Cisco CSR 1000V Series Cloud Services Router Software Configuration Guide
Using Cisco IOS XE Software
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Table of Contents

Using Cisco IOS XE Software

Using Keyboard Shortcuts

Using the History Buffer to Recall Commands

Understanding the Command Modes

Getting Help

Finding Command Options

Using the no and default Forms of Commands

Saving Configuration Changes

Managing Configuration Files

NVRAM File Security

Filtering the Output of show and more Commands

Powering Off the Cisco CSR 1000V

Using Cisco IOS XE Software

This chapter provides information about the Cisco IOS XE software used to configure the Cisco CSR 1000V Series Cloud Services Router. The Cisco CSR 1000V Series uses standard Cisco IOS XE CLI commands and conventions.

Using Keyboard Shortcuts

Commands are not case sensitive. You can abbreviate commands and parameters if the abbreviations contain enough letters to be different from any other currently available commands or parameters.

Table 2-1 lists the keyboard shortcuts for entering and editing commands.

Table 2-1 Keyboard Shortcuts

Keystrokes
Purpose

Ctrl-B or
the Left Arrow key

Move the cursor back one character.

Ctrl-F or
the Right Arrow key

Move the cursor forward one character.

Ctrl-A

Move the cursor to the beginning of the command line.

Ctrl-E

Move the cursor to the end of the command line.

Esc B

Move the cursor back one word.

Esc F

Move the cursor forward one word.

Using the History Buffer to Recall Commands

The history buffer stores the last 10 commands you entered. History substitution allows you to access these commands without retyping them, by using special abbreviated commands.

Table 2-2 lists the history substitution commands.

Table 2-2 History Substitution Commands

Command
Purpose

Ctrl-P or the Up Arrow key

Recall commands in the history buffer, beginning with the most recent command. Repeat the key sequence to recall successively older commands.

Ctrl-N or the Down Arrow key

Return to more recent commands in the history buffer after recalling commands with Ctrl-P or the Up Arrow key.

Router# show history

While in EXEC mode, list the last several commands you have just entered.

Understanding the Command Modes

The command modes available in the traditional Cisco IOS CLI are exactly the same as the command modes available in Cisco IOS XE.

Use the CLI to access Cisco IOS XE software. Because the CLI is divided into many different modes, the commands available to you at any given time depend on the mode that you are currently in. Entering a question mark ( ? ) at the CLI prompt allows you to obtain a list of commands available for each command mode.

When you log in to the CLI, you are in user EXEC mode. User EXEC mode contains only a limited subset of commands. To have access to all commands, you must enter privileged EXEC mode, normally by using a password. From privileged EXEC mode, you can issue any EXEC command—user or privileged mode—or you can enter global configuration mode. Most EXEC commands are one-time commands. For example, show commands show important status information, and clear commands clear counters or interfaces. The EXEC commands are not saved when the software reboots.

Configuration modes allow you to make changes to the running configuration. If you later save the running configuration to the startup configuration, these changed commands are stored when the software is rebooted. To enter specific configuration modes, you must start at global configuration mode. From global configuration mode, you can enter interface configuration mode and a variety of other modes, such as protocol-specific modes.

Table 2-3 describes how to access and exit various common command modes of the Cisco IOS XE software. It also shows examples of the prompts displayed for each mode.

 

Table 2-3 Accessing and Exiting Command Modes

Command Mode
Access Method
Prompt
Exit Method

User EXEC

Log in.

Router>

Use the logout command.

Privileged EXEC

From user EXEC mode, use the enable EXEC command.

Router#

To return to user EXEC mode, use the disable command.

Global configuration

From privileged EXEC mode, use the configure terminal privileged EXEC command.

Router(config)#

To return to privileged EXEC mode from global configuration mode, use the exit or end command.

Interface configuration

From global configuration mode, specify an interface using an interface command.

Router(config-if)#

To return to global configuration mode, use the exit command.

To return to privileged EXEC mode, use the end command.

Getting Help

Entering a question mark ( ? ) at the CLI prompt displays a list of commands available for each command mode. You can also get a list of keywords and arguments associated with any command by using the context-sensitive help feature.

To get help specific to a command mode, a command, a keyword, or an argument, use one of the commands listed in Table 2-4 :

 

Table 2-4 Help Commands and Purpose

Command
Purpose

help

Provides a brief description of the help system in any command mode.

abbreviated-command-entry?

Provides a list of commands that begin with a particular character string. (No space between command and question mark.)

abbreviated-command-entry<Tab>

Completes a partial command name.

?

Lists all commands available for a particular command mode.

command ?

Lists the keywords or arguments that you must enter next on the command line. (Space between command and question mark.)

