This section describes how to use IPv4 addresses in the ASA. An IPv4 address is a 32-bit number written in dotted-decimal notation: four 8-bit fields (octets) converted from binary to decimal numbers, separated by dots. The first part of an IP address identifies the network on which the host resides, while the second part identifies the particular host on the given network. The network number field is called the network prefix. All hosts on a given network share the same network prefix but must have a unique host number. In classful IP, the class of the address determines the boundary between the network prefix and the host number.
IP host addresses are divided into three different address classes: Class A, Class B, and Class C. Each class fixes the boundary between the network prefix and the host number at a different point within the 32-bit address. Class D addresses are reserved for multicast IP.
Class A addresses (1.xxx.xxx.xxx through 126.xxx.xxx.xxx) use only the first octet as the network prefix.
Class B addresses (128.0.xxx.xxx through 191.255.xxx.xxx) use the first two octets as the network prefix.
Class C addresses (192.0.0.xxx through 223.255.255.xxx) use the first three octets as the network prefix.
Because Class A addresses have 16,777,214 host addresses, and Class B addresses 65,534 hosts, you can use subnet masking to break these huge networks into smaller subnets.
If you need large numbers of addresses on your network, and they do not need to be routed on the Internet, you can use private IP addresses that the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) recommends (see RFC 1918). The following address ranges are designated as private networks that should not be advertised:
10.0.0.0 through 10.255.255.255
172.16.0.0 through 172.31.255.255
192.168.0.0 through 192.168.255.255
A subnet mask lets you convert a single Class A, B, or C network into multiple networks. With a subnet mask, you can create an extended network prefix that adds bits from the host number to the network prefix. For example, a Class C network prefix always consists of the first three octets of the IP address. But a Class C extended network prefix uses part of the fourth octet as well.
Subnet masking is easy to understand if you use binary notation instead of dotted decimal. The bits in the subnet mask have a one-to-one correspondence with the Internet address:
The bits are set to 1 if the corresponding bit in the IP address is part of the extended network prefix.
The bits are set to 0 if the bit is part of the host number.
Example 1: If you have the Class B address 188.8.131.52 and you want to use the entire third octet as part of the extended network prefix instead of the host number, then you must specify a subnet mask of 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000. This subnet mask converts the Class B address into the equivalent of a Class C address, where the host number consists of the last octet only.
Example 2: If you want to use only part of the third octet for the extended network prefix, then you must specify a subnet mask like 11111111.11111111.11111000.00000000, which uses only 5 bits of the third octet for the extended network prefix.
You can write a subnet mask as a dotted-decimal mask or as a / bits (“slash bits ”) mask. In Example 1, for a dotted-decimal mask, you convert each binary octet into a decimal number: 255.255.255.0. For a / bits mask, you add the number of 1s: /24. In Example 2, the decimal number is 255.255.248.0 and the /bits is /21.
You can also supernet multiple Class C networks into a larger network by using part of the third octet for the extended network prefix. For example, 192.168.0.0/20.
2.The first and last address of a subnet are reserved. In the first subnet example, you cannot use 192.168.0.0 or 192.168.0.7.
Class B-Size Network Address
To determine the network address to use with the subnet mask for a network with between 254 and 65,534 hosts, you need to determine the value of the third octet for each possible extended network prefix. For example, you might want to subnet an address like 10.1. x .0, where the first two octets are fixed because they are used in the extended network prefix, and the fourth octet is 0 because all bits are used for the host number.
To determine the value of the third octet, follow these steps:
Step 1 Calculate how many subnets you can make from the network by dividing 65,536 (the total number of addresses using the third and fourth octet) by the number of host addresses you want.
For example, 65,536 divided by 4096 hosts equals 16.
Therefore, there are 16 subnets of 4096 addresses each in a Class B-size network.
Step 2 Determine the multiple of the third octet value by dividing 256 (the number of values for the third octet) by the number of subnets:
In this example, 256/16 = 16.
The third octet falls on a multiple of 16, starting with 0.
Therefore, Table 49-3 shows the 16 subnets of the network 10.1.
3.The first and last address of a subnet are reserved. In the first subnet example, you cannot use 10.1.0.0 or 10.1.15.255.
IPv6 is the next generation of the Internet Protocol after IPv4. It provides an expanded address space, a simplified header format, improved support for extensions and options, flow labeling capability, and authentication and privacy capabilities. IPv6 is described in RFC 2460. The IPv6 addressing architecture is described in RFC 3513.
