter the FWSM, you must attach an inbound access list to an interface; otherwise, the FWSM automatically drops all traffic that enters that interface. By default, traffic can exit the FWSM on any interface unless you restrict it using an outbound access list, which adds restrictions to those already configured in the inbound access list.

The per-user-override keyword allows dynamic access lists that are downloaded for user authorization to override the access list assigned to the interface. For example, if the interface access list denies all traffic from 10.0.0.0, but the dynamic access list permits all traffic from 10.0.0.0, then the dynamic access list overrides the interface access list for that user.

Additionally, the following rules are observed:

At the time a packet arrives, if there is no per-user access list associated with the packet, the interface access list will be applied.

The per-user access list is governed by the timeout value specified by the uauth option of the timeout command, but it can be overridden by the AAA per-user session timeout value.

Existing access list log behavior will be the same. For example, if user traffic is denied because of a per-user access list, syslog message 109025 will be logged. If user traffic is permitted, no syslog message is generated. The log option in the per-user access-list will have no effect.


Note If all of the permit and deny statements are removed from an access-list that is referenced by one or more access-group commands, the access-group commands are automatically removed from the configuration. The access-group command cannot reference empty access lists or access lists that contain only a remark.


Examples

The following example shows how to use the access-group command. The static command provides a global address of 209.165.201.3 for the web server at 10.1.1.3. The access-list command lets any host access the global address using port 80. The access-group command specifies that the access-list command applies to traffic entering the outside interface.

hostname (config)# static (inside,outside) 209.165.201.3 10.1.1.3
hostname (config)# access-list acl_out permit tcp any host 209.165.201.3 eq 80
hostname (config)# access-group acl_out in interface outside

Related Commands

Command
Description

access-list extended

Creates an access list, or uses a downloadable access list.

clear configure access-group

Removes access groups from all the interfaces.

show running-config access-group

Displays the context group members.


access-list alert-interval

To specify the time interval between deny flow maximum messages, use the access-list alert-interval command in global configuration mode. To return to the default settings, use the no form of this command.

access-list alert-interval secs

no access-list alert-interval

Syntax Description

secs

Time interval between deny flow maximum message generation; valid values are from 1 to 3600 seconds.


Defaults

The default is 300 seconds.

Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Global configuration


Command History

Release
Modification

1.1(1)

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

The access-list alert-interval command sets the time interval for generating the syslog message 106101. The syslog message 106101 alerts you that the FWSM has reached a deny flow maximum. When the deny flow maximum is reached, another 106101 message is generated if at least secs seconds have occurred since the last 106101 message.

See the access-list deny-flow-max command for information about the deny flow maximum message generation.

Examples

The following example shows how to specify the time interval between deny flow maximum messages:

hostname(config)# access-list alert-interval 30

Related Commands

Command
Description

access-list deny-flow-max

Specifies the maximum number of concurrent deny flows that can be created.

access-list extended

Adds an access list to the configuration and is used to configure policy for IP traffic through the FWSM.

clear access-group

Clears an access list counter.

clear configure access-list

Clears access lists from the running configuration.

show access-list

Displays the access list entries by number.


access-list commit

To commit access lists when in manual-commit mode, use the access-list commit command in global configuration mode.

access-list commit

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Defaults

No default behavior or values.

Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Global configuration


Command History

Release
Modification

2.2(1)

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

If you set the access-list mode command to manual-commit, then you must manually commit access lists a before they can be used by the FWSM.


Note Manual-commit mode only affects access lists that are not used or access lists that are used with the access-group command. Access lists used for other configuration commands are always committed automatically, except if the ACL mode is set to manual; then the uncommitted ACLs can not be used for the Commit feature, NAT, and AAA.


Examples

The following example shows how to commit an access list and other rules:

fwsm/context(config)# access-list commit

Related Commands

Command
Description

access-group

Binds an access list to an interface.

access-list extended

Adds an access list to the configuration and configures policy for IP traffic through the FWSM.

access-list mode

Switches the commitment mode for access lists between manual- and auto-commit.

clear access-list

Clears an access list counter.

object-group

Defines object groups that you can use to optimize your configuration.


access-list deny-flow-max

To specify the maximum number of concurrent deny flows that can be created, use the access-list deny-flow-max command in global configuration mode. To return to the default settings, use the no form of this command.

access-list deny-flow-max

no access-list deny-flow-max

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Defaults

The default is 4096.

Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Global configuration


Command History

Release
Modification

2.2(1)

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

Syslog message 106101 is generated when the FWSM has reached the maximum number, n, of ACL deny flows.

