Authentication, authorization, and accounting. See also
Area Border Router. In
OSPF, a router with interfaces in multiple areas.
Autonomous System Boundary Router
Access Control Entry. Information entered into the configuration that lets you specify what type of traffic to permit or deny on an
interface. By default, traffic that is not explicitly permitted is denied.
access control list. A collection of
ACEs. An ACL lets you specify what type of traffic to allow on an interface. By default, traffic that is not explicitly permitted is denied. ACLs are usually applied to the
interface which is the source of inbound traffic. See also
A set of object-oriented programming technologies and tools used to create mobile or portable programs. An ActiveX program is roughly equivalent to a Java applet.
Advanced Encryption Standard. A symmetric block cipher that can encrypt and decrypt information. The AES algorithm is capable of using cryptographic keys of 128, 192 and 256 bits to encrypt and decrypt data in blocks of 128 bits. See also
Authentication Header. An IP protocol (type 51) that can ensure data integrity, authentication, and replay detection. AH is embedded in the data to be protected (a full IP datagram, for example). AH can be used either by itself or with
ESP. This is an older
IPSec protocol that is less important in most networks than
ESP. AH provides authentication services but does not provide encryption services. It is provided to ensure compatibility with
IPSec peers that do not support
ESP, which provides both
encryption. See also
VPN. Refer to the RFC 2402.
A record address
"A" stands for address, and refers to name-to-address mapped records in
Address Resolution Protocol. A low-level TCP/IP protocol that maps a hardware address, or MAC address, to an IP address. An example hardware address is 00:00:a6:00:01:ba. The first three groups of characters (00:00:a6) identify the manufacturer; the rest of the characters (00:01:ba) identify the system card. ARP is defined in RFC 826.
Adaptive Security Algorithm. Used by the FWSM to perform inspections. ASA allows one-way (inside to outside) connections without an explicit configuration for each internal system and application. See also
adaptive security appliance.
Adaptive Security Device Manager. An application for managing and configuring a single FWSM.
Also called public key systems, asymmetric encryption allows anyone to obtain access to the public key of anyone else. Once the public key is accessed, one can send an encrypted message to that person using the public key. See also
Cryptographic protocols and services that verify the identity of users and the integrity of data. One of the functions of the
IPSec framework. Authentication establishes the integrity of datastream and ensures that it is not tampered with in transit. It also provides confirmation about the origin of the datastream. See also
Border Gateway Protocol. BGP performs interdomain routing in TCP/IP networks. BGP is an Exterior Gateway Protocol, which means that it performs routing between multiple autonomous systems or domains and exchanges routing and access information with other BGP systems. The FWSM does not support BGP. See also
Bandwidth Limited Traffic stream. Stream or flow of packets whose bandwidth is constrained.
Bootstrap Protocol. Lets diskless workstations boot over the network as is described in RFC 951 and RFC 1542.
Bridge Protocol Data Unit. Spanning-Tree Protocol hello packet that is sent out at configurable intervals to exchange information among bridges in the network. Protocol data unit is the OSI term for packet.
Certificate Authority, Certification Authority. A third-party entity that is responsible for issuing and revoking certificates. Each device with the public key of the CA can authenticate a device that has a certificate issued by the CA. The term CA also refers to software that provides CA services. See also
A temporary repository of information accumulated from previous task executions that can be reused, decreasing the time required to perform the tasks.
Cipher Block Chaining. A cryptographic technique that increases the encryption strength of an algorithm. CBC requires an initialization vector (IV) to start encryption. The IV is explicitly given in the
A signed cryptographic object that contains the identity of a user or device and the public key of the
CA that issued the certificate. Certificates have an expiration date and may also be placed on a
CRL if known to be compromised. Certificates also establish non-repudiation for
IKE negotiation, which means that you can prove to a third party that
IKE negotiation was completed with a specific peer.
Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol.
command-line interface. The primary interface for entering configuration and monitoring commands to the FWSM.
Distributed computing (processing) network systems in which transaction responsibilities are divided into two parts: client (front end) and server (back end). Also called distributed computing. See also
A file on the FWSM that represents the equivalent of settings, preferences, and properties administered by
ASDM or the
A cookie is a object stored by a browser. Cookies contain information, such as user preferences, to persistent storage.
Central Processing Unit. Main processor.
cyclical redundancy check. Error-checking technique in which the frame recipient calculates a remainder by dividing frame contents by a prime binary divisor and compares the calculated remainder to a value stored in the frame by the sending node.
Certificate Revocation List. A digitally signed message that lists all of the current but revoked certificates listed by a given
CA. This is analogous to a book of stolen charge card numbers that allow stores to reject bad credit cards. When certificates are revoked, they are added to a CRL. When you implement authentication using certificates, you can choose to use CRLs or not. Using CRLs lets you easily revoke certificates before they expire, but the CRL is generally only maintained by the
CA or an
RA. If you are using CRLs and the connection to the
RA is not available when authentication is requested, the authentication request will fail. See also
Call Reference Value. Used by
H.225.0 to distinguish call legs signalled between two entities.
Encryption, authentication, integrity, keys and other services used for secure communication over networks. See also
A data structure with a unique name and sequence number that is used for configuring VPNs on the FWSM. A crypto map selects data flows that need security processing and defines the policy for these flows and the crypto peer that traffic needs to go to. A crypto map is applied to an interface. Crypto maps contain the
ACLs, encryption standards, peers, and other parameters necessary to specify security policies for
IPSec. See also
Computer Telephony Interface Quick Buffer Encoding. A protocol used in IP telephony between the Cisco CallManager and CTI
JTAPI applications. CTIQBE is used by the TAPI/JTAPI protocol inspection module and supports
PAT, and bi-directional
NAT. This enables Cisco IP SoftPhone and other Cisco TAPI/JTAPI applications to communicate with Cisco CallManager for call setup and voice traffic across the FWSM.
