Cisco ASR 9000 Series Aggregation Services Router MPLS Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
Implementing MPLS Traffic Engineering
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Implementing MPLS Traffic Engineering

Contents

Implementing MPLS Traffic Engineering

This module describes how to implement MPLS Traffic Engineering on Cisco ASR 9000 Series Router.

Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a standards-based solution driven by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) that was devised to convert the Internet and IP backbones from best-effort networks into business-class transport mediums.

MPLS, with its label switching capabilities, eliminates the need for an IP route look-up and creates a virtual circuit (VC) switching function, allowing enterprises the same performance on their IP-based network services as with those delivered over traditional networks such as Frame Relay or Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM).

MPLS traffic engineering (MPLS-TE) software enables an MPLS backbone to replicate and expand upon the TE capabilities of Layer 2 ATM and Frame Relay networks. MPLS is an integration of Layer 2 and Layer 3 technologies. By making traditional Layer 2 features available to Layer 3, MPLS enables traffic engineering. Thus, you can offer in a one-tier network what now can be achieved only by overlaying a Layer 3 network on a Layer 2 network.


Note


The LMP and GMPLS-NNI features are not supported on PRP hardware.


Feature History for Implementing MPLS-TE

Release

Modification

Release 3.7.2

This feature was introduced.

Release 3.9.0

The MPLS Traffic Engineering (TE): Path Protection feature was added.

Release 3.9.1

The MPLS-TE automatic bandwidth feature is supported.

   

Prerequisites for Implementing Cisco MPLS Traffic Engineering

These prerequisites are required to implement MPLS TE:

  • You must be in a user group associated with a task group that includes the proper task IDs. The command reference guides include the task IDs required for each command. If you suspect user group assignment is preventing you from using a command, contact your AAA administrator for assistance.
  • Router that runs Cisco IOS XR software .
  • Installed composite mini-image and the MPLS package, or a full composite image.
  • IGP activated.
  • Enable LDP globally by using the mpls ldp command to allocate local labels even in RSVP (MPLS TE) only core. You do not have to specify any interface if the core is LDP free.

Restrictions for Implementing GMPLS UNI

  • The total number of configured GMPLS UNI controllers should not exceed the platform scale limit of 500 GMPLS interfaces.
  • Each UNI-N (ingress or egress) should be routable from its adjacent UNI-C. The UNI-C nodes need to be routable from the UNI-N nodes too.
  • GMPLS UNI is supported only over DWDM controllers and so, over POS and GigabitEthernet interfaces.
  • GMPLS UNI is supported only with these Cisco ASR 9000 Enhanced Ethernet Line Cards:
    • A9K-MOD80-SE : 80G Modular Line Card, Service Edge Optimized
    • A9K-MOD80-TR : 80G Modular Line Card, Packet Transport Optimized

Information About Implementing MPLS Traffic Engineering

To implement MPLS-TE, you should understand these concepts:

Overview of MPLS Traffic Engineering

MPLS-TE software enables an MPLS backbone to replicate and expand upon the traffic engineering capabilities of Layer 2 ATM and Frame Relay networks. MPLS is an integration of Layer 2 and Layer 3 technologies. By making traditional Layer 2 features available to Layer 3, MPLS enables traffic engineering. Thus, you can offer in a one-tier network what now can be achieved only by overlaying a Layer 3 network on a Layer 2 network.

MPLS-TE is essential for service provider and Internet service provider (ISP) backbones. Such backbones must support a high use of transmission capacity, and the networks must be very resilient so that they can withstand link or node failures. MPLS-TE provides an integrated approach to traffic engineering. With MPLS, traffic engineering capabilities are integrated into Layer 3, which optimizes the routing of IP traffic, given the constraints imposed by backbone capacity and topology.

Benefits of MPLS Traffic Engineering

MPLS-TE enables ISPs to route network traffic to offer the best service to their users in terms of throughput and delay. By making the service provider more efficient, traffic engineering reduces the cost of the network.

Currently, some ISPs base their services on an overlay model. In the overlay model, transmission facilities are managed by Layer 2 switching. The routers see only a fully meshed virtual topology, making most destinations appear one hop away. If you use the explicit Layer 2 transit layer, you can precisely control how traffic uses available bandwidth. However, the overlay model has numerous disadvantages. MPLS-TE achieves the TE benefits of the overlay model without running a separate network and without a non-scalable, full mesh of router interconnects.

How MPLS-TE Works

MPLS-TE automatically establishes and maintains label switched paths (LSPs) across the backbone by using RSVP. The path that an LSP uses is determined by the LSP resource requirements and network resources, such as bandwidth. Available resources are flooded by means of extensions to a link-state-based Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP).

MPLS-TE tunnels are calculated at the LSP headend router, based on a fit between the required and available resources (constraint-based routing). The IGP automatically routes the traffic to these LSPs.

Typically, a packet crossing the MPLS-TE backbone travels on a single LSP that connects the ingress point to the egress point. MPLS-TE is built on these mechanisms:
Tunnel interfaces

From a Layer 2 standpoint, an MPLS tunnel interface represents the headend of an LSP. It is configured with a set of resource requirements, such as bandwidth and media requirements, and priority. From a Layer 3 standpoint, an LSP tunnel interface is the headend of a unidirectional virtual link to the tunnel destination.

MPLS-TE path calculation module

This calculation module operates at the LSP headend. The module determines a path to use for an LSP. The path calculation uses a link-state database containing flooded topology and resource information.

RSVP with TE extensions

RSVP operates at each LSP hop and is used to signal and maintain LSPs based on the calculated path.

MPLS-TE link management module

This module operates at each LSP hop, performs link call admission on the RSVP signaling messages, and performs bookkeeping on topology and resource information to be flooded.

Link-state IGP (Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System [IS-IS] or Open Shortest Path First [OSPF]—each with traffic engineering extensions)

These IGPs are used to globally flood topology and resource information from the link management module.