Examples

The following example shows how to specify the maximum number of concurrent deny flows that can be created:

hostname(config)# access-list deny-flow-max 256

Related Commands

Command
Description

access-list extended

Adds an access list to the configuration and used to configure policy for IP traffic through the FWSM.

clear access-group

Clears an access list counter.

clear configure access-list

Clears access lists from the running configuration.

show access-list

Displays the access list entries by number.

show running-config access-list

Displays the current running access-list configuration.


access-list ethertype

To configure an access list that controls traffic based on its EtherType, use the access-list ethertype command in global configuration mode. To remove the access list, use the no form of this command.

access-list id ethertype {deny | permit} {ipx | bpdu | mpls-unicast | mpls-multicast | any | hex_number}

no access-list id ethertype {deny | permit} {ipx | bpdu | mpls-unicast | mpls-multicast | any | hex_number}

Syntax Description

any

Specifies access to anyone.

bpdu

Specifies access to bridge protocol data units. By default, BPDUs are denied.

deny

Denies access if the conditions are matched.

hex_number

A 16-bit hexadecimal number greater than or equal to 0x600 by which an EtherType can be identified.

id

Name or number of an access list.

ipx

Specifies access to IPX.

mpls-multicast

Specifies access to MPLS multicast.

mpls-unicast

Specifies access to MPLS unicast.

permit

Permits access if the conditions are matched.


Defaults

The defaults are as follows:

The FWSM denies all packets on the originating interface unless you specifically permit access.

Access list logging generates syslog message 106027 for denied non-IP packets—Deny non-IP packets must be present to log denied non-IP packets.

Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Global configuration


Command History

Release
Modification

1.1(1)

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

The FWSM can control any EtherType identified by a 16-bit hexadecimal number. EtherType access lists support Ethernet V2 frames. 802.3-formatted frames are not handled by the access list because they use a length field as opposed to a type field. Bridge protocol data units, which are handled by the access list, are the only exception; they are SNAP-encapsulated, and the FWSM is designed to specifically handle BPDUs.

Because EtherTypes are connectionless, you need to apply the access list to both interfaces if you want traffic to pass in both directions.

If you allow MPLS, ensure that LDP and TDP TCP connections are established through the FWSM by configuring both MPLS routers connected to the FWSM to use the IP address on the FWSM interface as the router-id for LDP or TDP sessions. (LDP and TDP allow MPLS routers to negotiate the labels (addresses) used to forward packets.)

You can apply only one access list of each type (extended and EtherType) to each direction of an interface. You can also apply the same access lists on multiple interfaces.


Note If an EtherType access list is configured to deny all, all ethernet frames are discarded. Only physical protocol traffic, such as auto-negotiation, for instance, is still allowed.


Examples

The following example shows how to add an EtherType access list:

hostname(config)# access-list ETHER ethertype permit ipx
hostname(config)# access-list ETHER ethertype permit bpdu
hostname(config)# access-list ETHER ethertype permit mpls-unicast
hostname(config)# access-group ETHER in interface inside

Related Commands

Command
Description

access-group

Binds the access list to an interface.

clear access-group

Clears access list counters.

clear configure access-list

Clears an access list from the running configuration.

show access-list

Displays the access list entries by number.

show running-config access-list

Displays the current running access-list configuration.


access-list extended

To add an Access Control Entry, use the access-list extended command in global configuration mode. An access list is made up of one or more ACEs with the same access list ID. Access lists are used to control network access or to specify traffic for many feature to act upon. To remove the ACE, use the no form of this command. To remove the entire access list, use the clear configure access-list command.

access-list id [line line-number] [extended] {deny | permit}
{
protocol | object-group protocol_obj_grp_id}
{
src_ip mask | interface ifc_name | object-group network_obj_grp_id}
[
operator port | object-group service_obj_grp_id]
{
dest_ip mask | interface ifc_name | object-group network_obj_grp_id}
[
operator port | object-group service_obj_grp_id | object-group icmp_type_obj_grp_id]
[
log [[level] [interval secs] | disable | default]]
[
inactive | time-range time_range_name]

no access-list id [line line-number] [extended] {deny | permit} {tcp | udp}
{
src_ip mask | interface ifc_name | object-group network_obj_grp_id}
[
operator port] | object-group service_obj_grp_id]
{
dest_ip mask | interface ifc_name | object-group network_obj_grp_id}
[
operator port | object-group service_obj_grp_id | object-group icmp_type_obj_grp_id]
[
log [[level] [interval secs] | disable | default]]
[
inactive | time-range time_range_name]

