Cisco ASR 9000 Series Aggregation Services Router Getting Started Guide, Release 4.1
CLI Tips, Techniques, and Shortcuts
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CLI Tips, Techniques, and Shortcuts

Table Of Contents

CLI Tips, Techniques, and Shortcuts

Contents

CLI Tips and Shortcuts

Entering Abbreviated Commands

Using the Question Mark (?) to Display On-Screen Command Help

Completing a Partial Command with the Tab Key

Identifying Command Syntax Errors

Using the no Form of a Command

Editing Command Lines that Wrap

Displaying System Information with show Commands

Common show Commands

Browsing Display Output When the --More-- Prompt Appears

Halting the Display of Screen Output

Redirecting Output to a File

Narrowing Output from Large Configurations

Limiting show Command Output to a Specific Feature or Interface

Using Wildcards to Display All Instances of an Interface

Filtering show Command Output

Adding a Filter at the --More-- Prompt

Multipipe Support

show parser dump command

Accessing Admin Commands from Secure Domain Router Mode

Location Keyword for the file Command

vty / Console Timestamp

Displaying Interfaces by Slot Order

Displaying Unconfigured Interfaces

Displaying Subnet Mask in CIDR Format

Wildcards, Templates, and Aliases

Using Wildcards to Identify Interfaces in show Commands

Examples

Creating Configuration Templates

Examples

Applying Configuration Templates

Examples

Aliases

Keystrokes Used as Command Aliases

Command History

Displaying Previously Entered Commands

Recalling Previously Entered Commands

Recalling Deleted Entries

Redisplaying the Command Line

Displaying Persistent CLI History

Key Combinations

Key Combinations to Move the Cursor

Keystrokes to Control Capitalization

Keystrokes to Delete CLI Entries

Transposing Mistyped Characters


CLI Tips, Techniques, and Shortcuts


This chapter describes techniques for using the command-line interface (CLI) of the Cisco IOS XR software.

Contents

CLI Tips and Shortcuts

Displaying System Information with show Commands

Wildcards, Templates, and Aliases

Command History

Key Combinations


Note Commands can be entered in uppercase, lowercase, or mixed case. Only passwords are case sensitive. However, the Cisco Systems documentation convention presents commands in lowercase.


CLI Tips and Shortcuts

The following sections describe tips and shortcuts useful when using the CLI:

Entering Abbreviated Commands

Using the Question Mark (?) to Display On-Screen Command Help

Completing a Partial Command with the Tab Key

Identifying Command Syntax Errors

Using the no Form of a Command

Editing Command Lines that Wrap

Entering Abbreviated Commands

You can abbreviate commands and keywords to the number of characters that allow a unique abbreviation. For example, the configure command can be abbreviated as config because the abbreviated form of the command is unique. The router accepts and executes the abbreviated command.

Using the Question Mark (?) to Display On-Screen Command Help

Use the question mark (?) to learn what commands are available and the correct syntax for a command. Table 5-1 summarizes the options for on-screen help.


Tip The space (or no space) before the question mark (?) is significant. If you include a space before the question mark, the system displays all available options for a command or CLI mode. If you do not include a space, the system displays a list of commands that begin with a particular character string.


Table 5-1 On-Screen Help Commands

Command
Description

partial-command ?

Enter a question mark (?) at the end of a partial command to list the commands that begin with those characters.

RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# co?

configure copy

Note Do not include a space between the command and question mark.

?

Lists all commands available for a particular command mode.

command ?

Include a space before the question mark (?) to list the keywords and arguments that belong to a command.

RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# configure ?

  exclusive          Configure exclusively from this terminal
  terminal           Configure from the terminal
  <cr>

Note For most commands, the <cr> symbol indicates that you can execute the command with the syntax already entered. For the preceding example, press Return to enter global configuration mode.

command keyword ?

Enter a question mark (?) after the keyword to list the next available syntax option for the command.

RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# show aaa ?

  ikegroup   Show local IKE group(s)
  locald     locald sub system
  login      login sub system
  task       Show task information
  taskgroup  Show all the local taskgroups configured in the system 
  trace      Show trace data for AAA sub system
  userdb     Show all local users with the usergroups each belong to
  usergroup  Show all the local usergroups configured in the system

Note Include a space between the keyword and question mark.


The following example shows how to add an entry to access list 99. The added entry denies access to all hosts on subnet 172.0.0.0 and ignores bits for IPv4 addresses that start within the range of 0 to 255. The following steps provide an example of on-screen command help:


Step 1 Enter the access-list command, followed by a space and a question mark, to list the available options for the command:

RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# ipv4 access-list ?

  log-update  Control access lists log updates
  ssm-acl     Access list name - maximum 32 characters
  bidir-acl   Access list name - maximum 32 characters
  WORD        Access list name - maximum 32 characters

Note The number ranges (within the angle brackets) are inclusive ranges.


