Cisco ASA Services Module CLI Configuration Guide, 8.5
Configuring Threat Detection
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Configuring Threat Detection

Table Of Contents

Configuring Threat Detection

Information About Threat Detection

Licensing Requirements for Threat Detection

Configuring Basic Threat Detection Statistics

Information About Basic Threat Detection Statistics

Guidelines and Limitations

Default Settings

Configuring Basic Threat Detection Statistics

Monitoring Basic Threat Detection Statistics

Feature History for Basic Threat Detection Statistics

Configuring Advanced Threat Detection Statistics

Information About Advanced Threat Detection Statistics

Guidelines and Limitations

Default Settings

Configuring Advanced Threat Detection Statistics

Monitoring Advanced Threat Detection Statistics

Feature History for Advanced Threat Detection Statistics

Configuring Scanning Threat Detection

Information About Scanning Threat Detection

Guidelines and Limitations

Default Settings

Configuring Scanning Threat Detection

Monitoring Shunned Hosts, Attackers, and Targets

Feature History for Scanning Threat Detection

Configuration Examples for Threat Detection


Configuring Threat Detection


This chapter describes how to configure threat detection statistics and scanning threat detection and includes the following sections:

Information About Threat Detection

Licensing Requirements for Threat Detection

Configuring Basic Threat Detection Statistics

Configuring Advanced Threat Detection Statistics

Configuring Scanning Threat Detection

Configuration Examples for Threat Detection

Information About Threat Detection

The threat detection feature consists of the following elements:

Different levels of statistics gathering for various threats.

Threat detection statistics can help you manage threats to your ASASM; for example, if you enable scanning threat detection, then viewing statistics can help you analyze the threat. You can configure two types of threat detection statistics:

Basic threat detection statistics—Includes information about attack activity for the system as a whole. Basic threat detection statistics are enabled by default and have no performance impact.

Advanced threat detection statistics—Tracks activity at an object level, so the ASASM can report activity for individual hosts, ports, protocols, or access lists. Advanced threat detection statistics can have a major performance impact, depending on the statistics gathered, so only the access list statistics are enabled by default.

Scanning threat detection, which determines when a host is performing a scan.

You can optionally shun any hosts determined to be a scanning threat.

Licensing Requirements for Threat Detection

The following table shows the licensing requirements for this feature:

Model
License Requirement

All models

Base License.


Configuring Basic Threat Detection Statistics

Basic threat detection statistics include activity that might be related to an attack, such as a DoS attack.

This section includes the following topics:

Information About Basic Threat Detection Statistics

Guidelines and Limitations

Default Settings

Configuring Basic Threat Detection Statistics

Monitoring Basic Threat Detection Statistics

Feature History for Basic Threat Detection Statistics

Information About Basic Threat Detection Statistics

Using basic threat detection statistics, the ASASM monitors the rate of dropped packets and security events due to the following reasons:

Denial by access lists

Bad packet format (such as invalid-ip-header or invalid-tcp-hdr-length)

Connection limits exceeded (both system-wide resource limits, and limits set in the configuration)

DoS attack detected (such as an invalid SPI, Stateful Firewall check failure)

Basic firewall checks failed (This option is a combined rate that includes all firewall-related packet drops in this bulleted list. It does not include non-firewall-related drops such as interface overload, packets failed at application inspection, and scanning attack detected.)

Suspicious ICMP packets detected

Packets failed application inspection

Interface overload

Scanning attack detected (This option monitors scanning attacks; for example, the first TCP packet is not a SYN packet, or the TCP connection failed the 3-way handshake. Full scanning threat detection (see the "Configuring Scanning Threat Detection" section) takes this scanning attack rate information and acts on it by classifying hosts as attackers and automatically shunning them, for example.)

Incomplete session detection such as TCP SYN attack detected or no data UDP session attack detected

When the ASASM detects a threat, it immediately sends a system log message (733100). The ASASM tracks two types of rates: the average event rate over an interval, and the burst event rate over a shorter burst interval. The burst rate interval is 1/30th of the average rate interval or 10 seconds, whichever is higher. For each received event, the ASASM checks the average and burst rate limits; if both rates are exceeded, then the ASASM sends two separate system messages, with a maximum of one message for each rate type per burst period.