Enhancements to the shortest path first (SPF) calculation used by the link-state IGP (IS-IS or OSPF)

The IGP automatically routes traffic to the appropriate LSP tunnel, based on tunnel destination. Static routes can also be used to direct traffic to LSP tunnels.

Label switching forwarding

This forwarding mechanism provides routers with a Layer 2-like ability to direct traffic across multiple hops of the LSP established by RSVP signaling.

One approach to engineering a backbone is to define a mesh of tunnels from every ingress device to every egress device. The MPLS-TE path calculation and signaling modules determine the path taken by the LSPs for these tunnels, subject to resource availability and the dynamic state of the network.

The IGP (operating at an ingress device) determines which traffic should go to which egress device, and steers that traffic into the tunnel from ingress to egress. A flow from an ingress device to an egress device might be so large that it cannot fit over a single link, so it cannot be carried by a single tunnel. In this case, multiple tunnels between a given ingress and egress can be configured, and the flow is distributed using load sharing among the tunnels.

Protocol-Based CLI

Cisco IOS XR software provides a protocol-based command line interface. The CLI provides commands that can be used with the multiple IGP protocols supported by MPLS-TE.

Differentiated Services Traffic Engineering

MPLS Differentiated Services (Diff-Serv) Aware Traffic Engineering (DS-TE) is an extension of the regular MPLS-TE feature. Regular traffic engineering does not provide bandwidth guarantees to different traffic classes. A single bandwidth constraint is used in regular TE that is shared by all traffic. To support various classes of service (CoS), users can configure multiple bandwidth constraints. These bandwidth constraints can be treated differently based on the requirement for the traffic class using that constraint.

MPLS DS-TE provides the ability to configure multiple bandwidth constraints on an MPLS-enabled interface. Available bandwidths from all configured bandwidth constraints are advertised using IGP. TE tunnel is configured with bandwidth value and class-type requirements. Path calculation and admission control take the bandwidth and class-type into consideration. RSVP is used to signal the TE tunnel with bandwidth and class-type requirements.

MPLS DS-TE is deployed with either Russian Doll Model (RDM) or Maximum Allocation Model (MAM) for bandwidth calculations.

Cisco IOS XR software supports two DS-TE modes: Prestandard and IETF.

Prestandard DS-TE Mode

Prestandard DS-TE uses the Cisco proprietary mechanisms for RSVP signaling and IGP advertisements. This DS-TE mode does not interoperate with third-party vendor equipment. Note that prestandard DS-TE is enabled only after configuring the sub-pool bandwidth values on MPLS-enabled interfaces.

Prestandard Diff-Serve TE mode supports a single bandwidth constraint model a Russian Doll Model (RDM) with two bandwidth pools: global-pool and sub-pool.

TE class map is not used with Prestandard DS-TE mode.

IETF DS-TE Mode

IETF DS-TE mode uses IETF-defined extensions for RSVP and IGP. This mode interoperates with third-party vendor equipment.

IETF mode supports multiple bandwidth constraint models, including RDM and MAM, both with two bandwidth pools. In an IETF DS-TE network, identical bandwidth constraint models must be configured on all nodes.

TE class map is used with IETF DS-TE mode and must be configured the same way on all nodes in the network.

Bandwidth Constraint Models

IETF DS-TE mode provides support for the RDM and MAM bandwidth constraints models. Both models support up to two bandwidth pools.

Cisco IOS XR software provides global configuration for the switching between bandwidth constraint models. Both models can be configured on a single interface to preconfigure the bandwidth constraints before swapping to an alternate bandwidth constraint model.


Note


NSF is not guaranteed when you change the bandwidth constraint model or configuration information.


By default, RDM is the default bandwidth constraint model used in both pre-standard and IETF mode.

Maximum Allocation Bandwidth Constraint Model

The MAM constraint model has the following characteristics:

  • Easy to use and intuitive.
  • Isolation across class types.
  • Simultaneously achieves isolation, bandwidth efficiency, and protection against QoS degradation.
Russian Doll Bandwidth Constraint Model

The RDM constraint model has these characteristics:

  • Allows greater sharing of bandwidth among different class types.
  • Ensures bandwidth efficiency simultaneously and protection against QoS degradation of all class types.
  • Specifies that it is used in conjunction with preemption to simultaneously achieve isolation across class-types such that each class-type is guaranteed its share of bandwidth, bandwidth efficiency, and protection against QoS degradation of all class types.

Note


We recommend that RDM not be used in DS-TE environments in which the use of preemption is precluded. Although RDM ensures bandwidth efficiency and protection against QoS degradation of class types, it does guarantee isolation across class types.


TE Class Mapping

Each of the eight available bandwidth values advertised in the IGP corresponds to a TE class. Because the IGP advertises only eight bandwidth values, there can be a maximum of only eight TE classes supported in an IETF DS-TE network.

TE class mapping must be exactly the same on all routers in a DS-TE domain. It is the responsibility of the operator configure these settings properly as there is no way to automatically check or enforce consistency.

The operator must configure TE tunnel class types and priority levels to form a valid TE class. When the TE class map configuration is changed, tunnels already up are brought down. Tunnels in the down state, can be set up if a valid TE class map is found.

The default TE class and attributes are listed. The default mapping includes four class types.

Table 1 TE Classes and Priority

TE Class

Class Type

Priority

0

0

7

1

1

7

2

Unused

3

Unused

4

0

0

5

1

0

6

Unused

7

Unused

Flooding

Available bandwidth in all configured bandwidth pools is flooded on the network to calculate accurate constraint paths when a new TE tunnel is configured. Flooding uses IGP protocol extensions and mechanisms to determine when to flood the network with bandwidth.