Syntax Description

default

(Optional) Sets logging to the default method, which is to send system log message 106023 for each denied packet.

deny

Denies a packet if the conditions are matched. In the case of network access (the access-group command), this keyword prevents the packet from passing through the FWSM. In the case of applying application inspection to a class map (the class-map and inspect commands), this keyword exempts the traffic from inspection. Some features do not allow deny ACEs to be used, such as NAT. See the command documentation for each feature that uses an access list for more information.

dest_ip

Specifies the IP address of the network or host to which the packet is being sent. Enter the host keyword before the IP address to specify a single address. In this case, do not enter a mask. Enter the any keyword instead of the address and mask to specify any address.

disable

(Optional) Disables logging for this ACE.

icmp_type

(Optional) If the protocol is icmp, specifies the ICMP type.

id

Specifies the access list ID, as a string or integer up to 241 characters in length. The ID is case-sensitive. Tip: Use all capital letters so you can see the access list ID better in your configuration.

inactive

(Optional) Disables an ACE. To reenable it, enter the entire ACE without the inactive keyword. This feature lets you keep a record of an inactive ACE in your configuration to make reenabling easier.

interface ifc_name

Specifies the interface address as the source or destination address.

interval secs

(Optional) Specifies the log interval at which to generate a 106100 system log message. Valid values are from 1 to 600 seconds. The default is 300.

level

(Optional) Sets the 106100 system log message level from 0 to 7. The default level is 6.

line line-num

(Optional) Specifies the line number at which to insert the ACE. If you do not specify a line number, the ACE is added to the end of the access list. The line number is not saved in the configuration; it only specifies where to insert the ACE.

log

(Optional) Sets logging options when a deny ACE matches a packet for network access (an access list applied with the access-group command). If you enter the log keyword without any arguments, you enable system log message 106100 at the default level (6) and for the default interval (300 seconds). If you do not enter the log keyword, then the default logging occurs, using system log message 106023.

mask

The subnet mask for the IP address. When you specify a network mask, the method is different from the Cisco IOS software access-list command. The FWSM uses a network mask (for example, 255.255.255.0 for a Class C mask). The Cisco IOS mask uses wildcard bits (for example, 0.0.0.255).

object-group icmp_type_obj_grp_id

(Optional) If the protocol is icmp, specifies the identifier of an ICMP-type object group. See the object-group icmp-type command to add an object group.

object-group network_obj_grp_id

Specifies the identifier of an network object group. See the object-group network command to add an object group.

object-group protocol_obj_grp_id

Specifies the identifier of a protocol object group. See the object-group protocol command to add an object group.

object-group service_obj_grp_id

(Optional) If you set the protocol to tcp or udp, specifies the identifier of a service object group. See the object-group service command to add an object group.

operator

(Optional) Matches the port numbers used by the source or destination. The permitted operators are as follows:

lt—less than

gt—greater than

eq—equal to

neq—not equal to

range—an inclusive range of values. When you use this operator, specify two port numbers, for example:

range 100 200

permit

Permits a packet if the conditions are matched. In the case of network access (the access-group command), this keyword lets the packet pass through the FWSM. In the case of applying application inspection to a class map (the class-map and inspect commands), this keyword applies inspection to the packet.

port

(Optional) If you set the protocol to tcp or udp, specifies the integer or name of a TCP or UDP port. DNS, Discard, Echo, Ident, NTP, RPC, SUNRPC, and Talk each require one definition for TCP and one for UDP. TACACS+ requires one definition for port 49 on TCP.

protocol

Specifies the IP protocol name or number. For example, UDP is 17, TCP is 6, and EGP is 47.

src_ip

Specifies the IP address of the network or host from which the packet is being sent. Enter the host keyword before the IP address to specify a single address. In this case, do not enter a mask. Enter the any keyword instead of the address and mask to specify any address.

time-range time_range_name

(Optional) Schedules each ACE to be activated at specific times of the day and week by applying a time range to the ACE. See the time-range command for information about defining a time range.


Defaults

The defaults are as follows:

ACE logging generates syslog message 106023 for denied packets. A deny ACE must be present to log denied packets.

When the log keyword is specified, the default level for syslog message 106100 is 6 (informational) and the default interval is 300 seconds.

Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Global configuration


Command History

Release
Modification

1.1(1)

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

Each ACE that you enter for a given access list name is appended to the end of the access list unless you specify the line number in the ACE.