This section describes the IPv6 address format and architecture and includes the following topics:
IPv6 addresses are represented as a series of eight 16-bit hexadecimal fields separated by colons (:) in the format: x:x:x:x:x:x:x:x. The following are two examples of IPv6 addresses:
Note The hexadecimal letters in IPv6 addresses are not case-sensitive.
You do not need to include the leading zeros in an individual field of the address, but each field must contain at least one digit. So the example address 2001:0DB8:0000:0000:0008:0800:200C:417A can be shortened to 2001:0DB8:0:0:8:800:200C:417A by removing the leading zeros from the third through sixth fields from the left. The fields that contained all zeros (the third and fourth fields from the left) were shortened to a single zero. The fifth field from the left had the three leading zeros removed, leaving a single 8 in that field, and the sixth field from the left had the one leading zero removed, leaving 800 in that field.
It is common for IPv6 addresses to contain several consecutive hexadecimal fields of zeros. You can use two colons (::) to compress consecutive fields of zeros at the beginning, middle, or end of an IPv6 address (the colons represent the successive hexadecimal fields of zeros). Table 49-4 shows several examples of address compression for different types of IPv6 address.
Table 49-4 IPv6 Address Compression Examples
Note Two colons (::) can be used only once in an IPv6 address to represent successive fields of zeros.
An alternative form of the IPv6 format is often used when dealing with an environment that contains both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses. This alternative has the format x:x:x:x:x:x:y.y.y.y, where x represent the hexadecimal values for the six high-order parts of the IPv6 address and y represent decimal values for the 32-bit IPv4 part of the address (which takes the place of the remaining two 16-bit parts of the IPv6 address). For example, the IPv4 address 192.168.1.1 could be represented as the IPv6 address 0:0:0:0:0:0:FFFF:192.168.1.1 or ::FFFF:192.168.1.1.
IPv6 Address Types
The following are the three main types of IPv6 addresses:
Unicast —A unicast address is an identifier for a single interface. A packet sent to a unicast address is delivered to the interface identified by that address. An interface may have more than one unicast address assigned to it.
Multicast —A multicast address is an identifier for a set of interfaces. A packet sent to a multicast address is delivered to all addresses identified by that address.
Anycast —An anycast address is an identifier for a set of interfaces. Unlike a multicast address, a packet sent to an anycast address is only delivered to the “nearest” interface, as determined by the measure of distances for the routing protocol.
Note There are no broadcast addresses in IPv6. Multicast addresses provide the broadcast functionality.
The general format of an IPv6 global unicast address is a global routing prefix followed by a subnet ID followed by an interface ID. The global routing prefix can be any prefix not reserved by another IPv6 address type (see the “IPv6 Address Prefixes” section, for information about the IPv6 address type prefixes).
All global unicast addresses, other than those that start with binary 000, have a 64-bit interface ID in the Modified EUI-64 format. See the “Interface Identifiers” section, for more information about the Modified EUI-64 format for interface identifiers.
Global unicast address that start with the binary 000 do not have any constraints on the size or structure of the interface ID portion of the address. One example of this type of address is an IPv6 address with an embedded IPv4 address (see the “IPv4-Compatible IPv6 Addresses” section).
Site-local addresses are used for addressing within a site. They can be used to address an entire site without using a globally unique prefix. Site-local addresses have the prefix FEC0::/10, followed by a 54-bit subnet ID, and end with a 64-bit interface ID in the modified EUI-64 format.
Site-local routers do not forward any packets that have a site-local address for a source or destination outside of the site. Therefore, site-local addresses can be considered private addresses.
All interfaces are required to have at least one link-local address. You can configure multiple IPv6 addresses per interfaces, but only one link-local address.
A link-local address is an IPv6 unicast address that can be automatically configured on any interface using the link-local prefix FE80::/10 and the interface identifier in modified EUI-64 format. Link-local addresses are used in the neighbor discovery protocol and the stateless autoconfiguration process. Nodes with a link-local address can communicate; they do not need a site-local or globally unique address to communicate.
Routers do not forward any packets that have a link-local address for a source or destination. Therefore, link-local addresses can be considered private addresses.
IPv4-Compatible IPv6 Addresses
There are two types of IPv6 addresses that can contain IPv4 addresses.