Flooding Triggers

TE Link Management (TE-Link) notifies IGP for both global pool and sub-pool available bandwidth and maximum bandwidth to flood the network in these events:

  • Periodic timer expires (this does not depend on bandwidth pool type).
  • Tunnel origination node has out-of-date information for either available global pool or sub-pool bandwidth, causing tunnel admission failure at the midpoint.
  • Consumed bandwidth crosses user-configured thresholds. The same threshold is used for both global pool and sub-pool. If one bandwidth crosses the threshold, both bandwidths are flooded.

Flooding Thresholds

Flooding frequently can burden a network because all routers must send out and process these updates. Infrequent flooding causes tunnel heads (tunnel-originating nodes) to have out-of-date information, causing tunnel admission to fail at the midpoints.

You can control the frequency of flooding by configuring a set of thresholds. When locked bandwidth (at one or more priority levels) crosses one of these thresholds, flooding is triggered.

Thresholds apply to a percentage of the maximum available bandwidth (the global pool), which is locked, and the percentage of maximum available guaranteed bandwidth (the sub-pool), which is locked. If, for one or more priority levels, either of these percentages crosses a threshold, flooding is triggered.


Note


Setting up a global pool TE tunnel can cause the locked bandwidth allocated to sub-pool tunnels to be reduced (and hence to cross a threshold). A sub-pool TE tunnel setup can similarly cause the locked bandwidth for global pool TE tunnels to cross a threshold. Thus, sub-pool TE and global pool TE tunnels can affect each other when flooding is triggered by thresholds.


Fast Reroute

Fast Reroute (FRR) provides link protection to LSPs enabling the traffic carried by LSPs that encounter a failed link to be rerouted around the failure. The reroute decision is controlled locally by the router connected to the failed link. The headend router on the tunnel is notified of the link failure through IGP or through RSVP. When it is notified of a link failure, the headend router attempts to establish a new LSP that bypasses the failure. This provides a path to reestablish links that fail, providing protection to data transfer.

FRR (link or node) is supported over sub-pool tunnels the same way as for regular TE tunnels. In particular, when link protection is activated for a given link, TE tunnels eligible for FRR are redirected into the protection LSP, regardless of whether they are sub-pool or global pool tunnels.


Note


The ability to configure FRR on a per-LSP basis makes it possible to provide different levels of fast restoration to tunnels from different bandwidth pools.


You should be aware of these requirements for the backup tunnel path:

  • Backup tunnel must not pass through the element it protects.
  • Primary tunnel and a backup tunnel should intersect at least at two points (nodes) on the path: point of local repair (PLR) and merge point (MP). PLR is the headend of the backup tunnel, and MP is the tailend of the backup tunnel.

Note


When you configure TE tunnel with multiple protection on its path and merge point is the same node for more than one protection, you must configure record-route for that tunnel.


MPLS-TE and Fast Reroute over Link Bundles

MPLS Traffic Engineering (TE) and Fast Reroute (FRR) are supported over bundle interfaces and virtual local area network (VLAN) interfaces. Bidirectional forwarding detection (BFD) over VLAN is used as an FRR trigger to obtain less than 50 milliseconds of switchover time.

These link bundle types are supported for MPLS-TE/FRR:

  • Over Ethernet link bundles.
  • Over VLANs over Ethernet link bundles.
  • Number of links are limited to 100 for MPLS-TE and FRR.
  • VLANs go over any Ethernet interface (for example, GigabitEthernet and TenGigE).

FRR is supported over bundle interfaces in the following ways:

  • Uses minimum links as a threshold to trigger FRR over a bundle interface.
  • Uses the minimum total available bandwidth as a threshold to trigger FRR.

Ignore Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System Overload Bit Setting in MPLS-TE

The Ignore Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS) Overload Bit Setting in MPLS-TE feature ensures that the RSVP-TE LSPs are not broken because of routers that enabled the IS-IS overload bit.


Note


The current implementation does not allow nodes that have indicated an overload situation through the IS-IS overload bit.


Therefore, an overloaded node cannot be used. The IS-IS overload bit limitation is an indication of an overload situation in the IP topology. The feature provides a method to prevent an IS-IS overload condition from affecting MPLS-TE.

Enhancement Options of IS-IS OLA

Flexible Name-based Tunnel Constraints

MPLS-TE Flexible Name-based Tunnel Constraints provides a simplified and more flexible means of configuring link attributes and path affinities to compute paths for MPLS-TE tunnels.

In the traditional TE scheme, links are configured with attribute-flags that are flooded with TE link-state parameters using Interior Gateway Protocols (IGPs), such as Open Shortest Path First (OSPF).

MPLS-TE Flexible Name-based Tunnel Constraints lets you assign, or map, up to 32 color names for affinity and attribute-flag attributes instead of 32-bit hexadecimal numbers. After mappings are defined, the attributes can be referred to by the corresponding color name in the command-line interface (CLI). Furthermore, you can define constraints using include, include-strict, exclude, and exclude-all arguments, where each statement can contain up to 10 colors, and define include constraints in both loose and strict sense.


Note


You can configure affinity constraints using attribute flags or the Flexible Name Based Tunnel Constraints scheme; however, when configurations for both schemes exist, only the configuration pertaining to the new scheme is applied.


MPLS Traffic Engineering Interarea Tunneling

Interarea Support

The MPLS-TE interarea tunneling feature allows you to establish P2P tunnels spanning multiple Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) areas and levels, thereby eliminating the requirement that headend and tailend routers reside in a single area.

Interarea support allows the configuration of a TE LSP that spans multiple areas, where its headend and tailend label switched routers (LSRs) reside in different IGP areas.

Multiarea and Interarea TE are required by the customers running multiple IGP area backbones (primarily for scalability reasons). This lets you limit the amount of flooded information, reduces the SPF duration, and lessens the impact of a link or node failure within an area, particularly with large WAN backbones split in multiple areas.

Figure 1. Interarea (OSPF) TE Network Diagram. This figure shows a typical interarea TE network.



Multiarea Support

Multiarea support allows an area border router (ABR) LSR to support MPLS-TE in more than one IGP area. A TE LSP is still confined to a single area.