Basic threat detection affects performance only when there are drops or potential threats; even in this scenario, the performance impact is insignificant.

Guidelines and Limitations

This section includes the guidelines and limitations for this feature:

Security Context Guidelines

Supported in single mode only. Multiple mode is not supported.

Firewall Mode Guidelines

Supported in routed and transparent firewall mode.

Types of Traffic Monitored

Only through-the-box traffic is monitored; to-the-box traffic is not included in threat detection.

Default Settings

Basic threat detection statistics are enabled by default.

Table 47-1 lists the default settings. You can view all these default settings using the show running-config all threat-detection command.

Table 47-1 Basic Threat Detection Default Settings 

Packet Drop Reason
Trigger Settings
Average Rate
Burst Rate

DoS attack detected

Bad packet format

Connection limits exceeded

Suspicious ICMP packets detected

100 drops/sec over the last 600 seconds.

400 drops/sec over the last 20 second period.

80 drops/sec over the last 3600 seconds.

320 drops/sec over the last 120 second period.

Scanning attack detected

5 drops/sec over the last 600 seconds.

10 drops/sec over the last 20 second period.

4 drops/sec over the last 3600 seconds.

8 drops/sec over the last 120 second period.

Incomplete session detected such as TCP SYN attack detected or no data UDP session attack detected (combined)

100 drops/sec over the last 600 seconds.

200 drops/sec over the last 20 second period.

80 drops/sec over the last 3600 seconds.

160 drops/sec over the last 120 second period.

Denial by access lists

400 drops/sec over the last 600 seconds.

800 drops/sec over the last 20 second period.

320 drops/sec over the last 3600 seconds.

640 drops/sec over the last 120 second period.

Basic firewall checks failed

Packets failed application inspection

400 drops/sec over the last 600 seconds.

1600 drops/sec over the last 20 second period.

320 drops/sec over the last 3600 seconds.

1280 drops/sec over the last 120 second period.

Interface overload

2000 drops/sec over the last 600 seconds.

8000 drops/sec over the last 20 second period.

1600 drops/sec over the last 3600 seconds.

6400 drops/sec over the last 120 second period.


Configuring Basic Threat Detection Statistics

This section describes how to configure basic threat detection statistics, including enabling or disabling it and changing the default limits.

Detailed Steps

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

threat-detection basic-threat
 
        
Example:
hostname(config)# threat-detection 
basic-threat

Enables basic threat detection statistics (if you previously disabled it). Basic threat detection is enabled by default.

Step 2 

threat-detection rate {acl-drop | 
bad-packet-drop | conn-limit-drop | 
dos-drop | fw-drop | icmp-drop | 
inspect-drop | interface-drop | 
scanning-threat | syn-attack} 
rate-interval rate_interval average-rate 
av_rate burst-rate burst_rate
 
        
Example:
hostname(config)# threat-detection rate 
dos-drop rate-interval 600 average-rate 60 
burst-rate 100

(Optional) Changes the default settings for one or more type of event.

For a description of each event type, see the "Information About Basic Threat Detection Statistics" section.

When you use this command with the scanning-threat keyword, it is also used in the scanning threat detection feature (see the "Configuring Scanning Threat Detection" section). If you do not configure basic threat detection, you can still use this command with the scanning-threat keyword to configure the rate limits for scanning threat detection.

You can configure up to three different rate intervals for each event type.

Monitoring Basic Threat Detection Statistics

To monitor basic threat detection statistics, perform one of the following tasks:

Command
Purpose
show threat-detection rate 
[min-display-rate min_display_rate] 
[acl-drop | bad-packet-drop | 
conn-limit-drop | dos-drop | fw-drop | 
icmp-drop | inspect-drop | interface-drop | 
scanning-threat | syn-attack]

 

Displays basic threat detection statistics.

where the min-display-rate min_display_rate argument limits the display to statistics that exceed the minimum display rate in events per second. You can set the min_display_rate between 0 and 2147483647.

For a description of each event type, see the "Information About Basic Threat Detection Statistics" section.

The output shows the average rate in events/sec over two fixed time periods: the last 10 minutes and the last 1 hour. It also shows: the current burst rate in events/sec over the last completed burst interval, which is 1/30th of the average rate interval or 10 seconds, whichever is larger; the number of times the rates were exceeded (triggered); and the total number of events over the time periods.