The order of ACEs is important. When the FWSM decides whether to forward or drop a packet, the FWSM tests the packet against each ACE in the order in which the entries are listed. After a match is found, no more ACEs are checked. For example, if you create an ACE at the beginning of an access list that explicitly permits all traffic, no further statements are ever checked.

Access lists have an implicit deny at the end of the list, so unless you explicitly permit it, traffic cannot pass. For example, if you want to allow all users to access a network through the FWSM except for particular addresses, then you need to deny the particular addresses and then permit all others.

When you use NAT, the IP addresses you specify for an access list depend on the interface to which the access list is attached; you need to use addresses that are valid on the network connected to the interface. This guideline applies for both inbound and outbound access groups: the direction does not determine the address used, only the interface does.

For TCP and UDP connections, you do not need an access list to allow returning traffic, because the FWSM allows all returning traffic for established, bidirectional connections. For connectionless protocols such as ICMP, however, the FWSM establishes unidirectional sessions, so you either need access lists to allow ICMP in both directions (by applying access lists to the source and destination interfaces), or you need to enable the ICMP inspection engine. The ICMP inspection engine treats ICMP sessions as bidirectional connections.

Because ICMP is a connectionless protocol, you either need access lists to allow ICMP in both directions (by applying access lists to the source and destination interfaces), or you need to enable the ICMP inspection engine. The ICMP inspection engine treats ICMP sessions as stateful connections. To control ping, specify echo-reply (0) (FWSM to host) or echo (8) (host to FWSM). See Table 1 for a list of ICMP types.

You can apply only one access list of each type (extended and EtherType) to each direction of an interface. You can apply the same access lists on multiple interfaces. See the access-group command for more information about applying an access list to an interface.

While the software allows you to enter the inactive option after the time-range option is specified for an ACE, the inactive option supersedes the time-range option, making the time-range option unavailable. Enter one or the other, as the syntax shows.


Note If you change the access list configuration, and you do not want to wait for existing connections to time out before the new access list information is used, you can clear the connections using the clear local-host command.


Table 1 lists the possible ICMP types values.

Table 2-1 ICMP Type Literals 

ICMP Type
Literal

0

echo-reply

3

unreachable

4

source-quench

5

redirect

6

alternate-address

8

echo

9

router-advertisement

10

router-solicitation

11

time-exceeded

12

parameter-problem

13

timestamp-request

14

timestamp-reply

15

information-request

16

information-reply

17

mask-request

18

mask-reply

30

traceroute

31

conversion-error

32

mobile-redirect


Examples

The following access list allows all hosts (on the interface to which you apply the access list) to go through the FWSM:

hostname(config)# access-list ACL_IN extended permit ip any any

The following sample access list prevents hosts on 192.168.1.0/24 from accessing the 209.165.201.0/27 network. All other addresses are permitted.

hostname(config)# access-list ACL_IN extended deny tcp 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 
209.165.201.0 255.255.255.224
hostname(config)# access-list ACL_IN extended permit ip any any

If you want to restrict access to only some hosts, then enter a limited permit ACE. By default, all other traffic is denied unless explicitly permitted.

hostname(config)# access-list ACL_IN extended permit ip 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 
209.165.201.0 255.255.255.224

The following access list restricts all hosts (on the interface to which you apply the access list) from accessing a website at address 209.165.201.29. All other traffic is allowed.

hostname(config)# access-list ACL_IN extended deny tcp any host 209.165.201.29 eq www
hostname(config)# access-list ACL_IN extended permit ip any any

The following access list that uses object groups restricts several hosts on the inside network from accessing several web servers. All other traffic is allowed.

hostname(config-network)# access-list ACL_IN extended deny tcp object-group denied 
object-group web eq www
hostname(config)# access-list ACL_IN extended permit ip any any
hostname(config)# access-group ACL_IN in interface inside

To temporarily disable an access list that permits traffic from one group of network objects (A) to another group of network objects (B):

hostname(config)# access-list 104 permit ip host object-group A object-group B inactive

To implement a time-based access list, use the time-range command to define specific times of the day and week. Then use the access-list extended command to bind the time range to an access list. The following example binds an access list named "Sales" to a time range named "New_York_Minute":

hostname(config)# access-list Sales line 1 extended deny tcp host 209.165.200.225 host 
209.165.201.1 time-range New_York_Minute
hostname(config)# 

See the time-range command for more information about how to define a time range.