Step 2 Enter the access list name list1, followed by a space and another question mark, to display the arguments that apply to the keyword and brief explanations:

RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# ipv4 access-list list1 ?

  log-update  Control access lists log updates
  ssm-acl     Access list name - maximum 32 characters
  bidir-acl   Access list name - maximum 32 characters
  WORD        Access list name - maximum 32 characters
RP/0/RP0/CPU0:router(config)#ipv4 access-list list1 ?
  <1-2147483646>  Sequence number for this entry
  deny            Specifies packets to reject
  permit          Specifies packets to forward
  remark          Comment for access list
  <cr>   
RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)#ipv4 access-list list1

Step 3 Enter the deny option and a question mark to see more command options:

RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)#ipv4 access-list list1 deny ?

  <0-255>         An IPv4 Protocol Number
  A.B.C.D         Source IP address or prefix
  A.B.C.D/prefix  Source IP address and care bits
  ahp             Authentication Header Protocol
  any             Any source host
  eigrp           Cisco's EIGRP Routing Protocol
  esp             Encapsulation Security Payload
  gre             Cisco's GRE Tunneling
  host            A single source host
  icmp            Internet Control Message Protocol
  igmp            Internet Gateway Message Protocol
  igrp            Cisco's IGRP Routing Protocol
  ipinip          IP in IP tunneling
  ipv4            Any IPv4 Protocol
  nos             KA9Q NOS Compatible IP over IP Tunneling
  ospf            OSPF Routing Protocol
  pcp             Payload Compression Protocol
  pim             Protocol Independent Multicast
  sctp            Stream Control Transmission Protocol
  tcp             Transport Control Protocol
  udp             User Datagram Protocol
RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)#ipv4 access-list list1 deny

Step 4 Enter an IP address, followed by a space and a question mark (?), to list additional options:

RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# ipv4 access-list list1 deny 172.31.134.0 ? 

   A.B.C.D    Wildcard bits
  log        Log matches against this entry
  log-input  Log matches against this entry, including input interface
  <cr>  

RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# ipv4 access-list list1 deny 172.31.134.0

The <cr> symbol by itself indicates that there are no more keywords or arguments.

Step 5 Press Enter to execute the command:

RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# ipv4 access-list list1 deny 172.31.134.0

Note The configuration does not become active until you enter the commit command to add the target configuration to the running configuration.


Completing a Partial Command with the Tab Key

If you do not remember a complete command name or want to reduce the amount of typing you have to perform, enter the first few letters of the command, then press the Tab key. If only one command begins with that character string, the system automatically completes the command for you. If the characters you entered indicate more than one command, the system beeps to indicate that the text string is not unique and the system provides a list of commands that match the text entered.

In the following example, the CLI recognizes conf as a unique string in EXEC mode and completes the command when you press the Tab key:

RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# conf<Tab> 
RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# configure 

The CLI displays the full command name. You must then press Return to execute the command. This feature allows you to modify or reject the suggested command.

In the next example, the CLI recognizes two commands that match the text entered:

RP/0/RSP1/CPU0:router# co<Tab>
configure  copy  
RP/0/RSP1/CPU0:router# con<Tab>
RP/0/RSP1/CPU0:router# configure

Tip If your keyboard does not have a Tab key, press Ctrl-I instead.


Identifying Command Syntax Errors

If an incorrect command is entered, an error message is returned with the caret (^) at the point of the error. In the following example, the caret appears where the character was typed incorrectly in the command:

RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# configure termiMal
                                   ^
% Invalid input detected at '^' marker.

Note The percent sign (%) indicates the line in which the error message occurred.


To display the correct command syntax, enter the ? after the command:

RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# configure ?

  exclusive  Configure exclusively from this terminal
  terminal   Configure from the terminal
  <cr>

Using the no Form of a Command

Almost every configuration command has a no form. Depending on the command, the no form enables or disables a feature. For example, when configuring an interface, the no shutdown command brings up the interface, and the shutdown command shuts down the interface. The username command creates a new user, and the no username command deletes a user when entered with a valid username.

The Cisco IOS XR software command reference publications provide the complete syntax for the configuration commands and describe what the no form of a command does. For more information, see the "Related Documents" section on page x.

Editing Command Lines that Wrap

The CLI provides a wraparound feature for commands that extend beyond a single line on the screen. When the cursor reaches the right margin, the command line shifts ten spaces to the left. The first ten characters of the line are not shown, but it is possible to scroll back and check the syntax at the beginning of the command. To scroll back, press Ctrl-B or the Left Arrow key repeatedly, or press Ctrl-A to return directly to the beginning of the line.

In the following example, the ipv4 access-list command entry is too long to display on one line. When the cursor reaches the end of the line, the line is shifted to the left and redisplayed. The dollar sign ($) after the command prompt indicates that the line has been scrolled to the left and the beginning of the command is hidden.

RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# $s-list 101 permit tcp 172.31.134.5 255.255.255.0 
172.31.135.0

In the next example, Ctrl-A is used to display the beginning of the command line, and the dollar sign at the end of the command line shows the command has been scrolled to the right and the end of the command is hidden:

RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# ipv4 access-list 101 permit tcp 172.31.134.5 255.255.255.0 
17$

In the next example, the Right Arrow key has been used to scroll to the right. Notice that dollar sign symbols appear at both ends of the line, which indicates that command information is hidden from the beginning and end of the command.

RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# $ccess-list 101 permit tcp 172.31.134.5 255.255.255.0 
172.31.$

By default, the Cisco IOS XR software uses a terminal screen 80 columns wide. To adjust for a different screen width, use the terminal width command in EXEC mode.

Use line wrapping with the command history feature to recall and modify previous complex command entries.

Displaying System Information with show Commands

The show commands display information about the system and its configuration. The following sections describe some common show commands and provide techniques to manage the output from those commands:

Common show Commands

Browsing Display Output When the --More-- Prompt Appears

Halting the Display of Screen Output

Redirecting Output to a File

Narrowing Output from Large Configurations

Filtering show Command Output

show parser dump command

Accessing Admin Commands from Secure Domain Router Mode

Location Keyword for the file Command

vty / Console Timestamp

Displaying Interfaces by Slot Order

Displaying Unconfigured Interfaces

Displaying Subnet Mask in CIDR Format

Common show Commands

Table 5-2 shows some of the most common show commands.

Table 5-2 Common show Commands in Cisco IOS XR Software 

Command
Description
Command Mode

show version

Displays system information.

EXEC or administration EXEC mode

show configuration

Displays the uncommitted configuration changes made during a configuration session.

Global or administration configuration mode

show running-config (EXEC or global configuration mode)

Displays the current running configuration for the RSP to which you are connected.

EXEC or global configuration mode

show running-config (administration EXEC or administration configuration mode)

Displays the current running configuration that applies to the entire router

administration EXEC or administration configuration mode

show tech-support

Collects a large amount of system information for troubleshooting. You can provide this output to technical support representatives when reporting a problem.

EXEC or administration EXEC mode

show platform (EXEC mode)

Displays information about cards and modules assigned to the RSP to which you are connected.

EXEC mode

show platform (administration EXEC mode)

Displays information about all cards and modules in the router.

administration EXEC mode

show environment

Displays hardware information for the system, including fans, LEDs, power supply voltage and current, and temperatures. Enter show environment ? to see additional command options.

EXEC mode or administration EXEC mode


For more information on the use of these commands, see the "Related Documents" section on page x.

Browsing Display Output When the --More-- Prompt Appears

When command output requires more than one screen, such as for the ?, show, or more commands, the output is presented one screen at a time, and a --More-- prompt appears at the bottom of the screen.

To display additional command output, do one of the following:

Press Return to display the next line.

Press Spacebar to display the next screen of output.

The following example shows one screen of data and the --More-- prompt:

RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# show ?

 MgmtMultilink         Show trace data for the multilink controller component
  aaa                   Show AAA configuration and operational data
  access-lists          Access lists
  accounting            Show commands for the Accounting Server
  address-pool          Local address pool
  adjacency             Adjacency information
  af-ea                 AF-EA Platform details
  afmon-lib             (Realtime) App Flow Monitoring Library Tracing
  afmon-ma              Show commands for afmon_ma process
  aliases               Display alias commands
  ancp                  Access Node Control Protocol show commands
  app-obj               APP-OBJ Show Commands
  aps                   SONET APS information
  aqsm                  AQSM show commands
  aqsmlib               AQSMLIB show commands
  arm                   IP ARM information
  arp                   ARP show commands
  arp-gmp               ARP show commands
  asic-errors           ASIC error information
  atc                   Attractor Cache related
  atm                   ATM information
  atm-vcm               Show atm_vcm component
  attractor             Show commands for attractor process
 --More-- 

Tip If you do not see the --More-- prompt, try entering a value for the screen length with the terminal length command in EXEC mode. Command output is not paused if the length value is set to zero. The following example shows how to set the terminal length:

RP/0/
RSP1/CPU0:router# terminal length 20


For information on searching or filtering CLI output, see the "Filtering show Command Output" section.

Halting the Display of Screen Output

To interrupt screen output and terminate a display, press Ctrl-C, as shown in the following example:

RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# show running-config 
<Ctrl-C>

Redirecting Output to a File

By default, CLI command output appears on the screen. CLI command output can be redirected to a user-specified file by entering a filename and location after the show command syntax. The following command syntax is used to redirect output to a file:

show command | file filename

This feature enables you to save any of the show command output in a file for further analysis and reference. When you choose to redirect command output, consider the following guidelines:

If the full path of the file is not specified, the default directory for your account is used. You should always save your target configuration files to this location.

If the saved output is to be used as a configuration file, the filename should end with the cfg suffix for easy identification. This suffix is not required, but can help locate target configuration files. Example: myconfig.cfg

In the following example, a target configuration file is saved to the default user directory:

RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# configure
RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# show configure | file disk0:myconfig.cfg                    
RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# abort                                                       
RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router#

Narrowing Output from Large Configurations

Displaying a large running configuration can produce thousands of lines of output. To limit the output of a show command to only the items you want to view, use the procedures in the following sections:

Limiting show Command Output to a Specific Feature or Interface

Using Wildcards to Display All Instances of an Interface

Limiting show Command Output to a Specific Feature or Interface

Entering keywords and arguments in the show command limits the show output to a specific feature or interface.