The ASASM stores the count at the end of each burst period, for a total of 30 completed burst intervals. The unfinished burst interval presently occurring is not included in the average rate. For example, if the average rate interval is 20 minutes, then the burst interval is 20 seconds. If the last burst interval was from 3:00:00 to 3:00:20, and you use the show command at 3:00:25, then the last 5 seconds are not included in the output.

The only exception to this rule is if the number of events in the unfinished burst interval already exceeds the number of events in the oldest burst interval (#1 of 30) when calculating the total events. In that case, the ASASM calculates the total events as the last 29 complete intervals, plus the events so far in the unfinished burst interval. This exception lets you monitor a large increase in events in real time.

clear threat-detection rate

Clears basic threat statistics.


Examples

The following is sample output from the show threat-detection rate command:

hostname# show threat-detection rate
 
   
                          Average(eps)    Current(eps) Trigger         Total events
  10-min ACL  drop:                  0               0       0                   16
  1-hour ACL  drop:                  0               0       0                  112
  1-hour SYN attck:                  5               0       2                21438
  10-min  Scanning:                  0               0      29                  193
  1-hour  Scanning:                106               0      10               384776
  1-hour Bad  pkts:                 76               0       2               274690
  10-min  Firewall:                  0               0       3                   22
  1-hour  Firewall:                 76               0       2               274844
  10-min DoS attck:                  0               0       0                    6
  1-hour DoS attck:                  0               0       0                   42
  10-min Interface:                  0               0       0                  204
  1-hour Interface:                 88               0       0               318225

Feature History for Basic Threat Detection Statistics

Table 47-2 lists each feature change and the platform release in which it was implemented.

Table 47-2 Feature History for Basic Threat Detection Statistics

Feature Name
Platform Releases
Feature Information

Basic threat detection statistics

8.0(2)

Basic threat detection statistics was introduced.

The following commands were introduced: threat-detection basic-threat, threat-detection rate, show threat-detection rate, clear threat-detection rate.

 

Burst rate interval changed to 1/30th of the average rate.

8.2(1)

In earlier releases, the burst rate interval was 1/60th of the average rate. To maximize memory usage, the sampling interval was reduced to 30 times during the average rate.

Improved memory usage

8.3(1)

The memory usage for threat detection was improved.


Configuring Advanced Threat Detection Statistics

You can configure the ASASM to collect extensive statistics. This section includes the following topics:

Information About Advanced Threat Detection Statistics

Guidelines and Limitations

Default Settings

Configuring Advanced Threat Detection Statistics

Monitoring Advanced Threat Detection Statistics

Feature History for Advanced Threat Detection Statistics

Information About Advanced Threat Detection Statistics

Advanced threat detection statistics show both allowed and dropped traffic rates for individual objects such as hosts, ports, protocols, or access lists.


Caution Enabling advanced statistics can affect the ASASM performance, depending on the type of statistics enabled. The threat-detection statistics host command affects performance in a significant way; if you have a high traffic load, you might consider enabling this type of statistics temporarily. The threat-detection statistics port command, however, has modest impact.

Guidelines and Limitations

This section includes the guidelines and limitations for this feature:

Security Context Guidelines

Only TCP Intercept statistics are available in multiple mode.

Firewall Mode Guidelines

Supported in routed and transparent firewall mode.

Types of Traffic Monitored

Only through-the-box traffic is monitored; to-the-box traffic is not included in threat detection.

Default Settings

By default, statistics for access lists are enabled.

Configuring Advanced Threat Detection Statistics

By default, statistics for access lists are enabled. To enable other statistics, perform the following steps.

Detailed Steps

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

threat-detection statistics
 
        
Example:
hostname(config)# threat-detection statistics

(Optional) Enables all statistics.

To enable only certain statistics, enter this command for each statistic type (shown in this table), and do not also enter the command without any options. You can enter threat-detection statistics (without any options) and then customize certain statistics by entering the command with statistics-specific options (for example, threat-detection statistics host number-of-rate 2). If you enter threat-detection statistics (without any options) and then enter a command for specific statistics, but without any statistic-specific options, then that command has no effect because it is already enabled.