Related Commands

Command
Description

access-group

Binds the access list to an interface.

clear access-group

Clears an access list counter.

clear configure access-list

Clears an access list from the running configuration.

show access-list

Displays ACEs by number.

show running-config access-list

Displays the current running access-list configuration.


access-list mode

To switch the commitment mode for access lists between manual- and auto-commit, use the access-list mode command in global configuration mode.

access-list mode {auto-commit | manual-commit}

Syntax Description

auto-commit

Automatically commits an access list when you add an ACE.

manual-commit

Disables auto-commit. You must manually commit an access list using the access-list commit command.


Defaults

The default is auto-commit.

Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Global configuration


Command History

Release
Modification

2.2(1)

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

When you add an ACE to an access list, the FWSM activates the access list by committing it to the network processors. In auto-commit mode, the FWSM waits a short period of time after you last entered an access-list command and then commits the access list. If you enter an ACE after the commitment starts, the FWSM aborts the commitment, and recommits the access list after a new short waiting period. The FWSM displays a message similar to the following after it commits the access list:

Access Rules Download Complete: Memory Utilization: < 1%

Large access lists of approximately 60 K ACEs can take 3 to 4 minutes to commit, depending on the size.

You can manually commit access lists if your management application or script needs to monitor the access list commitment for error messages. Some management applications cannot monitor errors that are the result of configuration commands, so if you add ACEs, and there is a commitment error, the management application might not receive the error. However, if the management application sets the mode to manual-commit, then it can monitor errors resulting from the access-list commit command, which is a run-time command. The management application typically sets this mode to manual-commit automatically.


Note Manual mode is a run-time configuration, so access-list mode manual-commit does not show up when you enter the show run command, and the configuration is not retained after a reboot.


If you enable manual commit, then you must remember to manually commit any changes you make to access lists, whether the change is an addition or a subtraction. Also, you must manually commit an access list before you assign it to an interface (access-group command); the FWSM cannot assign an access list to an interface if the access list does not exist yet.

If you delete an ACE, but have not yet committed your change, the show running-config command shows the ACE with the text "uncommitted deletion". Adding an ACE shows the ACE as "uncommitted addition".


Note Manual-commit mode only affects access lists that are not used or access lists that are used with the access-group command. Access lists used for other configuration commands are always committed automatically, except if the ACL mode is set to manual; then the uncommitted access lists cannot be used for the Commit feature, NAT, and AAA.



Note Manual-commit mode is a transitional state that should be used during access list configuration changes only and is not meant to be enabled at all times. Enabling the mode permanently leads to synchronization problems between the active and standby devices.


Examples

The following example shows how to modify an existing access list using the manual-commit mode without disrupting traffic:

fwsm(config)# access-list mode manual-commit
fwsm(config)# clear configure access-list CHANGEME
fwsm(config)# access-list CHANGEME ...
! New ACE 1
fwsm(config)# access-list CHANGEME ...
! New ACE 2
fwsm(config)# ...
fwsm(config)# access-list CHANGEME ...
! New ACE N
fwsm(config)# access-list commit

The following example shows how to delete the old access list and add a new one with a different name:

fwsm(config)# access-list mode manual-commit
fwsm(config)# clear config access-list old-acl
fwsm(config)# access-list new-acl .... : New ACE1
fwsm(config)# access-list new-acl .... : New ACE2
fwsm(config)# ..........
fwsm(config)# access-list new-acl .... : New ACEn
fwsm(config)# access-list commit
fwsm(config)# access-group new-acl in interface old-interface

The previous example shows that there is a slight traffic disruption on the old interface, which is equal to the time taken for the commit to complete and the access-group command to be applied in the last two command lines.


The following example shows how to use the manual-commit mode:

fwsm(config)# show access-list mode
ERROR: access-list <mode> does not exists
fwsm(config)# 
fwsm(config)# show access-list
access-list mode auto-commit
access-list cached ACL log flows: total 0, denied 0 (deny-flow-max 4096) alert-interval 
300
fwsm(config)# 
fwsm(config)# access-list 1 permit ip any any
fwsm(config)# Access Rules Download Complete: Memory Utilization: < 1%
fwsm(config)# 
fwsm(config)# show access-list
access-list mode auto-commit
access-list cached ACL log flows: total 0, denied 0 (deny-flow-max 4096) alert-interval 
300
access-list 1; 1 elements
access-list 1 extended permit ip any any (hitcnt=0)
fwsm(config)# 
fwsm(config)# access-list commit
ERROR: access-list mode set to auto-commit; command ignored
fwsm(config)# 
fwsm(config)# Access Rules Download Complete: Memory Utilization: < 1%
fwsm(config)# 
fwsm(config)# show access-list
access-list mode auto-commit
access-list cached ACL log flows: total 0, denied 0 (deny-flow-max 4096) alert-interval 
300
fwsm(config)# 
fwsm(config)# access-list mode manual-commit
fwsm(config)# 
fwsm(config)# show access-list
access-list mode manual-commit
access-list cached ACL log flows: total 0, denied 0 (deny-flow-max 4096) alert-interval 
300
fwsm(config)# 
fwsm(config)# access-list 1 permit ip any any
fwsm(config)# 
fwsm(config)# show access-list
access-list mode manual-commit
access-list cached ACL log flows: total 0, denied 0 (deny-flow-max 4096) alert-interval 
300
access-list 1; 1 elements
access-list 1 extended permit ip any any (hitcnt=0) (uncommitted addition)
fwsm(config)# 
fwsm(config)# access-group 1 in interface inside
ERROR: access-list not committed, ignoring command
fwsm(config)# access-list commit
Access Rules Download Complete: Memory Utilization: < 1%
fwsm(config)# 
fwsm(config)# access-group 1 in interface inside
fwsm(config)# show access-list
access-list mode manual-commit
access-list cached ACL log flows: total 0, denied 0 (deny-flow-max 4096) alert-interval 
300
access-list 1; 1 elements
access-list 1 extended permit ip any any (hitcnt=0)
fwsm(config)# 
fwsm(config)# no access-list 1 permit ip any any
fwsm(config)# 
fwsm(config)# show access-list
access-list mode manual-commit
access-list cached ACL log flows: total 0, denied 0 (deny-flow-max 4096) alert-interval 
300
access-list 1; 1 elements
access-list 1 extended permit ip any any (hitcnt=0) (uncommitted deletion)
fwsm(config)# 
fwsm(config)# access-list commit
Access Rules Download Complete: Memory Utilization: < 1%
fwsm(config)# #
fwsm(config)# show access-list
access-list mode manual-commit
access-list cached ACL log flows: total 0, denied 0 (deny-flow-max 4096) alert-interval 
300
fwsm(config)# 

Related Commands

Command
Description

access-list commit

Commits access lists when you are in manual-commit mode.

access-list extended

Adds an access list to the configuration and configures policy for IP traffic through the FWSM.

clear access-list

Clears an access list counter.

show access-list

Displays the counters for an access list.

show access-list mode

Displays the compilation mode for the system.


access-list optimization enable

To optimize an access list group, use the access-list optimization enable command in global configuration mode. To disable this feature, use the no form of this command.

access-list optimization enable

no access-list optimization enable

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Defaults

No default behavior or values.

Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Global configuration


Command History

Release
Modification

4.0(1)

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

The access list optimization feature reduces the number of ACEs per group by merging and/or deleting redundant and conflicting ACEs without affecting the semantics of the access list.

During optimization, four different cases are examined to determine whether the two rules can be merged:

Subset—If rule x is a subset of rule y, the rules are merged.

Before optimization:

access-list test extended permit tcp 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.255 any eq 80 [rule x]
access-list test extended permit tcp 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 any  [rule y]

After optimization:

access-list test extended permit tcp 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 any [rule y]

Superset—If rule x is a superset of rule y, rule y is removed.

Before optimization:

access-list test extended permit udp 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 any [rule x]
access-list test extended deny udp 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.255 any [rule y]

After optimization:

access-list test extended permit udp 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 any [rule x]

Adjacency—If rule x is adjacent to rule y, rule y is merged into rule x.

Before optimization:

access-list test extended permit ip 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.128 any [rule x]
access-list test extended permit ip 10.1.1.128 255.255.255.128 any [rule y]

After optimization:

access-list test extended permit ip 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 any [rule x]

Overlap—If rule x overlaps rule y, rule y is merged into rule x.

Before optimization:

access-list test extended permit tcp any range 50 100 any [rule x]
access-list test extended permit tcp any range 60 120 any [rule y]

After optimization:

access-list test extended permit tcp any range 50 120 any [rule x]


Note Two redundant/overlapping rules cannot be merged if there is conflicting information (permission/action, log level, log intervals, or time range, for example) in the access list located in between the two rules.


Before optimization:

access-list test extended permit tcp any range 50 100 any [rule x]
access-list test extended deny tcp any range 80 130 any [rule y]
access-list test extended permit tcp any range 60 120 any [rule z]

After optimization:

access-list test extended permit tcp any range 50 100 any [rule x]
access-list test extended deny tcp any range 80 130 any [rule y]
access-list test extended permit tcp any range 60 120 any [rule z]


Note Access list optimization is relevant to static access lists only. Dynamic access lists are not optimized. In addition, static access lists bound to AAA, NAT, and capture modules will not be optimized so that the complexity of the access list optimization module is reduced.