The first type is the IPv4-compatibly IPv6 address. The IPv6 transition mechanisms include a technique for hosts and routers to dynamically tunnel IPv6 packets over IPv4 routing infrastructure. IPv6 nodes that use this technique are assigned special IPv6 unicast addresses that carry a global IPv4 address in the low-order 32 bits. This type of address is termed an IPv4-compatible IPv6 address and has the format ::y.y.y.y, where y.y.y.y is an IPv4 unicast address.
Note The IPv4 address used in the IPv4-compatible IPv6 address must be a globally unique IPv4 unicast address.
The second type of IPv6 address, which holds an embedded IPv4 address, is called the IPv4-mapped IPv6 address. This address type is used to represent the addresses of IPv4 nodes as IPv6 addresses. This type of address has the format ::FFFF:y.y.y.y, where y.y.y.y is an IPv4 unicast address.
The unspecified address, 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0, indicates the absence of an IPv6 address. For example, a newly initialized node on an IPv6 network may use the unspecified address as the source address in its packets until it receives its IPv6 address.
Note The IPv6 unspecified address cannot be assigned to an interface. The unspecified IPv6 addresses must not be used as destination addresses in IPv6 packets or the IPv6 routing header.
The loopback address, 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1, may be used by a node to send an IPv6 packet to itself. The loopback address in IPv6 functions the same as the loopback address in IPv4 (127.0.0.1).
Note The IPv6 loopback address cannot be assigned to a physical interface. A packet that has the IPv6 loopback address as its source or destination address must remain within the node that created the packet. IPv6 routers do not forward packets that have the IPv6 loopback address as their source or destination address.
Interface identifiers in IPv6 unicast addresses are used to identify the interfaces on a link. They need to be unique within a subnet prefix. In many cases, the interface identifier is derived from the interface link-layer address. The same interface identifier may be used on multiple interfaces of a single node, as long as those interfaces are attached to different subnets.
For all unicast addresses, except those that start with the binary 000, the interface identifier is required to be 64 bits long and to be constructed in the Modified EUI-64 format. The Modified EUI-64 format is created from the 48-bit MAC address by inverting the universal/local bit in the address and by inserting the hexadecimal number FFFE between the upper three bytes and lower three bytes of the of the MAC address.
For example, and interface with the MAC address of 00E0.b601.3B7A would have a 64-bit interface ID of 02E0:B6FF:FE01:3B7A.
An IPv6 multicast address is an identifier for a group of interfaces, typically on different nodes. A packet sent to a multicast address is delivered to all interfaces identified by the multicast address. An interface may belong to any number of multicast groups.
An IPv6 multicast address has a prefix of FF00::/8 (1111 1111). The octet following the prefix defines the type and scope of the multicast address. A permanently assigned (well known) multicast address has a flag parameter equal to 0; a temporary (transient) multicast address has a flag parameter equal to 1. A multicast address that has the scope of a node, link, site, or organization, or a global scope has a scope parameter of 1, 2, 5, 8, or E, respectively. For example, a multicast address with the prefix FF02::/16 is a permanent multicast address with a link scope. Figure 49-1 shows the format of the IPv6 multicast address.
Figure 49-1 IPv6 Multicast Address Format
IPv6 nodes (hosts and routers) are required to join the following multicast groups:
The All Nodes multicast addresses:
– FF01:: (interface-local)
– FF02:: (link-local)
The Solicited-Node Address for each IPv6 unicast and anycast address on the node: FF02:0:0:0:0:1:FFXX:XXXX/104, where XX:XXXX is the low-order 24-bits of the unicast or anycast address.
Note Solicited-Node addresses are used in Neighbor Solicitation messages.
IPv6 routers are required to join the following multicast groups:
Multicast address should not be used as source addresses in IPv6 packets.
Note There are no broadcast addresses in IPv6. IPv6 multicast addresses are used instead of broadcast addresses.
The IPv6 anycast address is a unicast address that is assigned to more than one interface (typically belonging to different nodes). A packet that is routed to an anycast address is routed to the nearest interface having that address, the nearness being determined by the routing protocol in effect.
Anycast addresses are allocated from the unicast address space. An anycast address is simply a unicast address that has been assigned to more than one interface, and the interfaces must be configured to recognize the address as an anycast address.
The following restrictions apply to anycast addresses:
An anycast address cannot be used as the source address for an IPv6 packet.
An anycast address cannot be assigned to an IPv6 host; it can only be assigned to an IPv6 router.
Note Anycast addresses are not supported on the ASA.