If you enter the no form of this command, it removes all threat-detection statistics commands, including the threat-detection statistics access-list command, which is enabled by default.

Step 2 

threat-detection statistics access-list
 
        
Example:
hostname(config)# threat-detection statistics 
access-list

(Optional) Enables statistics for access lists (if they were disabled previously). Statistics for access lists are enabled by default. Access list statistics are only displayed using the show threat-detection top access-list command. This command is enabled by default.

Step 3 

threat-detection statistics host [number-of-rate {1 | 
2 | 3}]
 
        
Example:
hostname(config)# threat-detection statistics host 
number-of-rate 2

(Optional) Enables statistics for hosts.

The number-of-rate keyword sets the number of rate intervals maintained for host statistics. The default number of rate intervals is 1, which keeps the memory usage low. To view more rate intervals, set the value to 2 or 3. For example, if you set the value to 3, then you view data for the last 1 hour, 8 hours, and 24 hours. If you set this keyword to 1 (the default), then only the shortest rate interval statistics are maintained. If you set the value to 2, then the two shortest intervals are maintained.

The host statistics accumulate for as long as the host is active and in the scanning threat host database. The host is deleted from the database (and the statistics cleared) after 10 minutes of inactivity.

Step 4 

threat-detection statistics port [number-of-rate {1 | 
2 | 3}]
 
        
Example:
hostname(config)# threat-detection statistics port 
number-of-rate 2

(Optional) Enables statistics for TCP and UDP ports.

The number-of-rate keyword sets the number of rate intervals maintained for port statistics. The default number of rate intervals is 1, which keeps the memory usage low. To view more rate intervals, set the value to 2 or 3. For example, if you set the value to 3, then you view data for the last 1 hour, 8 hours, and 24 hours. If you set this keyword to 1 (the default), then only the shortest rate interval statistics are maintained. If you set the value to 2, then the two shortest intervals are maintained.

Step 5 

threat-detection statistics protocol [number-of-rate 
{1 | 2 | 3}]
 
        
Example:
hostname(config)# threat-detection statistics 
protocol number-of-rate 3

(Optional) Enables statistics for non-TCP/UDP IP protocols.

The number-of-rate keyword sets the number of rate intervals maintained for protocol statistics. The default number of rate intervals is 1, which keeps the memory usage low. To view more rate intervals, set the value to 2 or 3. For example, if you set the value to 3, then you view data for the last 1 hour, 8 hours, and 24 hours. If you set this keyword to 1 (the default), then only the shortest rate interval statistics are maintained. If you set the value to 2, then the two shortest intervals are maintained.

Step 6 

threat-detection statistics tcp-intercept 
[rate-interval minutes] [burst-rate attacks_per_sec] 
[average-rate attacks_per_sec]
 
        
Example:
hostname(config)# threat-detection statistics 
tcp-intercept rate-interval 60 burst-rate 800 
average-rate 600

(Optional) Enables statistics for attacks intercepted by TCP Intercept (see the Chapter 44 "Configuring Connection Settings," to enable TCP Intercept).

The rate-interval keyword sets the size of the history monitoring window, between 1 and 1440 minutes. The default is 30 minutes. During this interval, the ASASM samples the number of attacks 30 times.

The burst-rate keyword sets the threshold for syslog message generation, between 25 and 2147483647. The default is 400 per second. When the burst rate is exceeded, syslog message 733104 is generated.

The average-rate keyword sets the average rate threshold for syslog message generation, between 25 and 2147483647. The default is 200 per second. When the average rate is exceeded, syslog message 733105 is generated.

Note This command is available in multiple context mode.

Monitoring Advanced Threat Detection Statistics

The display output shows the following:

The average rate in events/sec over fixed time periods.

The current burst rate in events/sec over the last completed burst interval, which is 1/30th of the average rate interval or 10 seconds, whichever is larger

The number of times the rates were exceeded (for dropped traffic statistics only)

The total number of events over the fixed time periods.

The ASASM stores the count at the end of each burst period, for a total of 30 completed burst intervals. The unfinished burst interval presently occurring is not included in the average rate. For example, if the average rate interval is 20 minutes, then the burst interval is 20 seconds. If the last burst interval was from 3:00:00 to 3:00:20, and you use the show command at 3:00:25, then the last 5 seconds are not included in the output.