Multiarea and Interarea TE are required when you run multiple IGP area backbones. The Multiarea and Interarea TE allows you to:

  • Limit the volume of flooded information.
  • Reduce the SPF duration.
  • Decrease the impact of a link or node failure within an area.
Figure 2. Interlevel (IS-IS) TE Network



As shown in the figure, R2, R3, R7, and R4 maintain two databases for routing and TE information. For example, R3 has TE topology information related to R2, flooded through Level-1 IS-IS LSPs plus the TE topology information related to R4, R9, and R7, flooded as Level 2 IS-IS Link State PDUs (LSPs) (plus, its own IS-IS LSP).


Note


You can configure multiple areas within an IS-IS Level 1. This is transparent to TE. TE has topology information about the IS-IS level, but not the area ID.


Loose Hop Expansion

Loose hop optimization allows the reoptimization of tunnels spanning multiple areas and solves the problem which occurs when an MPLS-TE LSP traverses hops that are not in the LSP's headend's OSPF area and IS-IS level.

Interarea MPLS-TE allows you to configure an interarea traffic engineering (TE) label switched path (LSP) by specifying a loose source route of ABRs along the path. It is the then the responsibility of the ABR (having a complete view of both areas) to find a path obeying the TE LSP constraints within the next area to reach the next hop ABR (as specified on the headend). The same operation is performed by the last ABR connected to the tailend area to reach the tailend LSR.

You must be aware of these considerations when using loose hop optimization:

  • You must specify the router ID of the ABR node (as opposed to a link address on the ABR).
  • When multiarea is deployed in a network that contains subareas, you must enable MPLS-TE in the subarea for TE to find a path when loose hop is specified.
  • You must specify the reachable explicit path for the interarea tunnel.

Loose Hop Reoptimization

Loose hop reoptimization allows the reoptimization of the tunnels spanning multiple areas and solves the problem which occurs when an MPLS-TE headend does not have visibility into other IGP areas.

Whenever the headend attempts to reoptimize a tunnel, it tries to find a better path to the ABR in the headend area. If a better path is found then the headend initiates the setup of a new LSP. In case a suitable path is not found in the headend area, the headend initiates a querying message. The purpose of this message is to query the ABRs in the areas other than the headend area to check if there exist any better paths in those areas. The purpose of this message is to query the ABRs in the areas other than the headend area, to check if a better path exists. If a better path does not exist, ABR forwards the query to the next router downstream. Alternatively, if better path is found, ABR responds with a special Path Error to the headend to indicate the existence of a better path outside the headend area. Upon receiving the Path Error that indicates the existence of a better path, the headend router initiates the reoptimization.

ABR Node Protection

Because one IGP area does not have visibility into another IGP area, it is not possible to assign backup to protect ABR node. To overcome this problem, node ID sub-object is added into the record route object of the primary tunnel so that at a PLR node, backup destination address can be checked against primary tunnel record-route object and assign a backup tunnel.

Fast Reroute Node Protection

If a link failure occurs within an area, the upstream router directly connected to the failed link generates an RSVP path error message to the headend. As a response to the message, the headend sends an RSVP path tear message and the corresponding path option is marked as invalid for a specified period and the next path-option (if any) is evaluated.

To retry the ABR immediately, a second path option (identical to the first one) should be configured. Alternatively, the retry period (path-option hold-down, 2 minutes by default) can be tuned to achieve a faster retry.

MPLS-TE Forwarding Adjacency

The MPLS-TE Forwarding Adjacency feature allows a network administrator to handle a traffic engineering, label-switched path (LSP) tunnel as a link in an Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) network based on the Shortest Path First (SPF) algorithm. A forwarding adjacency can be created between routers regardless of their location in the network.

MPLS-TE Forwarding Adjacency Benefits

TE tunnel interfaces are advertised in the IGP network just like any other links. Routers can then use these advertisements in their IGPs to compute the SPF even if they are not the head end of any TE tunnels.

MPLS-TE Forwarding Adjacency Restrictions

The following restrictions are listed for the MPLS-TE Forwarding Adjacency feature:

  • Using the MPLS-TE Forwarding Adjacency feature increases the size of the IGP database by advertising a TE tunnel as a link.
  • The MPLS-TE Forwarding Adjacency feature is supported by Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS).
  • When the MPLS-TE Forwarding Adjacency feature is enabled on a TE tunnel, the link is advertised in the IGP network as a Type-Length-Value (TLV) 22 without any TE sub-TLV.
  • MPLS-TE forwarding adjacency tunnels must be configured bidirectionally.

MPLS-TE Forwarding Adjacency Prerequisites

Your network must support the following features before enabling the MPLS -TE Forwarding Adjacency feature:

  • MPLS
  • IP Cisco Express Forwarding
  • Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS)

Path Computation Element

Path Computation Element (PCE) solves the specific issue of inter-domain path computation for MPLS-TE label switched path (LSPs), when the head-end router does not possess full network topology information (for example, when the head-end and tail-end routers of an LSP reside in different IGP areas).

PCE uses area border routers (ABRs) to compute a TE LSP spanning multiple IGP areas as well as computation of Inter-AS TE LSP.

PCE is usually used to define an overall architecture, which is made of several components, as follows:
Path Computation Element (PCE)

Represents a software module (which can be a component or application) that enables the router to compute paths applying a set of constraints between any pair of nodes within the router’s TE topology database. PCEs are discovered through IGP.

Path Computation Client (PCC)

Represents a software module running on a router that is capable of sending and receiving path computation requests and responses to and from PCEs. The PCC is typically an LSR (Label Switching Router).

PCC-PCE communication protocol (PCEP)

Specifies that PCEP is a TCP-based protocol defined by the IETF PCE WG, and defines a set of messages and objects used to manage PCEP sessions and to request and send paths for multi-domain TE LSPs. PCEP is used for communication between PCC and PCE (as well as between two PCEs) and employs IGP extensions to dynamically discover PCE.