Finding Command Options

This section provides an example of how to display syntax for a command. The syntax can consist of optional or required keywords and arguments. To display keywords and arguments for a command, enter a question mark ( ? ) at the configuration prompt or after entering part of a command followed by a space. The Cisco IOS XE software displays a list and brief description of available keywords and arguments. For example, if you were in global configuration mode and wanted to see all the keywords or arguments for the arap command, you would type arap ? .

The <cr> symbol in command help output stands for “carriage return.” On older keyboards, the carriage return key is the Return key. On most modern keyboards, the carriage return key is the Enter key. The <cr> symbol at the end of command help output indicates that you have the option to press Enter to complete the command and that the arguments and keywords in the list preceding the <cr> symbol are optional. The <cr> symbol by itself indicates that no more arguments or keywords are available and that you must press Enter to complete the command.

Table 2-5 shows examples of how you can use the question mark ( ? ) to assist you in entering commands.

 

Table 2-5 Finding Command Options

Command
Comment
Router> enable
Password: <password>
Router#

Enter the enable command and password to access privileged EXEC commands. You are in privileged EXEC mode when the prompt changes to a “ # ” from the “ > ”; for example, Router> to Router# .

Router# configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#

Enter the configure terminal privileged EXEC command to enter global configuration mode. You are in global configuration mode when the prompt changes to Router(config)# .

Router(config)# interface GigabitEthernet ?
<0-6> GigabitEthernet interface number
 
Router(config)# interface GigabitEthernet 1
Router(config-if)#

Enter interface configuration mode by specifying the serial Gigabit Ethernet interface that you want to configure using the interface GigabitEthernet number global configuration command.

Enter ? to display what you must enter next on the command line.

When the <cr> symbol is displayed, you can press Enter to complete the command.

You are in interface configuration mode when the prompt changes to Router(config-if)# .

Note The Cisco CSR 1000V supports only Gigabit Ethernet interfaces.

Router(config-if)# ?
Interface configuration commands:
.
.
.
ip Interface Internet Protocol config commands
keepalive Enable keepalive
lan-name LAN Name command
llc2 LLC2 Interface Subcommands
load-interval Specify interval for load calculation for an
interface
locaddr-priority Assign a priority group
logging Configure logging for interface
loopback Configure internal loopback on an interface
mac-address Manually set interface MAC address
mls mls router sub/interface commands
mpoa MPOA interface configuration commands
mtu Set the interface Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU)
netbios Use a defined NETBIOS access list or enable
name-caching
no Negate a command or set its defaults
nrzi-encoding Enable use of NRZI encoding
ntp Configure NTP
.
.
.
Router(config-if)#

Enter ? to display a list of all the interface configuration commands available for the Gigabit Ethernet interface. This example shows only some of the available interface configuration commands.

 
Router(config-if)# ip ?
Interface IP configuration subcommands:
access-group Specify access control for packets
accounting Enable IP accounting on this interface
address Set the IP address of an interface
authentication authentication subcommands
bandwidth-percent Set EIGRP bandwidth limit
bgp BGP interface commands
broadcast-address Set the broadcast address of an interface
cef Cisco Express Forwarding interface commands
cgmp Enable/disable CGMP
dhcp Configure DHCP parameters for this interface
.
.
.
Router(config-if)# ip

Enter the command that you want to configure for the interface. This example uses the ip command.

Enter ? to display what you must enter next on the command line. This example shows only some of the available interface IP configuration commands.

Router(config-if)# ip address ?
A.B.C.D IP address
dhcp IP Address negotiated via DHCP
pool IP Address autoconfigured from a local DHCP pool
Router(config-if)# ip address
 

Enter the command that you want to configure for the interface. This example uses the ip address command.

Enter ? to display what you must enter next on the command line. In this example, you must enter an IP address or the negotiated keyword.

A carriage return (<cr>) is not displayed; therefore, you must enter additional keywords or arguments to complete the command.

Router(config-if)# ip address 172.16.0.1 ?
A.B.C.D IP subnet mask
Router(config-if)# ip address 172.16.0.1

Enter the keyword or argument that you want to use. This example uses the 172.16.0.1 IP address.

Enter ? to display what you must enter next on the command line. In this example, you must enter an IP subnet mask.

A <cr> is not displayed; therefore, you must enter additional keywords or arguments to complete the command.

Router(config-if)# ip address 172.16.0.1 255.255.255.0 ?
secondary Make this IP address a secondary address
<cr>
Router(config-if)# ip address 172.16.0.1 255.255.255.0

Enter the IP subnet mask. This example uses the 255.255.255.0 IP subnet mask.

Enter ? to display what you must enter next on the command line. In this example, you can enter the secondary keyword, or you can press Enter .

A <cr> is displayed; you can press Enter to complete the command, or you can enter another keyword.