The only exception to this rule is if the number of events in the unfinished burst interval already exceeds the number of events in the oldest burst interval (#1 of 30) when calculating the total events. In that case, the ASASM calculates the total events as the last 29 complete intervals, plus the events so far in the unfinished burst interval. This exception lets you monitor a large increase in events in real time.

To monitor advanced threat detection statistics, perform one of the following tasks:

Command
Purpose

show threat-detection statistics [min-display-rate min_display_rate] top [[access-list | host | port-protocol] [rate-1 | rate-2 | rate-3] | tcp-intercept [alldetail]]

 

Displays the top 10 statistics.

The min-display-rate min_display_rate argument limits the display to statistics that exceed the minimum display rate in events per second. You can set the min_display_rate between 0 and 2147483647.

If you do not enter any options, the top 10 statistics are shown for all categories.

To view the top 10 ACEs that match packets, including both permit and deny ACEs, use the access-list keyword. Permitted and denied traffic are not differentiated in this display. If you enable basic threat detection using the threat-detection basic-threat command, you can track access list denies using the show threat-detection rate acl-drop command.

To view only host statistics, use the host keyword. Note: Due to the threat detction algorithm, an interface used as a combination failover and state link could appear in the top 10 hosts; this is expected behavior, and you can ignore this IP address in the display.

To view statistics for ports and protocols, use the port-protocol keyword. The port-protocol keyword shows statistics for both ports and protocols (both must be enabled for the display), and shows the combined statistics of TCP/UDP port and IP protocol types. TCP (protocol 6) and UDP (protocol 17) are not included in the display for IP protocols; TCP and UDP ports are, however, included in the display for ports. If you only enable statistics for one of these types, port or protocol, then you will only view the enabled statistics.

To view TCP Intercept statistics, use the tcp-intercept keyword. The display includes the top 10 protected servers under attack. The all keyword shows the history data of all the traced servers. The detail keyword shows history sampling data. The ASASM samples the number of attacks 30 times during the rate interval, so for the default 30 minute period, statistics are collected every 60 seconds.

The rate-1 keyword shows the statistics for the smallest fixed rate intervals available in the display; rate-2 shows the next largest rate interval; and rate-3, if you have three intervals defined, shows the largest rate interval. For example, the display shows statistics for the last 1 hour, 8 hours, and 24 hours. If you set the rate-1 keyword, the ASASM shows only the 1 hour time interval.

show threat-detection statistics [min-display-rate min_display_rate] host [ip_address [mask]]

Displays statistics for all hosts or for a specific host or subnet.

show threat-detection statistics [min-display-rate min_display_rate] port [start_port[-end_port]]

Displays statistics for all ports or for a specific port or range of ports.

show threat-detection statistics [min-display-rate min_display_rate] protocol [protocol_number | ah | eigrp | esp | gre | icmp | igmp | igrp | ip | ipinip | ipsec | nos | ospf | pcp | pim | pptp | snp | tcp | udp]

Displays statistics for all IP protocols or for a specific protocol.

The protocol_number argument is an integer between 0 and 255.

show threat-detection memory

Displays how much memory is used by advanced threat detection statistics.


Examples

The following is sample output from the show threat-detection statistics host command:

hostname# show threat-detection statistics host
 
   
                          Average(eps)    Current(eps) Trigger         Total events
Host:10.0.0.1: tot-ses:289235 act-ses:22571 fw-drop:0 insp-drop:0 null-ses:21438 bad-acc:0
  1-hour Sent byte:               2938               0       0             10580308
  8-hour Sent byte:                367               0       0             10580308
 24-hour Sent byte:                122               0       0             10580308
  1-hour Sent pkts:                 28               0       0               104043
  8-hour Sent pkts:                  3               0       0               104043
 24-hour Sent pkts:                  1               0       0               104043
  20-min Sent drop:                  9               0       1                10851
  1-hour Sent drop:                  3               0       1                10851
  1-hour Recv byte:               2697               0       0              9712670
  8-hour Recv byte:                337               0       0              9712670
 24-hour Recv byte:                112               0       0              9712670
  1-hour Recv pkts:                 29               0       0               104846
  8-hour Recv pkts:                  3               0       0               104846
 24-hour Recv pkts:                  1               0       0               104846
  20-min Recv drop:                 42               0       3                50567
  1-hour Recv drop:                 14               0       1                50567
Host:10.0.0.0: tot-ses:1 act-ses:0 fw-drop:0 insp-drop:0 null-ses:0 bad-acc:0
  1-hour Sent byte:                  0               0       0                  614
  8-hour Sent byte:                  0               0       0                  614
 24-hour Sent byte:                  0               0       0                  614
  1-hour Sent pkts:                  0               0       0                    6
  8-hour Sent pkts:                  0               0       0                    6
 24-hour Sent pkts:                  0               0       0                    6
  20-min Sent drop:                  0               0       0                    4
  1-hour Sent drop:                  0               0       0                    4
  1-hour Recv byte:                  0               0       0                  706
  8-hour Recv byte:                  0               0       0                  706
 24-hour Recv byte:                  0               0       0                  706
  1-hour Recv pkts:                  0               0       0                    7
 
   

Table 47-3 shows each field description.

Table 47-3 show threat-detection statistics host Command Fields 

Field
Description

Host

Shows the host IP address.

tot-ses

Shows the total number of sessions for this host since it was added to the database.

act-ses

Shows the total number of active sessions that the host is currently involved in.

fw-drop

Shows the number of firewall drops. Firewall drops is a combined rate that includes all firewall-related packet drops tracked in basic threat detection, including access list denials, bad packets, exceeded connection limits, DoS attack packets, suspicious ICMP packets, TCP SYN attack packets, and no data UDP attack packets. It does not include non-firewall-related drops such as interface overload, packets failed at application inspection, and scanning attack detected.

insp-drop

Shows the number of packets dropped because they failed application inspection.

null-ses

Shows the number of null sessions, which are TCP SYN sessions that did not complete within the 3-second timeout, and UDP sessions that did not have any data sent by its server 3 seconds after the session starts.

bad-acc

Shows the number of bad access attempts to host ports that are in a closed state. When a port is determined to be in a null session (see the null-ses field description), the port state of the host is set to HOST_PORT_CLOSE. Any client accessing the port of the host is immediately classified as a bad access without the need to wait for a timeout.

Average(eps)

Shows the average rate in events/sec over each time period.

The ASASM stores the count at the end of each burst period, for a total of 30 completed burst intervals. The unfinished burst interval presently occurring is not included in the average rate. For example, if the average rate interval is 20 minutes, then the burst interval is 20 seconds. If the last burst interval was from 3:00:00 to 3:00:20, and you use the show command at 3:00:25, then the last 5 seconds are not included in the output.

The only exception to this rule is if the number of events in the unfinished burst interval already exceeds the number of events in the oldest burst interval (#1 of 30) when calculating the total events. In that case, the ASASM calculates the total events as the last 29 complete intervals, plus the events so far in the unfinished burst interval. This exception lets you monitor a large increase in events in real time.

Current(eps)

Shows the current burst rate in events/sec over the last completed burst interval, which is 1/30th of the average rate interval or 10 seconds, whichever is larger. For the example specified in the Average(eps) description, the current rate is the rate from 3:19:30 to 3:20:00

Trigger

Shows the number of times the dropped packet rate limits were exceeded. For valid traffic identified in the sent and received bytes and packets rows, this value is always 0, because there are no rate limits to trigger for valid traffic.

Total events

Shows the total number of events over each rate interval. The unfinished burst interval presently occurring is not included in the total events. The only exception to this rule is if the number of events in the unfinished burst interval already exceeds the number of events in the oldest burst interval (#1 of 30) when calculating the total events. In that case, the ASASM calculates the total events as the last 29 complete intervals, plus the events so far in the unfinished burst interval. This exception lets you monitor a large increase in events in real time.

20-min, 1-hour, 8-hour, and 24-hour

Shows statistics for these fixed rate intervals.

Sent byte

Shows the number of successful bytes sent from the host.

Sent pkts

Shows the number of successful packets sent from the host.

Sent drop

Shows the number of packets sent from the host that were dropped because they were part of a scanning attack.

Recv byte

Shows the number of successful bytes received by the host.

Recv pkts

Shows the number of successful packets received by the host.