Figure 3. Path Computation Element Network Diagram. This figure shows a typical PCE implementation.



Path computation elements provides support for the following message types and objects:

  • Message types: Open, PCReq, PCRep, PCErr, Close
  • Objects: OPEN, CLOSE, RP, END-POINT, LSPA, BANDWIDTH, METRIC, and NO-PATH
Related References

Path Protection

Path protection provides an end-to-end failure recovery mechanism (that is, a full path protection) for MPLS-TE tunnels. A secondary Label Switched Path (LSP) is established, in advance, to provide failure protection for the protected LSP that is carrying a tunnel's TE traffic. When there is a failure on the protected LSP, the source router immediately enables the secondary LSP to temporarily carry the tunnel's traffic. If there is a failure on the secondary LSP, the tunnel no longer has path protection until the failure along the secondary path is cleared. Path protection can be used within a single area (OSPF or IS-IS), external BGP [eBGP], and static routes.

The failure detection mechanisms triggers a switchover to a secondary tunnel by:

  • Path error or resv-tear from Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) signaling
  • Notification from the Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) protocol that a neighbor is lost
  • Notification from the Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) that the adjacency is down
  • Local teardown of the protected tunnel's LSP due to preemption in order to signal higher priority LSPs, a Packet over SONET (POS) alarm, online insertion and removal (OIR), and so on

An alternate recovery mechanism is Fast Reroute (FRR), which protects MPLS-TE LSPs only from link and node failures, by locally repairing the LSPs at the point of failure.

Although not as fast as link or node protection, presignaling a secondary LSP is faster than configuring a secondary primary path option, or allowing the tunnel's source router to dynamically recalculate a path. The actual recovery time is topology-dependent, and affected by delay factors such as propagation delay or switch fabric latency.

Pre-requisites for Path Protection

These are the pre-requisites for enabling path protection:

  • Ensure that your network supports MPLS-TE, Cisco Express Forwarding, and Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS) or Open Shortest Path First (OSPF).
  • Enable MPLS.
  • Configure TE on the routers.
  • Configure a TE tunnel with a dynamic path option by using the path-option command with the dynamic keyword.

Restrictions for Path Protection

  • Only Point-to-Point (P2P) tunnels are supported.
  • Point-to-Multipoint (P2MP) TE tunnels are not supported.
  • A maximum of one standby LSP is supported.
  • There can be only one secondary path for each dynamic path option.
  • Explicit path option can be configured for the path protected TE with the secondary path option as dynamic.
  • Do not use link and node protection with path protection on the headend router.
  • A maximum number of path protected tunnel TE heads is 2000.
  • A maximum number of TE tunnel heads is equal to 4000.

MPLS-TE Automatic Bandwidth

The MPLS-TE automatic bandwidth feature measures the traffic in a tunnel and periodically adjusts the signaled bandwidth for the tunnel.

These topics provide information about MPLS-TE automatic bandwidth:

MPLS-TE Automatic Bandwidth Overview

MPLS-TE automatic bandwidth is configured on individual Label Switched Paths (LSPs) at every head-end. MPLS-TE monitors the traffic rate on a tunnel interface. Periodically, MPLS-TE resizes the bandwidth on the tunnel interface to align it closely with the traffic in the tunnel. MPLS-TE automatic bandwidth can perform these functions:

  • Monitors periodic polling of the tunnel output rate
  • Resizes the tunnel bandwidth by adjusting the highest rate observed during a given period

For every traffic-engineered tunnel that is configured for an automatic bandwidth, the average output rate is sampled, based on various configurable parameters. Then, the tunnel bandwidth is readjusted automatically based upon either the largest average output rate that was noticed during a certain interval, or a configured maximum bandwidth value.

This table lists the automatic bandwidth functions.

Table 2 Automatic Bandwidth Variables

Function

Command

Description

Default Value

Application frequency

application command

Configures how often the tunnel bandwidths changed for each tunnel. The application period is the period of A minutes between the bandwidth applications during which the output rate collection is done.

24 hours

Requested bandwidth

bw-limit command

Limits the range of bandwidth within the automatic-bandwidth feature that can request a bandwidth.

0 Kbps

Collection frequency

auto-bw collect command

Configures how often the tunnel output rate is polled globally for all tunnels.

5 min

Highest collected bandwidth

You cannot configure this value.

Delta

You cannot configure this value.

The output rate on a tunnel is collected at regular intervals that are configured by using the application command in MPLS-TE auto bandwidth interface configuration mode. When the application period timer expires, and when the difference between the measured and the current bandwidth exceeds the adjustment threshold, the tunnel is reoptimized. Then, the bandwidth samples are cleared to record the new largest output rate at the next interval.

When reoptimizing the LSP with the new bandwidth, a new path request is generated. If the new bandwidth is not available, the last good LSP continues to be used. This way, the network experiences no traffic interruptions.

If minimum or maximum bandwidth values are configured for a tunnel, the bandwidth, which the automatic bandwidth signals, stays within these values.


Note


When more than 100 tunnels are auto-bw enabled, the algorithm will jitter the first application of every tunnel by a maximum of 20% (max 1hour). The algorithm does this to avoid too many tunnels running auto bandwidth applications at the same time.


If a tunnel is shut down, and is later brought again, the adjusted bandwidth is lost and the tunnel is brought back with the initial configured bandwidth. In addition, the application period is reset when the tunnel is brought back.

Adjustment Threshold

Adjustment Threshold is defined as a percentage of the current tunnel bandwidth and an absolute (minimum) bandwidth. Both thresholds must be fulfilled for the automatic bandwidth to resignal the tunnel. The tunnel bandwidth is resized only if the difference between the largest sample output rate and the current tunnel bandwidth is larger than the adjustment thresholds.