In the following example, only information about the static IP route configuration appears:

RP/0/RSP1/CPU0:router# show running-config router static

router static
 address-family ipv4 unicast
  0.0.0.0/0 10.21.0.1
  0.0.0.0/0 Gi0/1/0/1 10.21.0.1
 !
!

In the following example, the configuration for a specific interface appears:

RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# show running-config interface Gi 0/1/0/1 

interface Gi0/1/0/1 
 ipv4 address 10.21.54.31 255.255.0.0 
 !

Using Wildcards to Display All Instances of an Interface

To display the configuration for all instances, enter the asterisk (*) wildcard character.


Note For more information, see the "Using Wildcards to Identify Interfaces in show Commands" section.


In the following example, a configuration for all Gigabit-Ethernet interfaces is displayed:

RP/0/RSP1/CPU0:router# show running-config interface gigabit *

interface Gi0/1/0/0
 ipv4 address 10.2.3.4 255.255.255.0
 gi
  crc 32
 !
 shutdown
 keepalive disable
!
interface Gi0/1/0/1
 ipv4 address 10.2.3.5 255.255.255.0
 gi
  crc 32
 !
 shutdown
 keepalive disable
!
interface Gi0/1/0/2
 ipv4 address 10.2.3.6 255.255.255.0
 gi
  crc 32
 !
 shutdown
 keepalive disable
!
interface Gi0/1/0/3
 ipv4 address 10.2.3.7 255.255.255.0
 gi
  crc 32
 !
 shutdown
 keepalive disable
!
 
 --More--

Filtering show Command Output

Output from the show commands can generate a large amount of data. To display only a subset of information, enter the "pipe" character (|) followed by a keyword (begin, include, exclude, or file) and a regular expression. Table 5-3 shows the filtering options for the show command.

Table 5-3 show Command Filter Options

Command
Description

show command | begin regular-expression

Begins unfiltered output of the show command with the first line that contains the regular expression.

show command | exclude regular-expression

Displays output lines that do not contain the regular expression.

show command | include regular-expression

Displays output lines that contain the regular expression.

show command | file device0:path/file

Saves output of the show command to the specified file on the specified device.

show command | utility name

Displays a set of UNIX utilities:

cut—Cuts characters or lines from the output displayed from standard input or a file.

egrep—Searches a file using full regular expressions.

fgrep—Searches a file for a fixed character string.

head—Copies bytes or lines at the beginning of the output displayed from standard input or a file.

less—Displays the output of a file in a page-by-page manner.

sort—Sorts, merges, or sequence-checks the output displayed from standard input or a file.

tail—Copies the end portion of the output displayed from standard input or a file.

uniq—Displays or removes repeated lines in a file.

wc—Count words, lines, or bytes in a file.

xargs—Invokes a program from one or more argument lists.


In the following example, the show interface command includes only lines in which the expression "protocol" appears:

RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# show interface | include protocol

Null0 is up, line protocol is up
0 drops for unrecognized upper-level protocol
Gi0/2/0/0 is administratively down, line protocol is administratively down
0 drops for unrecognized upper-level protocol
Gi0/2/0/1 is administratively down, line protocol is administratively down
0 drops for unrecognized upper-level protocol
Gi0/2/0/2 is administratively down, line protocol is administratively down
0 drops for unrecognized upper-level protocol
Gi0/2/0/3 is administratively down, line protocol is administratively down
0 drops for unrecognized upper-level protocol
MgmtEthernet0/RSP0/CPU0/0 is administratively down, line protocol is administratively
down
MgmtEthernet0/RSP0/CPU0/0 is administratively down, line protocol is administratively
down
0 drops for unrecognized upper-level protocol

Note Filtering is available for submodes, complete commands, and anywhere that <cr> appears in the "?" output.


Adding a Filter at the --More-- Prompt

You can specify a filter at the --More-- prompt of a show command output by entering a forward slash (/) followed by a regular expression. The filter remains active until the command output finishes or is interrupted (using Ctrl-Z or Ctrl-C). The following rules apply to this technique:

If a filter is specified at the original command or previous --More-- prompt, a second filter cannot be applied.

The use of the begin keyword does not constitute a filter.

The minus sign (-) preceding a regular expression displays output lines that do not contain the regular expression.

The plus sign (+) preceding a regular expression displays output lines that contain the regular expression.

In the following example, the user adds a filter at the --More-- prompt to show only the lines in the remaining output that contain the regular expression "ip":

RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# show configuration running | begin line

Building configuration...
line console
 exec-timeout 120 120
!
logging trap
--More--
/ip
filtering...
ip route 0.0.0.0 255.255.0.0 Gi0/2/0/0
interface Gi0/2/0/0
 ip address 172.19.73.215 255.255.0.0
end


Tip On most systems, Ctrl-Z can be entered at any time to interrupt the output and return to EXEC mode.


For more information, see Appendix A, "Understanding Regular Expressions, Special Characters, and Patterns."

Multipipe Support

The multipipe feature supports the multiple pipes on the CLI. With this feature, the output can be processed by an enhanced utility set. Using various combination of utilities, it is possible to gather, filter, and format the output of any show command. An arbitrary limit of eight pipes is supported on CLI with this limit superseded by the limit of characters that can be typed on the single line (1024) if the individual commands specified with pipes are long enough.