Hit counts for optimized rules represent the cumulative value of all the hit counts of the merged or removed rules. There is no way to determine the hit count for every merged or removed rule.


Examples

The following example shows how to optimize access lists:

hostname(config)# access-list optimization enable

Related Commands

Command
Description

clear configure access-list

Clears an access list from the running configuration.

copy optimized-running-config

Copies the optimized running configuration to the designated location.

debug acl optimization

Debugs access list optimization.

show access-list

Displays the access list entries by number.

show running-config access-list

Displays the current running access-list configuration.


access-list remark

To specify the text of the remark to add before or after an access-list extended command, use the access-list remark command in global configuration mode. To delete the remark, use the no form of this command.

access-list id [line line-num] remark text

no access-list id [line line-num] remark text

Syntax Description

id

Name of an access list.

line line-num

(Optional) The line number at which to insert a remark or an access control element (ACE).

remark text

Text of the remark to add before or after an access-list extended command.


Defaults

No default behavior or values.

Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Global configuration


Command History

Release
Modification

2.2(1)

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

The remark text can be up to 100 characters in length, including spaces and punctuation. The remark text must contain at least 1 non-space character; you cannot enter an empty remark.

You cannot use the access-group command on an ACL that includes a remark only.

When you attempt to delete a specific remark and specify the line number using the no access-list id line line number remark command, if the line number specified is not being used by an ACE in that ACL, then the entire access-list is searched until the first instance of the specified remark is identified. After the remark is identified, the first instance of the remark is deleted from the top, even if multiple occurrences of the same remark exist in the same access list.

Examples

The following example shows how to specify the text of the remark to add before or after an access-list command:

hostname(config)# access-list 77 remark checklist

Related Commands

Command
Description

access-list extended

Adds an access list to the configuration and used to configure policy for IP traffic through the FWSM.

clear access-group

Clears an access list counter.

clear configure access-list

Clears access lists from the running configuration.

show access-list

Displays the access list entries by number.

show running-config access-list

Displays the current running access-list configuration.


access-list standard

To add an access list to identify the destination IP addresses of OSPF routes, which can be used in a route map for OSPF redistribution, use the access-list standard command in global configuration mode. To remove the access list, use the no form of this command. Enter the command without the keyword standard to specify a line number.

access-list id standard {deny | permit} {any | host ip_address | ip_address subnet_mask}

no access-list id standard {deny | permit} {any | host ip_address | ip_address subnet_mask}

access-list id [line line-num] {deny | permit} {any | host ip_address | ip_address subnet_mask}

Syntax Description

any

Specifies access to anyone.

deny

Denies access if the conditions are matched. See the "Usage Guidelines" section for the description.

host ip_address

Specifies access to a host IP address.

id

Name or number of an access list.

ip_address ip_mask

Specifies access to a specific IP address and subnet mask.

line line-num

(Optional) The line number at which to insert an ACE.

permit

Permits access if the conditions are matched. See the "Usage Guidelines" section for the description.


Defaults

The defaults are as follows:

The FWSM denies all packets on the originating interface unless you specifically permit access.

ACL logging generates syslog message 106023 for denied packets—Deny packets must be present to log denied packets.

Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Global configuration


Command History

Release
Modification

1.1(1)

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

When used with the access-group command, the deny optional keyword does not allow a packet to traverse the FWSM. By default, the FWSM denies all packets on the originating interface unless you specifically permit access.

When you specify the protocol to match any Internet protocol, including TCP and UDP, use the ip keyword.

Refer to the object-group command for information on how to configure object groups.

You can use the object-group command to group access lists.

Use the following guidelines for specifying a source, local, or destination address:

Use a 32-bit quantity in four-part, dotted-decimal format.

Use the keyword any as an abbreviation for an address and mask of 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0. We do not recommend that you use this keyword with IPSec.

Use host address as an abbreviation for a mask of 255.255.255.255.

Examples

The following example shows how to deny IP traffic through the firewall:

hostname(config)# access-list 77 standard deny

The following example shows how to permit IP traffic through the firewall if conditions are matched:

hostname(config)# access-list 77 standard permit

Related Commands

Command
Description

access-group

Defines object groups that you can use to optimize your configuration.

clear access-group

Clears an access list counter.

clear configure access-list

Clears access lists from the running configuration.

show access-list

Displays the access list entries by number.

show running-config access-list

Displays the current running access-list configuration.


accounting-mode

To indicate whether accounting messages are sent to a single server (single mode) or sent to all servers in the group (simultaneous mode), use the accounting-mode command in aaa-server group configuration mode. To remove the accounting mode specification, use the no form of this command.

accounting-mode simultaneous

accounting-mode single

no accounting-mode

Syntax Description

simultaneous

Sends accounting messages to all servers in the group.

single

Sends accounting messages to a single server.