Enables the FWSM to provide faster traffic flow after user authentication. The cut-through proxy challenges a user initially at the application layer. After the security appliance authenticates the user, it shifts the session flow and all traffic flows directly and quickly between the source and destination while maintaining session state information.
Describes any method that manipulates data so that no attacker can read it. This is commonly achieved by data encryption and
keys that are only available to the parties involved in the communication.
Describes mechanisms that, through the use of encryption based on
secret key or
public key algorithms, allow the recipient of a piece of protected data to verify that the data has not been modified in transit.
data origin authentication
A security service where the receiver can verify that protected data could have originated only from the sender. This service requires a data integrity service plus a
key distribution mechanism, where a
secret key is shared only between the sender and receiver.
Application of a specific algorithm or cipher to encrypted data so as to render the data comprehensible to those who are authorized to see the information. See also
Data encryption standard. DES was published in 1977 by the National Bureau of Standards and is a secret key encryption scheme based on the Lucifer algorithm from IBM. Cisco uses DES in classic crypto (40-bit and 56-bit key lengths),
IPSec crypto (56-bit key), and 3DES (triple DES), which performs encryption three times using a 56-bit key. 3DES is more secure than DES but requires more processing for encryption and decryption. See also
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. Provides a mechanism for allocating IP addresses to hosts dynamically, so that addresses can be reused when hosts no longer need them and so that mobile computers, such as laptops, receive an IP address applicable to the
LAN to which it is connected.
A public key cryptography protocol that allows two parties to establish a shared secret over insecure communications channels. Diffie-Hellman is used within
IKE to establish session keys. Diffie-Hellman is a component of
Oakley key exchange.
Diffie-Hellman Group 1, Group 2, Group 5, Group 7
Diffie-Hellman refers to a type of public key cryptography using asymmetric encryption based on large prime numbers to establish both Phase 1 and Phase 2
SAs. Group 1 provides a smaller prime number than Group 2 but may be the only version supported by some
IPSec peers. Diffe-Hellman Group 5 uses a 1536-bit prime number, is the most secure, and is recommended for use with
AES. Group 7 has an elliptical curve field size of 163 bits and is for use with the Movian VPN client, but works with any peer that supports Group 7 (ECC). See also
Distinguished Name. Global, authoritative name of an entry in the OSI Directory (X.500).
Domain Name System (or Service). An Internet service that translates domain names into IP addresses.
Denial of Service. A type of network attack in which the goal is to render a network service unavailable.
digital subscriber line. Public network technology that delivers high bandwidth over conventional copper wiring at limited distances. DSL is provisioned via modem pairs, with one modem located at a central office and the other at the customer site. Because most DSL technologies do not use the whole bandwidth of the twisted pair, there is room remaining for a voice channel.
digital signal processor. A DSP segments a voice signal into frames and stores them in voice packets.
Digital Signature Standard. A digital signature algorithm designed by The US National Institute of Standards and Technology and based on public-key cryptography. DSS does not do user datagram encryption. DSS is a component in classic crypto, as well as the Redcreek
IPSec card, but not in
IPSec implemented in Cisco IOS software.
Dynamic Port Address Translation. Dynamic PAT lets multiple outbound sessions appear to originate from a single IP address. With PAT enabled, the FWSM chooses a unique port number from the PAT IP address for each outbound translation slot (
xlate). This feature is valuable when an
ISP cannot allocate enough unique IP addresses for your outbound connections. The global pool addresses always come first, before a PAT address is used. See also
Static PAT, and
Exterior Gateway Protocol. Replaced by BGP. The FWSM does not support EGP. See also
Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol. The FWSM does not support EIGRP.
Enterprise Management BaseLine Embedded Manageability. A syslog format designed to be consistent with the Cisco IOS system log format and is more compatible with CiscoWorks management applications.
Application of a specific algorithm or cipher to data so as to render the data incomprehensible to those unauthorized to see the information. See also
SMTP. Extended version of
SMTP that includes additional functionality, such as delivery notification and session delivery. ESMTP is described in RFC 1869, SMTP Service Extensions.
Encapsulating Security Payload. An
IPSec protocol, ESP provides authentication and encryption services for establishing a secure tunnel over an insecure network. For more information, refer to RFCs 2406 and 1827.
failover, failover mode
Failover lets you configure two FWSMs so that one will take over operation if the other one fails. The FWSM supports two failover configurations, Active/Active failover and Active/Standby failover. Each failover configuration has its own method for determining and performing failover. With Active/Active failover, both units can pass network traffic. This lets you configure load balancing on your network. Active/Active failover is only available on units running in multiple context mode. With Active/Standby failover, only one unit passes traffic while the other unit waits in a standby state. Active/Standby failover is available on units running in either single or multiple context mode.
Greenwich Mean Time. Replaced by UTC (Coordinated Universal Time) in 1967 as the world time standard.
general packet radio service. A service defined and standardized by the European Telecommunication Standards Institute. GPRS is an IP-packet-based extension of
GSM networks and provides mobile, wireless, data communications
Generic Routing Encapsulation described in RFCs 1701 and 1702. GRE is a tunneling protocol that can encapsulate a wide variety of protocol packet types inside IP tunnels, creating a virtual point-to-point link to routers at remote points over an IP network. By connecting multiprotocol subnetworks in a single-protocol backbone environment, IP tunneling using GRE allows network expansion across a single protocol backbone environment.