For example, assume that the automatic bandwidth is enabled on a tunnel in which the highest observed bandwidth B is 30 Mbps. Also, assume that the tunnel was initially configured for 45 Mbps. Therefore, the difference is 15 mbit/s. Now, assuming the default adjustment thresholds of 10% and 10kbps, the tunnel is signalled with 30 Mbps when the application timer expires. This is because 10% of 45Mbit/s is 4.5 Mbit/s, which is smaller than 15 Mbit/s. The absolute threshold, which by default is 10kbps, is also crossed.

Overflow Detection

Overflow detection is used if a bandwidth must be resized as soon as an overflow condition is detected, without having to wait for the expiry of an automatic bandwidth application frequency interval.

For overflow detection one configures a limit N, a percentage threshold Y% and optionally, a minimum bandwidth threshold Z. The percentage threshold is defined as the percentage of the actual signalled tunnel bandwidth. When the difference between the measured bandwidth and the actual bandwidth are both larger than Y% and Z threshold, for N consecutive times, then the system triggers an overflow detection.

The bandwidth adjustment by the overflow detection is triggered only by an increase of traffic volume through the tunnel, and not by a decrease in the traffic volume. When you trigger an overflow detection, the automatic bandwidth application interval is reset.

By default, the overflow detection is disabled and needs to be manually configured.

Restrictions for MPLS-TE Automatic Bandwidth

When the automatic bandwidth cannot update the tunnel bandwidth, the following restrictions are listed:

  • Tunnel is in a fast reroute (FRR) backup, active, or path protect active state. This occurs because of the assumption that protection is a temporary state, and there is no need to reserve the bandwidth on a backup tunnel. You should prevent taking away the bandwidth from other primary or backup tunnels.
  • Reoptimization fails to occur during a lockdown. In this case, the automatic bandwidth does not update the bandwidth unless the bandwidth application is manually triggered by using the mpls traffic-eng auto-bw apply command in EXEC mode.

How to Implement Traffic Engineering

Traffic engineering requires coordination among several global neighbor routers, creating traffic engineering tunnels, setting up forwarding across traffic engineering tunnels, setting up FRR, and creating differential service.

These procedures are used to implement MPLS-TE:

Building MPLS-TE Topology

Perform this task to configure MPLS-TE topology (required for traffic engineering tunnel operations).

Before You Begin

Before you start to build the MPLS-TE topology, you must have enabled:

  • IGP such as OSPF or IS-IS for MPLS-TE.
  • MPLS Label Distribution Protocol (LDP).
  • RSVP on the port interface.
  • Stable router ID is required at either end of the link to ensure that the link is successful. If you do not assign a router ID, the system defaults to the global router ID. Default router IDs are subject to change, which can result in an unstable link.
  • If you are going to use nondefault holdtime or intervals, you must decide the values to which they are set.
SUMMARY STEPS

    1.    configure

    2.    mpls traffic-eng

    3.    interface type interface-path-id

    4.    exit

    5.    exit

    6.    router ospf process-name

    7.    area area-id

    8.    exit

    9.    mpls traffic-eng router-id type interface-path-id

    10.    Use one of the following commands:

    • end
    • commit

    11.    (Optional) show mpls traffic-eng topology

    12.    (Optional) show mpls traffic-eng link-management advertisements


DETAILED STEPS
      Command or Action Purpose
    Step 1 configure


    Example:
    RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# configure
    
    
     

    Enters the configuration mode.

     
    Step 2 mpls traffic-eng


    Example:
    RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# mpls traffic-eng
    RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-mpls-te)#
    
    
     

    Enters MPLS-TE configuration mode.

     
    Step 3 interface type interface-path-id


    Example:
    RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-mpls-te)#interface POS0/6/0/0
    RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-mpls-te-if)#
    
    
     

    Enables traffic engineering on a particular interface on the originating node and enters MPLS-TE interface configuration mode.

     
    Step 4 exit


    Example:
    RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-mpls-te-if)# exit
    RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-mpls-te)#
    
    
     

    Exits the current configuration mode.

     
    Step 5 exit


    Example:
    RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-mpls-te)# exit
    RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)#
    
    
     

    Exits the current configuration mode.

     
    Step 6 router ospf process-name


    Example:
    RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# router ospf 1
    
    
     

    Enters a name for the OSPF process.

     
    Step 7 area area-id


    Example:
    RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-router)# area 0
    
    
     

    Configures an area for the OSPF process.

    • Backbone areas have an area ID of 0.
    • Non-backbone areas have a non-zero area ID.
     
    Step 8 exit


    Example:
    RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-ospf-ar)# exit
    RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-ospf)#
    
    
     

    Exits the current configuration mode.

     
    Step 9 mpls traffic-eng router-id type interface-path-id


    Example:
    RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-ospf)# mpls traffic-eng router-id Loopback0
    
    
     

    Sets the MPLS-TE loopback interface.

     
    Step 10 Use one of the following commands:
    • end
    • commit


    Example:
    RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-ospf)# end

    or

    RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-ospf)# commit
     

    Saves configuration changes.

    • When you issue the end command, the system prompts you to commit changes:
      Uncommitted changes found, commit them before exiting(yes/no/cancel)?
      [cancel]:
      • Entering yes saves configuration changes to the running configuration file, exits the configuration session, and returns the router to EXEC mode.
      • Entering no exits the configuration session and returns the router to EXEC mode without committing the configuration changes.
      • Entering cancel leaves the router in the current configuration session without exiting or committing the configuration changes.
    • Use the commit command to save the configuration changes to the running configuration file and remain within the configuration session.
     
    Step 11 show mpls traffic-eng topology


    Example:
    RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# show mpls traffic-eng topology
    
    
     
    (Optional)

    Verifies the traffic engineering topology.

     
    Step 12 show mpls traffic-eng link-management advertisements


    Example:
    RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# show mpls traffic-eng link-management advertisements
    
    
     
    (Optional)

    Displays all the link-management advertisements for the links on this node.