In addition, if you want to give pipe character (|) as a pattern, you must give it in double quotes. For example:

RP/0/RSP1/CPU0:single8-hfr# show running-config|include "gi|ospf"|file disk0:/usr/a.log

show parser dump command

The show parser dump command displays the CLI syntax options for a specific submode.

It is a utility that dumps the parser commands supported on the router and a tool that displays line-by-line commands available in a submode. The command is available in every mode and it shows the command set available for that mode. This is a very handy tool for collecting the CLI commands for a mode.

The show parser dump command supports a filter. For example, an initial portion of the command can be specified and the command set matching to that portion can be displayed.

RP/0/RSP1/CPU0:router(config-un)# show parser dump

show
show configuration merge
show configuration running sanitized desanitize rpl
show configuration running sanitized
show configuration running
show configuration
show configuration failed noerrors
show configuration failed
show configuration failed load
show running-config
show running-config sanitized desanitize rpl
show running-config sanitized
show running-config submode
show parser dump
show history detail
show history
pwd
exit

Accessing Admin Commands from Secure Domain Router Mode

You can access admin commands from secure domain router mode by prefixing the Admin keyword. Switching to admin mode is not required. For example:

RP/0/RSP1/CPU0:router# admin install add 
tftp://223.255.254.254/muck/username/38ws/hfr-mpls-p.pie sync active

In the preceding example the install command is an admin mode command that you can run from RSP by prefixing admin keyword.

Location Keyword for the file Command

Specify the location of the media (as specified, disk0) where the file needs to be stored. This option is available only for the disk or any media storage available on different nodes of the router.

If you have a media (disk0: disk1:), it is provided with an additional location keyword. This option displays all the nodes where the media is present.

RP/0/RSP1/CPU0:router# sh logging | file disk0:/log-file location ?

0/0/cpu0 Fully qualified location specification
0/1/cpu0 Fully qualified location specification

Note The location keyword must be available only for the disk or any media storage available on RP. Network files do not require this keyword.


vty / Console Timestamp

This feature enables the timestamp to be set to On by default for each EXEC or admin EXEC command. Previously, the default setting for the time stamp was disabled.

The following command disables the timestamp:

RP/0/RSP1/CPU0:router(config)# line console timestamp disable 

The following command enables the timestamp:

RP/0/RSP1/CPU0:router(config)# no line console timestamp disable 

However, the previous command to enable the timestamp is still available.

Displaying Interfaces by Slot Order

This feature lets you display physical interfaces in a sequence of slots for a specific rack. This provides an easy way to determine if the interfaces are configured on a specific slot. Previously, the physical interfaces were displayed by interface types.

To display the interfaces by slot order, you need to configure the configuration display interface slot-order command at the global configuration mode:

RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# configure terminal

RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# configuration display interface slot-order

RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# commit

RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# end

This command enables the display of physical interfaces by slot-order:

RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# show running-config

service configuration display slot-order

interface MgmtEth0/0/CPU0/0

ipv4 address 12.29.38.6 255.255.0.0

!

interface MgmtEth0/0/CPU0/1

shutdown

!

interface POS0/2/0/0

shutdown

!

interface POS0/2/0/1

shutdown

!

interface GigabitEthernet0/3/0/0

shutdown

!

interface GigabitEthernet0/3/0/1

shutdown

!

interface POS0/4/0/0

shutdown

!

interface POS0/4/0/1

shutdown


Note The configuration display interface slot-order command is supported only in the RSP configuration mode.


Displaying Unconfigured Interfaces

This feature lets you display the list of all physical interfaces, even if these interfaces are not configured. You can use the show running-config all-interfaces command to display all unconfigured interfaces. Previously, the show running-config command displayed only the running configuration of the system--any feature not configured explicitly by the user (or operating in default mode) would not have any evidence in the output of the show running-config command.

RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# show running-config all-interfaces
Sun Jun 13 21:44:46.769 DST
hostname Router
interface MgmtEth0/0/CPU0/0
 ipv4 address 12.29.38.6 255.255.0.0
!
interface MgmtEth0/0/CPU0/1
 shutdown
!
interface POS0/2/0/0
!
interface POS0/2/0/1
!
router static
 address-family ipv4 unicast
   0.0.0.0/0 12.29.0.1
 !
!

Notice that the POS interfaces have no configurations but they are still shown in the output of the command.

This option is not applicable to other variants of show configuration commands like the following:

show configuration

show configuration commit changes

show configuration rollback changes

show configuration failed

show configuration persistent

Displaying Subnet Mask in CIDR Format

This feature displays IPv4 address subnet mask in Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR) format instead of decimal format. The change of format for all show commands may cause backward compatibility issues. To overcome this problem, the ipv4 netmask-format hit-count command has been implemented in the IP/CLI component, which maintains the common infrastructure specific to IP related CLIs.

To display the subnet in a prefix length format, you need to configure the ipv4 netmask-format hit-count command at the global configuration mode:

RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# configure terminal
RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# ipv4 netmask-format bit-count
RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# commit
RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# end

After this command has been configured, the output of the show command forcefully displays the subnet mask in a prefix length format. Also, you can disable the command by using the no form of the command.

RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# no ipv4 netmask-format bit-count
RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router#

Note This ipv4 netmask-format hit-count command is supported only in the RSP configuration mode.


The following example shows the output of a show running-config command after the ipv4 netmask-format bit-count command has been configured:

RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# show running-config interface mgmtEth 0/RP0/CPU0/0
Mon May 31 23:48:17.453 DST
interface MgmtEth0/RP0/CPU0/0
 description Connected to Lab LAN
 ipv4 address 172.29.52.70 255.255.255.0

Wildcards, Templates, and Aliases

This section contains the following topics:

Using Wildcards to Identify Interfaces in show Commands

Creating Configuration Templates

Aliases

Keystrokes Used as Command Aliases

Using Wildcards to Identify Interfaces in show Commands

Wildcards (*) identify a group of interfaces in show commands. Table 5-4 provides examples of wildcard usage to identify a group of interfaces.

Table 5-4 Examples of Wildcard Usage

Wildcard Syntax
Description

*

Specifies all interfaces

gi*

Specifies all Gigabit-Ethernet interfaces in the system

gi0/1/*

Specifies all Gigabit-Ethernet interfaces in rack 0, slot 1

gi0/3/4.*

Specifies all subinterfaces for Gi0/3/4



Note The wildcard (*) must be the last character in the interface name.


Examples

The following example shows how the configuration for all Gigabit-Ethernet interfaces in rack 0, slot 1 is displayed.

RP/0/RSP1/CPU0:router:router# show running-config interface Gi0/1/*

interface Gi0/1/0/0
 ipv4 address 10.2.3.4 255.255.255.0
 gi
  crc 32
 !
 keepalive disable
interface Gi0/1/0/1
 ipv4 address 10.2.3.5 255.255.255.0
 gi
  crc 32
 !
 keepalive disable
interface Gi0/1/0/2
 ipv4 address 10.2.3.6 255.255.255.0
 gi
  crc 32
 !
 keepalive disable
interface Gi0/1/0/3
 ipv4 address 10.2.3.7 255.255.255.0
 gi
  crc 32
 !
 keepalive disable

 --More-- 

The following example shows how the state of all Gigabit-Ethernet interfaces is displayed:

RP/0/RSP1/CPU0:router# show interfaces gi* brief

               Intf        Intf         LineP              Encap  MTU       BW
               Name        State        State               Type (byte)   (Kbps)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Gi0/1/0/0           up           up               HDLC  4474   2488320
          Gi0/1/0/1           up           up               HDLC  4474   2488320
          Gi0/1/0/2           up           up               HDLC  4474   2488320
          Gi0/1/0/3           up           up               HDLC  4474   2488320
          Gi0/1/0/4           up           up               HDLC  4474   2488320
          Gi0/1/0/5           up           up               HDLC  4474   2488320
          Gi0/1/0/6           up           up               HDLC  4474   2488320
          Gi0/1/0/7           up           up               HDLC  4474   2488320
          Gi0/1/0/8           up           up               HDLC  4474   2488320
          Gi0/1/0/9           up           up               HDLC  4474   2488320
         Gi0/1/0/10           up           up               HDLC  4474   2488320
         Gi0/1/0/11           up           up               HDLC  4474   2488320
         Gi0/1/0/12           up           up               HDLC  4474   2488320
         Gi0/1/0/13           up           up               HDLC  4474   2488320
         Gi0/1/0/14           up           up               HDLC  4474   2488320
         Gi0/1/0/15           up           up               HDLC  4474   2488320

Creating Configuration Templates

Configuration templates allow you to create a name that represents a group of configuration commands. After a template is defined, it can be applied to interfaces by you or other users. As networks scale to large numbers of nodes and ports, the ability to configure multiple ports quickly using templates can greatly reduce the time it takes to configure interfaces.

The two primary steps in working with templates are creating templates and applying templates. The following procedure describes how to create a configuration template.

SUMMARY STEPS

1. configure

2. template template-name [($parameter $parameter...)] [config-commands]

3. Enter the template commands.

4. end-template

5. commit

6. show running-config template template-name

DETAILED STEPS

 
Command or Action
Purpose

Step 1 

configure

Example:

Router# configure

Enters global configuration mode.

Step 2 

template template-name [($parameter $parameter...)] [config-commands]

Example:

RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# template tmplt_1

Enters template configuration mode and creates a template.

template-name—Unique name for the template to be applied to the running configuration.

(Optional) parameter—Actual values of the variables specified in the template definition. Up to five parameters can be specified within parentheses. Each parameter must begin with the $ character. Templates can be created with or without parameters.

(Optional) config-commands—Global configuration commands to be added to the template definition. Any name in a command (such as the server name, group name, and so on) can be parameterized. This means that those parameters can be used in the template commands (starting with $) and replaced with real arguments when applied.

To remove the template, use the no form of this command.

Step 3 

Enter the template commands.

Example:

RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-TPL)# hostname test

Defines the template commands.

Step 4 

end-template

Example:
RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-TPL)# end-template 

Ends the template definition session and exits template configuration mode.

When you end the template session, you are returned to global configuration mode.