IPv6 hosts must, at a minimum, be configured with the following addresses (either automatically or manually):
A link-local address for each interface
The loopback address
The All-Nodes multicast addresses
A Solicited-Node multicast address for each unicast or anycast address
IPv6 routers must, at a minimum, be configured with the following addresses (either automatically or manually):
The required host addresses
The Subnet-Router anycast addresses for all interfaces for which it is configured to act as a router
The All-Routers multicast addresses
IPv6 Address Prefixes
An IPv6 address prefix, in the format ipv6-prefix/prefix-length, can be used to represent bit-wise contiguous blocks of the entire address space. The IPv6-prefix must be in the form documented in RFC 2373 where the address is specified in hexadecimal using 16-bit values between colons. The prefix length is a decimal value that indicates how many of the high-order contiguous bits of the address comprise the prefix (the network portion of the address). For example, 2001:0DB8:8086:6502::/32 is a valid IPv6 prefix.
The IPv6 prefix identifies the type of IPv6 address. Table 49-5 shows the prefixes for each IPv6 address type.
Table 49-5 IPv6 Address Type Prefixes
000...0 (128 bits)
000...1 (128 bits)
All other addresses.
Taken from the unicast address space.
Protocols and Applications
Table 49-6 lists the protocol literal values and port numbers; either can be entered in ASA commands.
Table 49-6 Protocol Literal Values
Authentication Header for IPv6, RFC 1826.
Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol.
Encapsulated Security Payload for IPv6, RFC 1827.
Generic Routing Encapsulation.
Internet Control Message Protocol, RFC 792.
Internet Control Message Protocol for IPv6, RFC 2463.
Internet Group Management Protocol, RFC 1112.
Interior Gateway Routing Protocol.
IP Security. Entering the ipsec protocol literal is equivalent to entering the esp protocol literal.
Network Operating System (Novell’s NetWare).
Open Shortest Path First routing protocol, RFC 1247.
Payload Compression Protocol.
Protocol Independent Multicast.
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol. Entering the pptp protocol literal is equivalent to entering the gre protocol literal.
Sitara Networks Protocol.
Transmission Control Protocol, RFC 793.
User Datagram Protocol, RFC 768.
Protocol numbers can be viewed online at the IANA website:
Table 49-7 lists the literal values and port numbers; either can be entered in ASA commands. See the following caveats:
The ASA uses port 1521 for SQL*Net. This is the default port used by Oracle for SQL*Net. This value, however, does not agree with IANA port assignments.
The ASA listens for RADIUS on ports 1645 and 1646. If your RADIUS server uses the standard ports 1812 and 1813, you can configure the ASA to listen to those ports using the authentication-port and accounting-port commands.
To assign a port for DNS access, use the domain literal value, not dns . If you use dns , the ASA assumes you meant to use the dnsix literal value.
Port numbers can be viewed online at the IANA website:
Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (accounting)
Routing Information Protocol
SecureID over UDP
Simple Mail Transport Protocol
Simple Network Management Protocol
Simple Network Management Protocol - Trap
Structured Query Language Network
Sun Remote Procedure Call
Terminal Access Controller Access Control System Plus
RFC 854 Telnet
Trivial File Transfer Protocol
UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program
World Wide Web
X Display Manager Control Protocol
Local Ports and Protocols
Table 49-8 lists the protocols, TCP ports, and UDP ports that the ASA may open to process traffic destined to the ASA. Unless you enable the features and services listed in Table 49-8, the ASA does not open any local protocols or any TCP or UDP ports. You must configure a feature or service for the ASA to open the default listening protocol or port. In many cases you can configure ports other than the default port when you enable a feature or service.
Table 49-8 Protocols and Ports Opened by Features and Services
Feature or Service
Protocol only open on destination IP address 184.108.40.206
IPsec over UDP (NAT-T)
IPsec over UDP (Cisco VPN 3000 Series compatible)
IPsec over TCP (CTCP)
No default port is used. You must specify the port number when configuring IPsec over TCP.
Protocol only open on destination IP address 220.127.116.11 and 18.104.22.168
Protocol only open on destination IP address 22.214.171.124
Port only open on destination IP address 126.96.36.199
8 (non-secure) 9 (secure)
VPN Load Balancing
VPN Individual User Authentication Proxy
Port accessible only over VPN tunnel.
Table 49-9 lists the ICMP type numbers and names that you can enter in ASA commands.