Global System for Mobile Communication. A digital, mobile, radio standard developed for mobile, wireless, voice communications.
GPRS tunneling protocol. GTP handles the flow of user packet data and signaling information between the
GGSN in a
GPRS network. GTP is defined on both the Gn and Gp interfaces of a
A protocol used for TCP signalling in applications such as video conferencing. See also
An ITU standard that governs H.225.0 session establishment and packetization. H.225.0 actually describes several different protocols: RAS, use of Q.931, and use of
An ITU standard that governs H.245 endpoint control.
Suite of ITU-T standard specifications for video conferencing over circuit-switched media, such as ISDN, fractional T-1, and switched-56 lines. Extensions of ITU-T standard H.320 enable video conferencing over LANs and other packet-switched networks, as well as video over the
Allows dissimilar communication devices to communicate with each other by using a standardized communication protocol. H.323 defines a common set of CODECs, call setup and negotiating procedures, and basic data transport methods.
Registration, admission, and status signaling protocol. Enables devices to perform registration, admissions, bandwidth changes, and status and disengage procedures between
VoIP gateway and the gatekeeper.
A hash algorithm is a one way function that operates on a message of arbitrary length to create a fixed-length message digest used by cryptographic services to ensure its data integrity. MD5 has a smaller digest and is considered to be slightly faster than
SHA-1. Cisco uses both
MD5 hashes within our implementation of the
IPSec framework. See also
A firewall, concentrator, or other host that serves as the entry point into a private network for
VPN client connections over the public network. See also
A mechanism for message authentication using cryptographic hashes such as
The name for any device on a TCP/IP network that has an IP address. See also
An IP address and netmask used with other information to identify a single host or network subnet for FWSM configuration, such as an address translation (
Hot Standby Routing Protocol. A Cisco-proprietary protocol, HSRP is a routing protocol that provides backup to a router in the event of failure.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol. A protocol used by browsers and web servers to transfer files. When a user views a web page, the browser can use HTTP to request and receive the files used by the web page. HTTP transmissions are not encrypted.
Internet Assigned Number Authority. Assigns all port and protocol numbers for use on the
Internet Control Message Protocol. Network-layer Internet protocol that reports errors and provides other information relevant to IP packet processing.
The Internet Engineering Task Force. A technical standards organization that develops
RFC documents defining protocols for the
Internet Group Management Protocol. IGMP is a protocol used by IPv4 systems to report IP
multicast memberships to neighboring multicast routers.
Internet Key Exchange. IKE establishes a shared security policy and authenticates keys for services (such as
IPSec) that require keys. Before any
IPSec traffic can be passed, each FWSM must verify the identity of its peer. This can be done by manually entering preshared keys into both hosts or by a
CA service. IKE is a hybrid protocol that uses part
Oakley and part of another protocol suite called
ISAKMP framework. This is the protocol formerly known as ISAKMP/Oakley, and is defined in RFC 2409.
IKE Extended Authentication
IKE Extended Authenticate (Xauth) is implemented per the IETF draft-ietf-ipsec-isakmp-xauth-04.txt ("extended authentication" draft). This protocol provides the capability of authenticating a user within IKE using
IKE Mode Configuration
IKE Mode Configuration is implemented per the IETF draft-ietf-ipsec-isakmp-mode-cfg-04.txt. IKE Mode Configuration provides a method for a security gateway to download an IP address (and other network level configuration) to the VPN client as part of an IKE negotiation.
Internet Locator Service. ILS is based on LDAP and is ILSv2 compliant. ILS was developed by Microsoft for use with its NetMeeting, SiteServer, and Active Directory products.
Internet Message Access Protocol. Method of accessing e-mail or bulletin board messages kept on a mail server that can be shared. IMAP permits client e-mail applications to access remote message stores as if they were local without actually transferring the message.
An access rule automatically created by the FWSM based on default rules or as a result of user-defined rules.
International Mobile Subscriber Identity. One of two components of a
GTP tunnel ID, the other being the
NSAPI. See also
The first interface, usually port 1, that connects your internal, "trusted" network protected by the FWSM. See also
The FWSM inspects certain application-level protocols to identify the location of embedded addressing information in traffic. This allows
NAT to translate these embedded addresses and to update any checksum or other fields that are affected by the translation. Because many protocols open secondary
UDP ports, each application inspection engine also monitors sessions to determine the port numbers for secondary channels. The initial session on a well-known port is used to negotiate dynamically assigned port numbers. The application inspection engine monitors these sessions, identifies the dynamic port assignments, and permits data exchange on these ports for the duration of the specific session. Some of the protocols that the FWSM can inspect are
The physical connection between a particular network and a FWSM.
The IP address of a FWSM network interface. Each interface IP address must be unique. Two or more interfaces must not be given the same IP address or IP addresses that are on the same IP network.
Human readable name assigned to a FWSM network interface. The inside interface default name is "inside" and the outside interface default name is "outside." Any perimeter interface default names are "intf
n", such as intf2 for the first perimeter interface, intf3 for the second perimeter interface, and so on to the last interface. The numbers in the intf string corresponds to the position of the interface card in the FWSM. You can use the default names or, if you are an experienced user, give each interface a more meaningful name. See also
Any interface, usually beginning with port 2, that connects to a subset network of your design that you can custom name and configure.