Step 5 

commit

Example:

RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-TPL)# commit

Applies the target configuration commands to the running configuration.

Step 6 

show running-config template template-name

Example:
RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# show running-config 
template tmplt_1

Displays the details of the template.

Examples

The following example shows how a simple template is defined. The template contents are then displayed with the show running-config template template-name command:

RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# configure
RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# template jbtest
RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-TPL)# hostname test
RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-TPL)# end-template 
RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# commit
RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# show running-config template jbtest

template jbtest
 hostname test
end-template

In the next example, a template is defined, and the template requires a parameter. The template contents are then displayed with the show running-config template template-name command:

RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# configure
RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# template test2 (hostname)
RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-TPL)# hostname $hostname
RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-TPL)# end-template 
RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# commit
RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# show running-config template test2

template test2 (hostname)
 hostname $hostname
end-template

Applying Configuration Templates

To apply a template, enter the apply-template template-name [(parameter)] command in global configuration mode and consider the following guidelines:

Only one template can be applied at a time.

If the same template is applied multiple times, the most recent application overwrites the previous ones.

Provide the exact number of parameters for the template.

Templates are applied as a "best effort" operation; only valid changes are committed. If any command in the template fails, that command is discarded.

After a template is applied, the show configuration command displays the target configuration changes. The target configuration must be committed (with the commit command) to become part of the running configuration.

Examples

In the following example, a simple template is defined. The template contents are then displayed with the show running-config template template-name command:

RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# configure
RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# apply-template jbtest
RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# show running-config template jbtest
Building configuration...
hostname test
end

In the next example, a template with one parameter is applied and the show configuration command displays the result:

RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# configure
RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# apply-template test2 (router)
RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# show configuration

Building configuration...
hostname router
end

Aliases

With the Cisco IOS XR software, you can define command-line aliases for any physical or logical entity in a router. After you define the alias, it is used in the CLI to reference the real entity.

To create a command alias, enter the alias command in global configuration or administration configuration mode:

alias alias-name [(parameter1 parameter2...)] command-syntax [$parameter1] [command-syntax] [$parameter2]

Table 5-5 defines the alias command syntax.

Table 5-5 alias Command Syntax 

Syntax
Specifies that the Alias Is Created for

alias-name

Name of the command alias. An alias name can be a single word or multiple words joined by a dash (-) delimiter.

command-syntax

Original command syntax. Valid abbreviations of the original command syntax can be entered for the command-syntax argument.

(parameterx)

Argument or keyword that belongs to the command you specified for the command-syntax argument. When the parameter is entered in parenthesis after the alias name, the alias requires a parameter name. To associate the parameter with a command within the alias, enter the $ character preceding the parameter name.


Multiple commands can be supported under a single command alias, and multiple variables can be supported for each command. If multiple commands are specified under a single alias, each command is executed in the order in which it is listed in the alias command.

In the following example, an alias named my-cookie is created for the Management Ethernet interface, and then the new alias is specified to enter interface configuration mode:

RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# alias my-cookie mgmtEth 0/0/CPU0/0
RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# interface my-cookie
RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# interface mgmtEth 0/0/CPU0/0
RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if)#

After you enter a command with an alias, the router displays the command you entered with the alias value so that you can verify that alias value.

To delete a specific alias, enter the no form of the alias command with the alias name.

Keystrokes Used as Command Aliases

The system can be configured to recognize particular keystrokes (key combination or sequence) as command aliases. In other words, a keystroke can be set as a shortcut for executing a command. To enable the system to interpret a keystroke as a command, use the Ctrl-V or Esc, Q key combination before entering the command sequence.

Command History

The Cisco IOS XR software lets you display a history of the most recently entered and deleted commands. You can also redisplay the command line while a console message is being shown. The following sections describe the command history functionality:

Displaying Previously Entered Commands

Recalling Previously Entered Commands

Recalling Deleted Entries

Redisplaying the Command Line

Displaying Persistent CLI History


Note To roll back to a previously committed configuration, see Managing Configuration History and Rollback.


Displaying Previously Entered Commands

The Cisco IOS XR software records the ten most recent commands issued from the command line in its history buffer. This feature is particularly useful for recalling long or complex commands or entries, including access lists.

To display commands from the history buffer, enter the show history command as follows:

RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# show history

  show configuration history commit 
  show configuration commit list
show config commit changes 1000000001
  show history

Recalling Previously Entered Commands

The Cisco IOS XR software records the ten most recent commands issued from the command line in its history buffer. This feature is particularly useful for recalling long or complex commands or entries, including access lists.

Table 5-6 lists the commands or key strokes to use to recall commands from the history buffer.

Table 5-6 Command History

Command or Key Combination
Purpose

Ctrl-P or the Up Arrow key

Recalls commands in the history buffer, beginning with the most recent command. Repeat the key sequence to recall successively older commands.

Ctrl-N or the Down Arrow key

Returns to more recent commands in the history buffer after recalling commands with Ctrl-P or the Up Arrow key. Repeat the key sequence to recall successively more recent commands.