     
    Related Concepts

    Creating an MPLS-TE Tunnel

    Creating an MPLS-TE tunnel is a process of customizing the traffic engineering to fit your network topology.

    Perform this task to create an MPLS-TE tunnel after you have built the traffic engineering topology.

    Before You Begin

    The following prerequisites are required to create an MPLS-TE tunnel:

    • You must have a router ID for the neighboring router.
    • Stable router ID is required at either end of the link to ensure that the link is successful. If you do not assign a router ID to the routers, the system defaults to the global router ID. Default router IDs are subject to change, which can result in an unstable link.
    • If you are going to use nondefault holdtime or intervals, you must decide the values to which they are set.
    SUMMARY STEPS

      1.    configure

      2.    interface tunnel-te tunnel-id

      3.    destination ip-address

      4.    ipv4 unnumbered type interface-path-id

      5.    path-option preference - priority dynamic

      6.    signalled- bandwidth {bandwidth [class-type ct ] | sub-pool bandwidth}

      7.    Use one of these commands:

      • end
      • commit

      8.    (Optional) show mpls traffic-eng tunnels

      9.    (Optional) show ipv4 interface brief

      10.    (Optional) show mpls traffic-eng link-management admission-control


    DETAILED STEPS
        Command or Action Purpose
      Step 1 configure


      Example:
      RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# configure
      
      
       

      Enters global configuration mode.

       
      Step 2 interface tunnel-te tunnel-id


      Example:
      RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# interface tunnel-te 1
      
      
       

      Configures an MPLS-TE tunnel interface.

       
      Step 3 destination ip-address


      Example:
      RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if)# destination 192.168.92.125
      
      
       

      Assigns a destination address on the new tunnel.

      The destination address is the remote node’s MPLS-TE router ID.

       
      Step 4 ipv4 unnumbered type interface-path-id


      Example:
      RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if)# ipv4 unnumbered Loopback0
      
      
       

      Assigns a source address so that forwarding can be performed on the new tunnel. Loopback is commonly used as the interface type.

       
      Step 5 path-option preference - priority dynamic


      Example:
      RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if)# path-option l dynamic
      
      
       

      Sets the path option to dynamic and assigns the path ID.

       
      Step 6 signalled- bandwidth {bandwidth [class-type ct ] | sub-pool bandwidth}


      Example:
      RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if)# signalled-bandwidth 100
      
      
       

      Sets the CT0 bandwidth required on this interface. Because the default tunnel priority is 7, tunnels use the default TE class map (namely, class-type 1, priority 7).

       
      Step 7 Use one of these commands:
      • end
      • commit


      Example:
      RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if)# end

      or

      RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if)# commit
       

      Saves configuration changes.

      • When you issue the end command, the system prompts you to commit changes:
        Uncommitted changes found, commit them
        before exiting(yes/no/cancel)? [cancel]:
        
        • Entering yes saves configuration changes to the running configuration file, exits the configuration session, and returns the router to EXEC mode.
        • Entering no exits the configuration session and returns the router to EXEC mode without committing the configuration changes.
        • Entering cancel leaves the router in the current configuration session without exiting or committing the configuration changes.
      • Use the commit command to save the configuration changes to the running configuration file, and remain within the configuration session.
       
      Step 8 show mpls traffic-eng tunnels


      Example:
      RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# show mpls traffic-eng tunnels
      
      
       
      (Optional)

      Verifies that the tunnel is connected (in the UP state) and displays all configured TE tunnels.

       
      Step 9 show ipv4 interface brief


      Example:
      RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# show ipv4 interface brief
      
      
       
      (Optional)

      Displays all TE tunnel interfaces.

       
      Step 10 show mpls traffic-eng link-management admission-control


      Example:
      RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# show mpls traffic-eng link-management admission-control
      
      
       
      (Optional)

      Displays all the tunnels on this node.

       
      Related Concepts

      Configuring Forwarding over the MPLS-TE Tunnel

      Perform this task to configure forwarding over the MPLS-TE tunnel created in the previous task . This task allows MPLS packets to be forwarded on the link between network neighbors.

      Before You Begin

      The following prerequisites are required to configure forwarding over the MPLS-TE tunnel:

      • You must have a router ID for the neighboring router.
      • Stable router ID is required at either end of the link to ensure that the link is successful. If you do not assign a router ID to the routers, the system defaults to the global router ID. Default router IDs are subject to change, which can result in an unstable link.
      SUMMARY STEPS

        1.    configure

        2.    interface tunnel-te tunnel-id

        3.    ipv4 unnumbered type interface-path-id

        4.    autoroute announce

        5.    exit

        6.    router static address-family ipv4 unicast prefix mask ip-address interface type

        7.    Use one of these commands:

        • end
        • commit

        8.    (Optional) ping {ip-address | hostname}

        9.    (Optional) show mpls traffic-eng autoroute


      DETAILED STEPS
          Command or Action Purpose
        Step 1 configure


        Example:
        RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:routerconfigure
        
        
         

        Enters global configuration mode.

         
        Step 2 interface tunnel-te tunnel-id


        Example:
        RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# interface tunnel-te 1
        
        
         

        Enters MPLS-TE interface configuration mode.

         
        Step 3 ipv4 unnumbered type interface-path-id


        Example:
        RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if)# ipv4 unnumbered Loopback0
        
        
         

        Assigns a source address so that forwarding can be performed on the new tunnel.

         
        Step 4 autoroute announce


        Example:
        RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if)# autoroute announce
        
        
         

        Enables messages that notify the neighbor nodes about the routes that are forwarding.

         
        Step 5 exit


        Example:
        RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if)# exit
        
        
         

        Exits the current configuration mode.

         
        Step 6 router static address-family ipv4 unicast prefix mask ip-address interface type


        Example:
        RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# router static address-family ipv4 unicast 2.2.2.2/32 tunnel-te 1
        
        
         

        Enables a route using IP version 4 addressing, identifies the destination address and the tunnel where forwarding is enabled.