Internet Protocol. IP protocols are the most popular nonproprietary protocols because they can be used to communicate across any set of interconnected networks and are equally well suited for
Intrusion Prevention System. An in-line, deep-packet inspection-based solution that helps mitigate a wide range of network attacks.
An IP protocol address. A FWSM interface ip_address. IP version 4 addresses are 32 bits in length. This address space is used to designate the network number, optional subnetwork number, and a host number. The 32 bits are grouped into four octets (8 binary bits), represented by 4 decimal numbers separated by periods, or dots. The meaning of each of the four octets is determined by their use in a particular network.
A range of local IP addresses specified by a name, and a range with a starting IP address and an ending address. IP Pools are used by
VPNs to assign local IP addresses to clients on the inside interface.
IP Security. A framework of open standards that provides data confidentiality, data integrity, and data authentication between participating peers. IPSec provides these security services at the IP layer. IPSec uses
IKE to handle the negotiation of protocols and algorithms based on local policy and to generate the encryption and authentication keys to be used by IPSec. IPSec can protect one or more data flows between a pair of hosts, between a pair of security gateways, or between a security gateway and a host.
IPSec Phase 1
The first phase of negotiating
IPSec, includes the key exchange and the
ISAKMP portions of
IPSec Phase 2
The second phase of negotiating
IPSec. Phase two determines the type of encryption rules used for payload, the source and destination that will be used for encryption, the definition of interesting traffic according to access lists, and the
IPSec is applied to the interface in Phase 2.
IPSec transform set
A transform set specifies the
IPSec protocol, encryption algorithm, and hash algorithm to use on traffic matching the
IPSec policy. A transform describes a security protocol (
ESP) with its corresponding algorithms. The
IPSec protocol used in almost all transform sets is
ESP with the
DES algorithm and HMAC-SHA for authentication.
Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol. A protocol framework that defines payload formats, the mechanics of implementing a key exchange protocol, and the negotiation of a security association. See
Internet service provider. An organization that provides connection to the
Internet via their services, such as modem dial in over telephone voice lines or
Java Telephony Application Programming Interface. A Java-based API supporting telephony functions. See also
A strong network authentication protocol for client-server applications that uses secret-key cryptography. Kerberos is one of the SASL mechanisms available for security appliance authentication to an LDAP server.
Local area network. A network residing in one location, such as a single building or campus. See also
Networking models implement layers with which different protocols are associated. The most common networking model is the OSI model, which consists of the following 7 layers, in order: physical, data link, network, transport, session, presentation, and application.
Logical channel number.
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol. LDAP provides management and browser applications with access to X.500 directories.
Label Distribution Protocol.
A 32-bit mask that shows how an
Internet address is divided into network, subnet, and host parts. The mask has ones in the bit positions to be used for the network and subnet parts, and zeros for the host part. The mask should contain at least the standard network portion, and the subnet field should be contiguous with the network portion.
Multicast (MC) routers route multicast data transmissions to the hosts on each LAN in an internetwork that are registered to receive specific multimedia or other broadcasts. See also
Message Digest 5. A one-way hashing algorithm that produces a 128-bit hash. Both MD5 and
SHA-1 are variations on MD4 and are designed to strengthen the security of the MD4 hashing algorithm.
SHA-1 is more secure than MD4 and MD5. Cisco uses hashes for authentication within the
IPSec framework. Also used for message authentication in SNMP v.2. MD5 verifies the integrity of the communication, authenticates the origin, and checks for timeliness.
MD5 has a smaller digest and is considered to be slightly faster than
Media dependent interface.
Media dependent interface crossover.
A message digest is created by a hash algorithm, such as
SHA-1, that is used for ensuring message integrity.
Multilayer Switch Feature Card. The Multilayer Switch Feature Card is a router card installed in the Catalyst 6500 switch or Cisco 7600 router.
Media Gateway Control Protocol. Media Gateway Control Protocol is a protocol for the control of VoIP calls by external call-control elements known as media gateway controllers or call agents. MGCP merges the IPDC and
Modular Policy Framework. A means of configuring FWSM features in a manner to similar to Cisco IOS software Modular
mobile station. Refers generically to any mobile device, such as a mobile handset or computer, that is used to access network services.
GPRS networks support three classes of MS, which describe the type of operation supported within the
GPRS and the
GSM mobile wireless networks. For example, a Class A MS supports simultaneous operation of
Maximum transmission unit, the maximum number of bytes in a packet that can flow efficiently across the network with best response time. For Ethernet, the default MTU is 1500 bytes, but each network can have different values, with serial connections having the smallest values. The MTU is described in RFC 1191.
Multicast refers to a network addressing method in which the source transmits a packet to multiple destinations, a multicast group, simultaneously. See also
A third-party, policy-oriented filtering application that works with the FWSM to control user web access. N2H2 can filter
HTTP requests based on destination host name, destination IP address, and username and password. The N2H2 corporation was acquired by Secure Computing in October, 2003.
Network Address Translation. Mechanism for reducing the need for globally unique IP addresses. NAT allows an organization with addresses that are not globally unique to connect to the
Internet by translating those addresses into a globally routable address space.
Network Extension Mode. Lets
VPN hardware clients present a single, routable network to the remote private network over the
Network Basic Input/Output System. A Microsoft protocol that supports Windows host name registration, session management, and data transfer. The FWSM supports NetBIOS by performing
NAT of the packets for NBNS UDP port 137 and NBDS UDP port 138.