Defaults

The default value is single mode.

Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

aaa-server group configuration


Command History

Release
Modification

3.1(1)

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

Use the keyword single to send accounting messages to a single server. Use the keyword simultaneous to send accounting messages to all servers in the server group.

This command is meaningful only when the server group is used for accounting (RADIUS or TACACS+).

Examples

The following example shows the use of the accounting-mode command to send accounting messages to all servers in the group:

hostname(config)# aaa-server svrgrp1 protocol tacacs+
hostname(config-aaa-server-group)# accounting-mode simultaneous

Related Commands

Command
Description

aaa accounting

Enables or disables accounting services.

aaa-server protocol

Enters AAA server group configuration mode, so that you can configure AAA server parameters that are group-specific and common to all hosts in the group.

clear configure aaa-server

Removes all AAA server configuration.

show running-config aaa-server

Displays AAA server statistics for all AAA servers, for a particular server group, for a particular server within a particular group, or for a particular protocol.


accounting-port

To specify the port number used for RADIUS accounting for this host, use the accounting-port command in aaa-server host configuration mode. To remove the authentication port specification, use the no form of this command. This command specifies the destination TCP/UDP port number of the remote RADIUS server hosts to which you want to send accounting records.

accounting-port port

no accounting-port

Syntax Description

port

A port number, in the range 1-65535, for RADIUS accounting.


Defaults

By default, the device listens for RADIUS on port 1646 for accounting (in compliance with RFC 2058). If the port is not specified, the RADIUS accounting default port number (1646) is used.

Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

aaa-server host configuration


Command History

Release
Modification

3.1(1)

This command was introduced, replacing the aaa-server radius-acctport command.


Usage Guidelines

If your RADIUS accounting server uses a port other than 1646, you must configure the FWSM for the appropriate port prior to starting the RADIUS service with the aaa-server command.


Tip RFC 2139 introduced a change to the standard port for RADIUS accounting, to port 1813.


This command is valid only for server groups that are configured for RADIUS.

Examples

The following example configures a RADIUS AAA server named "svrgrp1" on host "209.165.200.225", sets a timeout of 9 seconds, sets a retry-interval of 7 seconds, and configures accounting port 2222.

hostname(config)# aaa-server svrgrp1 protocol radius
hostname(config-aaa-server-group)# aaa-server svrgrp1 host 209.165.200.225
hostname(config-aaa-server-host)# timeout 9
hostname(config-aaa-server-host)# retry-interval 7
hostname(config-aaa-server-host)# accountinq-port 2222
hostname(config-aaa-server-host)# exit
hostname(config)#

Related Commands

Command
Description

aaa accounting

Keeps a record of which network services a user has accessed.

aaa-server host

Enters aaa server host configuration mode, so that you can configure AAA server parameters that are host-specific.

clear configure aaa-server

Removes all AAA command statements from the configuration.

show running-config aaa-server

Displays AAA server statistics for all AAA servers, for a particular server group, for a particular server within a particular group, or for a particular protocol.


accounting-server-group

To specify the aaa-server group for sending accounting records, use the accounting-server-group command in tunnel-group general-attributes configuration mode. To return this command to the default, use the no form of this command.

[no] accounting-server-group server-group

Syntax Description

server-group

Specifies the name of the aaa-server group, which defaults to NONE.


Defaults

The default setting for this command is NONE.

Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Tunnel-group general-attributes configuration


Command History

Release
Modification

3.1(1)

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

You can apply this attribute to all tunnel-group types.

Examples

The following example entered in config-general configuration mode, configures an accounting server group named aaa-server123 for an IPSec LAN-to-LAN tunnel group xyz:

hostname(config)# tunnel-group xyz type IPSec_L2L
hostname(config)# tunnel-group xyz general
hostname(config-general)# accounting-server-group aaa-server123
hostname(config-general)# 

Related Commands

Command
Description

clear configure tunnel-group

Clears all configured tunnel groups.

show running-config tunnel-group

Shows the tunnel group configuration for all tunnel groups or for a particular tunnel group.

tunnel-group-map default-group

Associates the certificate map entries created using the crypto ca certificate map command with tunnel groups.