Recv drop

Shows the number of packets received by the host that were dropped because they were part of a scanning attack.


Feature History for Advanced Threat Detection Statistics

Table 47-4 lists each feature change and the platform release in which it was implemented.

Table 47-4 Feature History for Advanced Threat Detection Statistics 

Feature Name
Platform Releases
Feature Information

Advanced threat detection statistics

8.0(2)

Advanced threat detection statistics was introduced.

The following commands were introduced: threat-detection statistics, show threat-detection statistics.

 

TCP Intercept statistics

8.0(4)/8.1(2)

TCP Intercept statistics were introduced.

The following commands were modified or introduced: threat-detection statistics tcp-intercept, show threat-detection statistics top tcp-intercept, clear threat-detection statistics.

 

Customize host statistics rate intervals

8.1(2)

You can now customize the number of rate intervals for which statistics are collected. The default number of rates was changed from 3 to 1.

The following command was modified: threat-detection statistics host number-of-rates.

 

Burst rate interval changed to 1/30th of the average rate.

8.2(1)

In earlier releases, the burst rate interval was 1/60th of the average rate. To maximize memory usage, the sampling interval was reduced to 30 times during the average rate.

Customize port and protocol statistics rate intervals

8.3(1)

You can now customize the number of rate intervals for which statistics are collected. The default number of rates was changed from 3 to 1.

The following commands were modified: threat-detection statistics port number-of-rates, threat-detection statistics protocol number-of-rates.

 

Improved memory usage

8.3(1)

The memory usage for threat detection was improved.

The following command was introduced: show threat-detection memory.


Configuring Scanning Threat Detection

This section includes the following topics:

Information About Scanning Threat Detection

Guidelines and Limitations

Default Settings

Configuring Scanning Threat Detection

Monitoring Shunned Hosts, Attackers, and Targets

Information About Scanning Threat Detection

A typical scanning attack consists of a host that tests the accessibility of every IP address in a subnet (by scanning through many hosts in the subnet or sweeping through many ports in a host or subnet). The scanning threat detection feature determines when a host is performing a scan. Unlike IPS scan detection that is based on traffic signatures, the ASASM scanning threat detection feature maintains an extensive database that contains host statistics that can be analyzed for scanning activity.

The host database tracks suspicious activity such as connections with no return activity, access of closed service ports, vulnerable TCP behaviors such as non-random IPID, and many more behaviors.

If the scanning threat rate is exceeded, then the ASASM sends a syslog message (733101), and optionally shuns the attacker. The ASASM tracks two types of rates: the average event rate over an interval, and the burst event rate over a shorter burst interval. The burst event rate is 1/30th of the average rate interval or 10 seconds, whichever is higher. For each event detected that is considered to be part of a scanning attack, the ASASM checks the average and burst rate limits. If either rate is exceeded for traffic sent from a host, then that host is considered to be an attacker. If either rate is exceeded for traffic received by a host, then that host is considered to be a target.


Caution The scanning threat detection feature can affect the ASASM performance and memory significantly while it creates and gathers host- and subnet-based data structure and information.

Guidelines and Limitations

This section includes the guidelines and limitations for this feature:

Security Context Guidelines

Supported in single mode only. Multiple mode is not supported.

Firewall Mode Guidelines

Supported in routed and transparent firewall mode.

Types of Traffic Monitored

Only through-the-box traffic is monitored; to-the-box traffic is not included in threat detection.

Traffic that is denied by an access list does not trigger scanning threat detection; only traffic that is allowed through the ASASM and that creates a flow is affected by scanning threat detection.

Default Settings

Table 47-5 lists the default rate limits for scanning threat detection.

Table 47-5 Default Rate Limits for Scanning Threat Detection

Average Rate
Burst Rate

5 drops/sec over the last 600 seconds.

10 drops/sec over the last 20 second period.

5 drops/sec over the last 3600 seconds.

10 drops/sec over the last 120 second period.


The burst rate is calculated as the average rate every N seconds, where N is the burst rate interval. The burst rate interval is 1/30th of the rate interval or 10 seconds, whichever is larger.