In the context of FWSM configuration, a network is a group of computing devices that share part of an IP address space and not a single host. A network consists of multiple nodes or hosts. See also
network management system. System responsible for managing at least part of a network. An NMS is generally a reasonably powerful and well-equipped computer, such as an engineering workstation. NMSs communicate with agents to help keep track of network statistics and resources.
Devices such as routers and printers that would not normally be called hosts. See also
nonvolatile storage, memory
Storage or memory that, unlike RAM, retains its contents without power. Data in a nonvolatile storage device survives a power-off, power-on cycle or reboot.
Network service access point identifier. One of two components of a
GTP tunnel ID, the other component being the
IMSI. See also
Not-so-stubby-area. An OSPF feature described by RFC 1587. NSSA was first introduced in Cisco IOS software release 11.2. It is a non-proprietary extension of the existing stub area feature that allows the injection of external routes in a limited fashion into the stub area.
NT Lan Manager. A Microsoft Windows challenge-response authentication method.
Network time protocol.
A key exchange protocol that defines how to acquire authenticated keying material. The basic mechanism for Oakley is the
Diffie-Hellman key exchange algorithm. Oakley is defined in RFC 2412.
Simplifies access control by letting you apply access control statements to groups of network objects, such as protocol, services, hosts, and networks.
Open Shortest Path First. OSPF is a routing protocol for IP networks. OSPF is a routing protocol widely deployed in large networks because of its efficient use of network bandwidth and its rapid convergence after changes in topology. The FWSM supports OSPF.
Organizational Unit. An X.500 directory attribute.
Refers to traffic whose destination is on an interface with lower security than the source interface.
PPTP Access Concentrator. A device attached to one or more PSTN or ISDN lines capable of
PPP operation and of handling the
PPTP protocol. The PAC need only implement TCP/IP to pass traffic to one or more
PNSs. It may also tunnel non-IP protocols.
The FWSM feature that gathers and reports a wide variety of feature statistics, such as connections/second, xlates/second, etc.
perfect forward secrecy. PFS enhances security by using different security key for the
IPSec Phase 1 and Phase 2
SAs. Without PFS, the same security key is used to establish
SAs in both phases. PFS ensures that a given
IPSecSA key was not derived from any other secret (like some other keys). In other words, if someone were to break a key, PFS ensures that the attacker would not be able to derive any other key. If PFS were not enabled, someone could hypothetically break the
IKESA secret key, copy all the
IPSec protected data, and then use knowledge of the
IKESA secret to compromise the
IPSecSA setup by this
IKESA. With PFS, breaking
IKE would not give an attacker immediate access to
IPSec. The attacker would have to break each
Protocol Independent Multicast. PIM provides a scalable method for determining the best paths for distributing a specific multicast transmission to a group of hosts. Each host has registered using IGMP to receive the transmission. See also
Protocol Independent Multicast-Sparse Mode. With PIM-SM, which is the default for Cisco routers, when the source of a multicast transmission begins broadcasting, the traffic is forwarded from one MC router to the next, until the packets reach every registered host. See also
ICMP request sent by a host to determine if a second host is accessible.
Private Internet eXchange. The Cisco PIX 500-series FWSMs range from compact, plug-and-play desktop models for small/home offices to carrier-class gigabit models for the most demanding enterprise and service provider environments. Cisco PIX FWSMs provide robust, enterprise-class integrated network security services to create a strong multilayered defense for fast changing network environments.
A standard for the transfer of PKI-related data, such as private keys, certificates, and other data. Devices supporting this standard let administrators maintain a single set of personal identity information.
PPTP Network Server. A PNS is envisioned to operate on general-purpose computing/server platforms. The PNS handles the server side of
PPTP relies completely on TCP/IP and is independent of the interface hardware, the PNS may use any combination of IP interface hardware including
Lets you identify local traffic for address translation by specifying the source and destination addresses (or ports) in an access list.
Post Office Protocol. Protocol that client e-mail applications use to retrieve mail from a mail server.
A field in the packet headers of
UDP protocols that identifies the higher level service which is the source or destination of the packet.
Point-to-Point Protocol. Developed for dial-up
ISP access using analog phone lines and modems.
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol. PPTP was introduced by Microsoft to provide secure remote access to Windows networks; however, because it is vulnerable to attack, PPTP is commonly used only when stronger security methods are not available or are not required. PPTP Ports are pptp, 1723/tcp, 1723/udp, and pptp. For more information about PPTP, see RFC 2637. See also
PPTP GRE tunnel,
PPTP session, and
Version 1 of GRE for encapsulating PPP traffic.
PPTP GRE tunnel
A tunnel defined by a
PAC pair. The tunnel protocol is defined by a modified version of
GRE. The tunnel carries
PPP datagrams between the
PAC and the
PNS. Many sessions are multiplexed on a single tunnel. A control connection operating over
TCP controls the establishment, release, and maintenance of sessions and of the tunnel itself.
PPTP is connection-oriented. The
PAC maintain state for each user that is attached to a
PAC. A session is created when end-to-end
PPP connection is attempted between a dial user and the
PNS. The datagrams related to a session are sent over the tunnel between the
TCP session over which
PPTP call control and management information is passed. The control session is logically associated with, but separate from, the sessions being tunneled through a
A preshared key provides a method of
IKE authentication that is suitable for networks with a limited, static number of
IPSec peers. This method is limited in scalability because the key must be configured for each pair of
IPSec peers. When a new
IPSec peer is added to the network, the preshared key must be configured for every
IPSec peer with which it communicates. Using
CAs provides a more scalable method of
primary, primary unit
The FWSM normally operating when two units, a primary and secondary, are operating in failover mode.