Router(config-if)# ip address 172.16.0.1 255.255.255.0
Router(config-if)#

In this example, Enter is pressed to complete the command.

Using the no and default Forms of Commands

Almost every configuration command has a no form. In general, use the no form to disable a function. Use the command without the no keyword to re-enable a disabled function or to enable a function that is disabled by default. For example, IP routing is enabled by default. To disable IP routing, use the no ip routing command; to re-enable IP routing, use the ip routing command. The Cisco IOS XE software command reference publications provide the complete syntax for the configuration commands and describe what the no form of a command does.

Many CLI commands also have a default form. By issuing the command default command-name , you can configure the command to its default setting. The Cisco IOS XE software command reference publications describe the function of the default form of the command when the default form performs a different function than the plain and no forms of the command. To see what default commands are available on your system, enter default ? in the appropriate command mode.

Saving Configuration Changes

Use the copy running-config startup-config command to save your configuration changes to the startup configuration so that the changes will not be lost if the software reloads or a power outage occurs. For example:

Router# copy running-config startup-config
Building configuration...
 

It might take a minute or two to save the configuration. After the configuration has been saved, the following output appears:

[OK]
Router#
 

This task saves the configuration to NVRAM.

Managing Configuration Files

On the Cisco CSR 1000V, the startup configuration file is stored in the NVRAM partition. As a matter of routine maintenance on any Cisco router, users should backup the startup configuration file by copying the startup configuration file from NVRAM onto one of the router’s other file systems and, additionally, onto a network server. Backing up the startup configuration file provides an easy method of recovering the startup configuration file in the event the startup configuration file in NVRAM becomes unusable for any reason.

The copy command can be used to backup startup configuration files. The following examples show the startup configuration file in NVRAM being backed up:

Example 1: Copying a Startup Configuration File to Bootflash

Router# dir bootflash:
Directory of bootflash:/
 
11 drwx 16384 Jan 24 2012 04:53:55 -05:00 lost+found
12 -rw- 289243620 Jan 24 2012 04:54:55 -05:00
308257 drwx 4096 Jan 24 2012 04:57:06 -05:00 core
876097 drwx 4096 Jan 24 2012 04:57:07 -05:00 .prst_sync
63277 drwx 4096 Jan 24 2012 04:57:10 -05:00 .rollback_timer
13 -rw- 0 Jan 24 2012 04:57:19 -05:00 tracelogs.
csr1000v-adventerprisek9.2012-01-23_12.39.SSA.bin
 
 
Router# copy nvram:startup-config bootflash:
Destination filename [startup-config]?
 
3517 bytes copied in 0.647 secs (5436 bytes/sec)
 
Directory of bootflash:/
 
11 drwx 16384 Jan 24 2012 04:53:55 -05:00 lost+found
12 -rw- 289243620 Jan 24 2012 04:54:55 -05:00
308257 drwx 4096 Jan 24 2012 04:57:06 -05:00 core
876097 drwx 4096 Jan 24 2012 04:57:07 -05:00 .prst_sync
632737 drwx 4096 Jan 24 2012 04:57:10 -05:00 .rollback_timer
13 -rw- 0 Jan 24 2012 04:57:19 -05:00 tracelogs.
csr1000v-adventerprisek9.2012-01-23_12.39.SSA.bin
14 -rw- 7516 Jul 2 2012 15:01:39 -07:00 startup-config

Example 2: Copying a Startup Configuration File to a TFTP Server

Router# copy bootflash:startup-config tftp:
Address or name of remote host []? 172.17.16.81
Destination filename [pe24_asr-1002-confg]? /auto/tftp-users/user/startup-config
!!
3517 bytes copied in 0.122 secs (28828 bytes/sec)
 

For more detailed information on managing configuration files, see the “ Managing Configuration Files” section in the Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide, Cisco IOS XE Release 3S .

NVRAM File Security

The Cisco CSR 1000V encrypts some of the disk partitions internal to the VM to provide extra security around sensitive data that may be stored on the router. For example, information in NVRAM is encrypted so that it is not visible to administrative entities with access to the physical hard disk that the Cisco CSR 1000V is stored on.

Filtering the Output of show and more Commands

You can search and filter the output of show and more commands. This functionality is useful if you need to sort through large amounts of output or if you want to exclude output that you need not see.

To use this functionality, enter a show or more command followed by the “pipe” character ( | ); one of the keywords begin , include , or exclude ; and a regular expression on which you want to search or filter (the expression is case sensitive):

show command | { append | begin | exclude | include | redirect | section | tee } regular-expression

The output matches certain lines of information in the configuration file.

Powering Off the Cisco CSR 1000V

To power off the Cisco CSR 1000V, you must power off the VM the router is installed on. For information about powering off the VM, see your VM vendor documentation.