Configuring Scanning Threat Detection

Detailed Steps

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

threat-detection scanning-threat [shun 
[except {ip-address ip_address mask | 
object-group network_object_group_id}]]
 
        
Example:
hostname(config)# threat-detection 
scanning-threat shun except ip-address 
10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0

Enables scanning threat detection. By default, the system log message 733101 is generated when a host is identified as an attacker. Enter this command multiple times to identify multiple IP addresses or network object groups to exempt from shunning.

Step 2 

threat-detection scanning-threat shun 
duration seconds
 
        
Example:
hostname(config)# threat-detection 
scanning-threat shun duration 2000

(Optional) Sets the duration of the shun for attacking hosts.

Step 3 

threat-detection rate scanning-threat 
rate-interval rate_interval average-rate 
av_rate burst-rate burst_rate
 
        
Example:
hostname(config)# threat-detection rate 
scanning-threat rate-interval 1200 
average-rate 10 burst-rate 20
 
        
hostname(config)# threat-detection rate 
scanning-threat rate-interval 2400 
average-rate 10 burst-rate 20

(Optional) Changes the default event limit for when the ASASM identifies a host as an attacker or as a target. If you already configured this command as part of the basic threat detection configuration (see the "Configuring Basic Threat Detection Statistics" section), then those settings are shared with the scanning threat detection feature; you cannot configure separate rates for basic and scanning threat detection. If you do not set the rates using this command, the default values are used for both the scanning threat detection feature and the basic threat detection feature. You can configure up to three different rate intervals, by entering separate commands.

Monitoring Shunned Hosts, Attackers, and Targets

To monitor shunned hosts and attackers and targets, perform one of the following tasks:

Command
Purpose
show threat-detection shun

Displays the hosts that are currently shunned.

clear threat-detection shun [ip_address 
[mask]]

Releases a host from being shunned. If you do not specify an IP address, all hosts are cleared from the shun list.

show threat-detection scanning-threat 
[attacker | target]

Displays hosts that the ASASM decides are attackers (including hosts on the shun list), and displays the hosts that are the target of an attack. If you do not enter an option, both attackers and target hosts are displayed.


Examples

The following is sample output from the show threat-detection shun command:

hostname# show threat-detection shun
Shunned Host List:
10.1.1.6
192.168.6.7
 
   

To release the host at 10.1.1.6, enter the following command:

hostname# clear threat-detection shun 10.1.1.6
 
   

The following is sample output from the show threat-detection scanning-threat attacker command:

hostname# show threat-detection scanning-threat attacker
10.1.2.3
10.8.3.6
209.165.200.225
 
   

Feature History for Scanning Threat Detection

Table 47-6 lists each feature change and the platform release in which it was implemented.

Table 47-6 Feature History for Scanning Threat Detection 

Feature Name
Platform Releases
Feature Information

Scanning threat detection

8.0(2)

Scanning threat detection was introduced.

The following commands were introduced: threat-detection scanning-threat, threat-detection rate scanning-threat, show threat-detection scanning-threat, show threat-detection shun, clear threat-detection shun.

 

Shun duration

8.0(4)/8.1(2)

You can now set the shun duration,

The following command was introduced: threat-detection scanning-threat shun duration.

 

Burst rate interval changed to 1/30th of the average rate.

8.2(1)

In earlier releases, the burst rate interval was 1/60th of the average rate. To maximize memory usage, the sampling interval was reduced to 30 times during the average rate.

Improved memory usage

8.3(1)

The memory usage for threat detection was improved.


Configuration Examples for Threat Detection

The following example configures basic threat detection statistics, and changes the DoS attack rate settings. All advanced threat detection statistics are enabled, with the host statistics number of rate intervals lowered to 2. The TCP Intercept rate interval is also customized. Scanning threat detection is enabled with automatic shunning for all addresses except 10.1.1.0/24. The scanning threat rate intervals are customized.

threat-detection basic-threat
threat-detection rate dos-drop rate-interval 600 average-rate 60 burst-rate 100
threat-detection statistics
threat-detection statistics host number-of-rate 2
threat-detection statistics tcp-intercept rate-interval 60 burst-rate 800 average-rate 600
threat-detection scanning-threat shun except ip-address 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0
threat-detection rate scanning-threat rate-interval 1200 average-rate 10 burst-rate 20
threat-detection rate scanning-threat rate-interval 2400 average-rate 10 burst-rate 20