A standard that defines the exchange of packets between network nodes for communication. Protocols work together in layers. Protocols are specified in a FWSM configuration as part of defining a security policy by their literal values or port numbers. Possible FWSM protocol literal values are ahp, eigrp, esp, gre, icmp, igmp, igrp, ip, ipinip, ipsec, nos, ospf, pcp, snp, tcp, and udp.
Enables the FWSM to reply to an
ARP request for IP addresses in the global pool. See also
A public key is one of a pair of keys that are generated by devices involved in public key infrastructure. Data encrypted with a public key can only be decrypted using the associated private key. When a private key is used to produce a digital signature, the receiver can use the public key of the sender to verify that the message was signed by the sender. These characteristics of key pairs provide a scalable and secure method of authentication over an insecure media, such as the
quality of service. Measure of performance for a transmission system that reflects its transmission quality and service availability.
Registration Authority. An authorized proxy for a
CA. RAs can perform certificate enrollment and can issue
CRLs. See also
Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service. RADIUS is a distributed client/server system that secures networks against unauthorized access. RFC 2058 and RFC 2059 define the RADIUS protocol standard. See also
Retrieve the running configuration from the FWSM and update the screen. The icon and the button perform the same function.
A security service where the receiver can reject old or duplicate packets to defeat replay attacks. Replay attacks rely on the attacker sending out older or duplicate packets to the receiver and the receiver thinking that the bogus traffic is legitimate. Replay-detection is done by using sequence numbers combined with authentication, and is a standard feature of
Request for Comments. RFC documents define protocols and standards for communications over the
Internet. RFCs are developed and published by
Routing Information Protocol. Interior gateway protocol (IGP) supplied with UNIX BSD systems. The most common IGP in the
Internet. RIP uses hop count as a routing metric.
Reserved Link Local Address. Multicast addresses range from 126.96.36.199 to 188.8.131.52, however only the range 184.108.40.206 to 220.127.116.11 is available to us. The first part of the multicast address range, 18.104.22.168 to 22.214.171.124, is reserved and referred to as the RLLA. These addresses are unavailable. We can exclude the RLLA range by specifying: 126.96.36.199 to 188.8.131.52. 184.108.40.206 to 220.127.116.11 excluding 18.104.22.168 to 22.214.171.124. This is the same as specifying: 126.96.36.199 to 188.8.131.52.
In routed firewall mode, the FWSM is counted as a router hop in the network. It performs
NAT between connected networks and can use
RIP. See also
transparent firewall mode.
Rendezvous Point. An RP acts as the meeting place for sources and receivers of multicast data in a PIM multicast environment.
Remote Procedure Call. RPCs are procedure calls that are built or specified by clients and executed on servers, with the results returned over the network to the clients.
public key cryptographic algorithm (named after its inventors, Rivest, Shamir, and Adelman) with a variable key length. The main weakness of RSA is that it is significantly slow to compute compared to popular secret-key algorithms, such as
DES. The Cisco implementation of
IKE uses a
Diffie-Hellman exchange to get the secret keys. This exchange can be authenticated with RSA (or preshared keys). With the
Diffie-Hellman exchange, the
DES key never crosses the network (not even in encrypted form), which is not the case with the RSA encrypt and sign technique. RSA is not public domain, and must be licensed from RSA Data Security.
Remote Shell. A protocol that allows a user to execute commands on a remote system without having to log in to the system. For example, RSH can be used to remotely examine the status of a number of access servers without connecting to each communication server, executing the command, and then disconnecting from the communication server.
RTP Control Protocol. Protocol that monitors the
QoS of an IPv6
RTP connection and conveys information about the on-going session. See also
Real-Time Transport Protocol. Commonly used with IP networks. RTP is designed to provide end-to-end network transport functions for applications transmitting real-time data, such as audio, video, or simulation data, over multicast or unicast network services. RTP provides such services as payload type identification, sequence numbering, timestamping, and delivery monitoring to real-time applications.
Real Time Streaming Protocol. Enables the controlled delivery of real-time data, such as audio and video. RTSP is designed to work with established protocols, such as
Conditional statements added to the FWSM configuration to define security policy for a particular situation. See also
The configuration currently running in RAM on the FWSM. The configuration that determines the operational characteristics of the FWSM.
security association. An instance of security policy and keying material applied to a data flow. SAs are established in pairs by
IPSec peers during both phases of
IPSec. SAs specify the encryption algorithms and other security parameters used to create a secure tunnel. Phase 1 SAs (
IKE SAs) establish a secure tunnel for negotiating Phase 2 SAs. Phase 2 SAs (
IPSec SAs) establish the secure tunnel used for sending user data. Both
IPSec use SAs, although SAs are independent of one another.
IPSec SAs are unidirectional and they are unique in each security protocol. A set of SAs are needed for a protected data pipe, one per direction per protocol. For example, if you have a pipe that supports
ESP between peers, one
ESP SA is required for each direction. SAs are uniquely identified by destination (
IPSec endpoint) address, security protocol (
ESP), and Security Parameter Index.
IKE negotiates and establishes SAs on behalf of
IPSec. A user can also establish
IPSec SAs manually. An
IKE SA is used by
IKE only, and unlike the
IPSec SA, it is bidirectional.
Simple Authentication and Security Layer. An Internet standard method for adding authentication support to connection-based protocols. SASL can be used between a security appliance and an LDAP server to secure user authentication.