Recalling Deleted Entries

The Cisco IOS XR CLI also stores deleted commands or keywords in a history buffer. The buffer stores the last ten items that have been deleted using Ctrl-K, Ctrl-U, or Ctrl-X. Individual characters deleted using Backspace or Ctrl-D are not stored.

Table 5-7 identifies the keystroke combinations used to recall deleted entries to the command line.

Table 5-7 Keystroke Combinations to Recall Deleted Entries

Command or Key Combination
Recalls

Ctrl-Y

Most recent entry in the buffer (press the keys simultaneously).

Esc, y

Previous entry in the history buffer (press the keys sequentially).



Note The Esc, y key sequence does not function unless the Ctrl-Y key combination is pressed first. If the Esc, y is pressed more than ten times, the history cycles back to the most recent entry in the buffer.


Redisplaying the Command Line

If the system sends a message to the screen while a command is being entered, the current
command-line entry can be redisplayed using the Ctrl-L or Ctrl-R key combination.

Displaying Persistent CLI History

The Cisco IOS XR maintains the history buffer of CLI commands persistently across user sessions, router switchover, and router reloads. This buffer not only provides a log of commands entered by various users, but also lets you trace the activity of active users if the threshold limit of CPU usage is exceeded. This command is useful for troubleshooting purposes.

To display the history of events corresponding to the CLI session open events, enter the show cli history brief location command at the EXEC mode as follows:

RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# show cli history brief location 0/RP0/CPU0

No.        Username            Line            IPAddress     Client            t
--- --------------- --------------- -------------------- ---------- ------------
  1               -               -                    -          -  Thu Jun 11e
  2               -               -                    -          -  Thu Jun 11e
  3               -               -                    -          -  Thu Jun 11e
  4        jhensper   con0_RP0_CPU0                    -       exec  Thu Jun 11n
  5        jhensper   con0_RP0_CPU0                    -  adminexec  Thu Jun 11n

To display the history of commands from each session along with user name, enter the show cli history detail location command at the EXEC mode as follows:


RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# show cli history detail location 0/RP0/CPU0

Sun Jun 13 21:52:10.219 DST
 No.  Username        Line         Client   Time            Command
---- --------------- --------------- -------------------- ----------------------------
   1   lab      vty0       adminexec  Mon May 31 22:10:23.156 PST show configuration 
commit list 
   2   lab      vty0            adminexec  Mon May 31 22:10:31.352 PST exit 
   3   lab      vty0                 exec  Mon May 31 22:10:45.627 PST admin 
   4   lab      vty1                 exec  Mon May 31 22:12:03.853 PST configure 
   5   lab      vty1               config  Mon May 31 22:12:06.463 PST mpls traffic-eng 

The detail option displays the commands from each session along with user name and vty id so that commands issued from a session can be related with the session history displayed in the brief option.


Note The default size is 500 for the brief option of the command. The default size is 1000 for the detail option of the command.


Key Combinations

The following sections provide information on key combinations:

Key Combinations to Move the Cursor

Keystrokes to Control Capitalization

Keystrokes to Delete CLI Entries

Transposing Mistyped Characters

Key Combinations to Move the Cursor

Table 5-8 shows the key combinations or sequences you can use to move the cursor around on the command line to make corrections or changes. When you use cursor control keys, consider the following guidelines:

Ctrl indicates the Control key, which must be pressed simultaneously with its associated letter key.

Esc indicates the Escape key, which must be pressed first, followed by its associated letter key.

Keys are not case sensitive.

Table 5-8 Key Combinations Used to Move the Cursor

Keystroke
Function
Moves the Cursor

Left Arrow or Ctrl-B

Back character

One character to the left. When you enter a command that extends beyond a single line, you can press the Left Arrow or Ctrl-B keys repeatedly to scroll back toward the system prompt and verify the beginning of the command entry, or you can press the Ctrl-A key combination.

Right Arrow or Ctrl-F

Forward character

One character to the right.

Esc, b

Back word

Back one word.

Esc, f

Forward word

Forward one word.

Ctrl-A

Beginning of line

To the beginning of the line.

Ctrl-E

End of line

To the end of the command line.


Keystrokes to Control Capitalization

Letters can be uppercase or lowercase using simple key sequences. Table 5-9 describes the keystroke combinations used to control capitalization.


Note Cisco IOS XR commands are generally case insensitive and typically all in lowercase.


Table 5-9 Keystrokes Used to Control Capitalization 

Keystroke
Purpose

Esc, c

Makes the letter at the cursor uppercase.

Esc, l

Changes the word at the cursor to lowercase.

Esc, u

Makes letters from the cursor to the end of the word uppercase.


Keystrokes to Delete CLI Entries

Table 5-10 describes the keystrokes used to delete command-line entries.

Table 5-10 Keystrokes for Deleting Entries

Keystroke
Deletes

Delete or Backspace

Character to the left of the cursor.

Ctrl-D

Character at the cursor.

Ctrl-K

All characters from the cursor to the end of the command line.

Ctrl-U or Ctrl-X

All characters from the cursor to the beginning of the command line.

Ctrl-W

Word to the left of the cursor.

Esc, d

From the cursor to the end of the word.


Transposing Mistyped Characters

To transpose mistyped characters, use the Ctrl-T key combination.