Skinny Client Control Protocol. A Cisco-proprietary protocol used between Cisco Call Manager and Cisco
Simple Certificate Enrollment Protocol. A method of requesting and receiving (also known as enrolling) certificates from
Session Definition Protocol. An
IETF protocol for the definition of Multimedia Services. SDP messages can be part of
The backup FWSM when two are operating in failover mode.
A secret key is a key shared only between the sender and receiver. See
You can partition a single FWSM into multiple virtual firewalls, known as security contexts. Each context is an independent firewall, with its own security policy, interfaces, and administrators. Multiple contexts are similar to having multiple stand-alone firewalls.
A method of data transmission in which the bits of a data character are transmitted sequentially over a single channel.
Simple Gateway Control Protocol. Controls
VoIP gateways by an external call control element (called a call-agent).
Serving GPRS Support Node. The SGSN ensures mobility management, session management and packet relaying functions.
Secure Hash Algorithm 1. SHA-1 [NIS94c] is a revision to SHA that was published in 1994. SHA is closely modeled after MD4 and produces a 160-bit digest. Because SHA produces a 160-bit digest, it is more resistant to brute-force attacks than 128-bit hashes (such as
MD5), but it is slower. Secure Hash Algorithm 1 is a joint creation of the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the National Security Agency. This algorithm, like other hash algorithms, is used to generate a hash value, also known as a message digest, that acts like a
CRC used in lower-layer protocols to ensure that message contents are not changed during transmission. SHA-1 is generally considered more secure than
Session Initiation Protocol. Enables call handling sessions, particularly two-party audio conferences, or "calls." SIP works with
SDP for call signaling.
SDP specifies the ports for the media stream. Using SIP, the FWSM can support any SIP
VoIP gateways and
VoIP proxy servers.
VPN is established between two
IPSec peers that connect remote networks into a single
VPN. In this type of
IPSec peer is the destination or source of user traffic. Instead, each
IPSec peer provides encryption and authentication services for hosts on the
LANs connected to each
IPSec peer. The hosts on each
LAN send and receive data through the secure tunnel established by the pair of
A key exchange protocol that defines how to derive authenticated keying material, with rapid key refreshment.
Stub Multicast Routing. SMR allows the FWSM to function as a "stub router." A stub router is a device that acts as an
IGMP proxy agent.
IGMP is used to dynamically register specific hosts in a multicast group on a particular
LAN with a multicast router. Multicast routers route multicast data transmissions to hosts that are registered to receive specific multimedia or other broadcasts. A stub router forwards
IGMP messages between hosts and
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. SMTP is an Internet protocol that supports email services.
Simple Network Management Protocol. A standard method for managing network devices using data structures called Management Information Bases.
Allows a remote
VPN client simultaneous encrypted access to a private network and clear unencrypted access to the
Internet. If you do not enable split tunneling, all traffic between the
VPN client and the FWSM is sent through an
IPSec tunnel. All traffic originating from the
VPN client is sent to the outside interface through a tunnel, and client access to the
Internet from its remote site is denied.
A type of attack designed to foil network security mechanisms such as filters and access lists. A spoofing attack sends a packet that claims to be from an address from which it was not actually sent.
Structured Query Language Protocol. An Oracle protocol used to communicate between client and server processes.
Secure Shell. An application running on top of a reliable transport layer, such as TCP/IP, that provides strong authentication and encryption capabilities.
Secure Sockets Layer. A protocol that resides between the application layer and TCP/IP to provide transparent encryption of data traffic.
Network protocols maintain certain data, called state information, at each end of a network connection between two hosts. State information is necessary to implement the features of a protocol, such as guaranteed packet delivery, data sequencing, flow control, and transaction or session IDs. Some of the protocol state information is sent in each packet while each protocol is being used. For example, a browser connected to a web server uses
HTTP and supporting TCP/IP protocols. Each protocol layer maintains state information in the packets it sends and receives. The FWSM and some other firewalls inspect the state information in each packet to verify that it is current and valid for every protocol it contains. This is called stateful inspection and is designed to create a powerful barrier to certain types of computer security threats.
Static Port Address Translation. Static PAT is a static address that also maps a local port to a global port. See also
The SSL VPN Client (SVC) is a VPN tunneling technology that gives remote users the benefits of an IPSec VPN client without the need for network administrators to install and configure IPSec VPN clients on remote computers. The SVC uses the SSL encryption that is already present on the remote computer and the WebVPN login and authentication of the security appliance.
Switched virtual interface. An SVI is a VLAN assigned to the MSFC.
Terminal Access Controller Access Control System Plus. A client-server protocol that supports
AAA services, including command authorization. See also
Telephony Application Programming Interface. A programming interface in Microsoft Windows that supports telephony functions.
Transmission Control Protocol. Connection-oriented transport layer protocol that provides reliable full-duplex data transmission.
With the TCP intercept feature, once the optional embryonic connection limit is reached, and until the embryonic connection count falls below this threshold, every SYN bound for the effected server is intercepted. For each SYN, the FWSM responds on behalf of the server with an empty SYN/ACK segment. The FWSM retains pertinent state information, drops the packet, and waits for the client acknowledgment. If the ACK is received, then a copy of the client SYN segment is sent to the server and the
TCP three-way handshake is performed between the FWSM and the server. If this three-way handshake completes, may the connection resume as normal. If the client does not respond during any part of the connection phase, then the FWSM retransmits the necessary segment using exponential back-offs.
Tag Distribution Protocol. TDP is used by tag switching devices to distribute, request, and release tag binding information for multiple network layer protocols in a tag switching network. TDP does not replace routing protocols. Instead, it uses information learned from routing protocols to create tag bindings. TDP is also used to open, monitor, and close TDP sessions and to indicate errors that occur during those sessions. TDP operates over a connection-oriented transport layer protocol with guaranteed sequential delivery (such as
TCP). The use of TDP does not preclude the use of other mechanisms to distribute tag binding information, such as piggybacking information on other protocols.
A terminal emulation protocol for TCP/IP networks such as the
Internet. Telnet is a common way to control web servers remotely; however, its security vulnerabilities have led to its replacement by
Trivial File Transfer Protocol. TFTP is a simple protocol used to transfer files. It runs on UDP and is explained in depth in RFC 1350.
Transport Layer Security. A future IETF protocol to replace
The traffic policing feature ensures that no traffic exceeds the maximum rate (bits per second) that you configure, thus ensuring that no one traffic flow can take over the entire resource.
A mode in which the FWSM is not a router hop. You can use transparent firewall mode to simplify your network configuration or to make the FWSM invisible to attackers. You can also use transparent firewall mode to allow traffic through that would otherwise be blocked in
routed firewall mode. See also
routed firewall mode.
IPSec encryption mode that encrypts only the data portion (payload) of each packet, but leaves the header untouched. Transport mode is less secure than tunnel mode.
IPSec encryption mode that encrypts both the header and data portion (payload) of each packet. Tunnel mode is more secure than transport mode.
A method of transporting data in one protocol by encapsulating it in another protocol. Tunneling is used for reasons of incompatibility, implementation simplification, or security. For example, a tunnel lets a remote
VPN client have encrypted access to a private network.
ACL lookup speeds by compiling them into a set of lookup tables. Packet headers are used to access the tables in a small, fixed number of lookups, independent of the existing number of
User Datagram Protocol. A connectionless transport layer protocol in the IP protocol stack. UDP is a simple protocol that exchanges datagrams without acknowledgments or guaranteed delivery, which requires other protocols to handle error processing and retransmission. UDP is defined in RFC 768.
Universal Mobile Telecommunication System. An extension of
GPRS networks that moves toward an all-IP network by delivering broadband information, including commerce and entertainment services, to mobile users via fixed, wireless, and satellite networks
Unicast Reverse Path Forwarding. Unicast RPF guards against spoofing by ensuring that packets have a source IP address that matches the correct source interface according to the routing table.
Uniform Resource Locator. A standardized addressing scheme for accessing hypertext documents and other services using a browser. For example, http://www.cisco.com.
Coordinated Universal Time. The time zone at zero degrees longitude, previously called Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) and Zulu time. UTC replaced GMT in 1967 as the world time standard. UTC is based on an atomic time scale rather than an astronomical time scale.
Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network. Networking protocol used for implementing wireless networks in UMTS. GTP allows multi-protocol packets to be tunneled through a UMTS/GPRS backbone between a
SGSN and the
User-User Information Element. An element of an
H.225 packet that identifies the users implicated in the message.
LAN. A group of devices on one or more
LANs that are configured (using management software) so that they can communicate as if they were attached to the same physical network cable, when in fact they are located on a number of different
LAN segments. Because VLANs are based on logical instead of physical connections, they are extremely flexible.
Voice over IP. VoIP carries normal voice traffic, such as telephone calls and faxes, over an IP-based network. DSP segments the voice signal into frames, which then are coupled in groups of two and stored in voice packets. These voice packets are transported using IP in compliance with ITU-T specification
Virtual Private Network. A network connection between two peers over the public network that is made private by strict authentication of users and the encryption of all data traffic. You can establish VPNs between clients, such as PCs, or a
headend, such as the FWSM.
Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol. VRRP is an election protocol that dynamically assigns responsibility for one or more virtual router(s) to the VRRP router(s) on a LAN, allowing several routers on a multiaccess link to utilize the same virtual IP address.
Vendor-specific attribute. An attribute in a
RADIUS packet that is defined by a vendor rather than by
RADIUS RFCs. The
RADIUS protocol uses IANA-assigned vendor numbers to help identify VSAs. This lets different vendors have VSAs of the same number. The combination of a vendor number and a VSA number makes a VSA unique. For example, the cisco-av-pair VSA is attribute 1 in the set of VSAs related to vendor number 9. Each vendor can define up to 256 VSAs. A
RADIUS packet contains any VSAs attribute 26, named Vendor-specific. VSAs are sometimes referred to as subattributes.
wide-area network. Data communications network that serves users across a broad geographic area and often uses transmission devices provided by common carriers.
A content filtering solution that manages employee access to the
Internet. Websense uses a policy engine and a
URL database to control user access to websites.
Wired Equivalent Privacy. A security protocol for wireless
LANs, defined in the IEEE 802.11b standard.
Windows Internet Naming Service. A Windows system that determines the IP address associated with a particular network device, also known as "name resolution." WINS uses a distributed database that is automatically updated with the
NetBIOS names of network devices currently available and the IP address assigned to each one.WINS provides a distributed database for registering and querying dynamic
NetBIOS names to IP address mapping in a routed network environment. It is the best choice for
NetBIOS name resolution in such a routed network because it is designed to solve the problems that occur with name resolution in complex networks.
A widely used standard for defining digital certificates. X.509 is actually an ITU recommendation, which means that it has not yet been officially defined or approved for standardized usage.