        This configuration is used for static routes when the autoroute announce command is not used.

         
        Step 7 Use one of these commands:
        • end
        • commit


        Example:
        RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# end

        or

        RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# commit
         

        Saves configuration changes.

        • When you issue the end command, the system prompts you to commit changes:
          Uncommitted changes found, commit them
          before exiting(yes/no/cancel)? [cancel]:
          
          • Entering yes saves configuration changes to the running configuration file, exits the configuration session, and returns the router to EXEC mode.
          • Entering no exits the configuration session and returns the router to EXEC mode without committing the configuration changes.
          • Entering cancel leaves the router in the current configuration session without exiting or committing the configuration changes.
        • Use the commit command to save the configuration changes to the running configuration file, and remain within the configuration session.
         
        Step 8 ping {ip-address | hostname}


        Example:
        RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# ping 192.168.12.52
        
        
         
        (Optional)

        Checks for connectivity to a particular IP address or host name.

         
        Step 9 show mpls traffic-eng autoroute


        Example:
        RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# show mpls traffic-eng autoroute
        
        
         
        (Optional)

        Verifies forwarding by displaying what is advertised to IGP for the TE tunnel.

         

        Protecting MPLS Tunnels with Fast Reroute

        Perform this task to protect MPLS-TE tunnels, as created in the previous task.


        Note


        Although this task is similar to the previous task, its importance makes it necessary to present as part of the tasks required for traffic engineering on Cisco IOS XR software.


        Before You Begin

        The following prerequisites are required to protect MPLS-TE tunnels:

        • You must have a router ID for the neighboring router.
        • Stable router ID is required at either end of the link to ensure that the link is successful. If you do not assign a router ID to the routers, the system defaults to the global router ID. Default router IDs are subject to change, which can result in an unstable link.
        • You must first configure a primary tunnel.
        SUMMARY STEPS

          1.    configure

          2.    interface tunnel-te tunnel-id

          3.    fast-reroute

          4.    exit

          5.    mpls traffic-eng

          6.    interface type interface-path-id

          7.    backup-path tunnel-te tunnel-number

          8.    exit

          9.    exit

          10.    interface tunnel-te tunnel-id

          11.    backup-bw {backup bandwidth | sub-pool {bandwidth | unlimited} | global-pool {bandwidth | unlimited} }

          12.    ipv4 unnumbered type interface-path-id

          13.    path-option preference-priority {explicit name explicit-path-name}

          14.    destination ip-address

          15.    Use one of these commands:

          • end
          • commit

          16.    (Optional) show mpls traffic-eng tunnels backup

          17.    (Optional) show mpls traffic-eng tunnels protection frr

          18.    (Optional) show mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute database


        DETAILED STEPS
            Command or Action Purpose
          Step 1 configure


          Example:
          RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:routerconfigure
          
          
           

          Enters global configuration mode.

           
          Step 2 interface tunnel-te tunnel-id


          Example:
          RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# interface tunnel-te 1
          
          
           

          Configures an MPLS-TE tunnel interface.

           
          Step 3 fast-reroute


          Example:
          RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if)# fast-reroute
          
          
           

          Enables fast reroute.

           
          Step 4 exit


          Example:
          RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if)# exit
          
           

          Exits the current configuration mode.

           
          Step 5 mpls traffic-eng


          Example:
          RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# mpls traffic-eng 
          RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-mpls-te)#
          
          
           

          Enters MPLS-TE configuration mode.

           
          Step 6 interface type interface-path-id


          Example:
          RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-mpls-te)# interface pos0/6/0/0
          RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-mpls-te-if)#
          
          
           

          Enables traffic engineering on a particular interface on the originating node.

           
          Step 7 backup-path tunnel-te tunnel-number


          Example:
          RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-mpls-te-if)# backup-path tunnel-te 2
          
          
           

          Sets the backup path to the backup tunnel.

           
          Step 8 exit


          Example:
          RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-mpls-te-if)# exit
          RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-mpls-te)#
          
          
           

          Exits the current configuration mode.

           
          Step 9 exit


          Example:
          RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-mpls-te)# exit
          RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)#
          
          
           

          Exits the current configuration mode.

           
          Step 10 interface tunnel-te tunnel-id


          Example:
          RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# interface tunnel-te 2
          
          
           

          Configures an MPLS-TE tunnel interface.

           
          Step 11 backup-bw {backup bandwidth | sub-pool {bandwidth | unlimited} | global-pool {bandwidth | unlimited} }


          Example:
          RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if)#backup-bw global-pool 5000
          
          
           

          Sets the CT0 bandwidth required on this interface.

          Note   

          Because the default tunnel priority is 7, tunnels use the default TE class map.

           
          Step 12 ipv4 unnumbered type interface-path-id


          Example:
          RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if)# ipv4 unnumbered Loopback0
          
          
           

          Assigns a source address to set up forwarding on the new tunnel.

           
          Step 13 path-option preference-priority {explicit name explicit-path-name}


          Example:
          RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if)# path-option l explicit name backup-path
          
          
           

          Sets the path option to explicit with a given name (previously configured) and assigns the path ID.

           
          Step 14 destination ip-address


          Example:
          RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if)# destination 192.168.92.125
          
          
           

          Assigns a destination address on the new tunnel.

          • Destination address is the remote node’s MPLS-TE router ID.
          • Destination address is the merge point between backup and protected tunnels.
          Note   

          When you configure TE tunnel with multiple protection on its path and merge point is the same node for more than one protection, you must configure record-route for that tunnel.

           
          Step 15 Use one of these commands:
          • end
          • commit


          Example:
          RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if)# end

          or

          RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if)# commit
           

          Saves configuration changes.

          • When you issue the end command, the system prompts you to commit changes:
            Uncommitted changes found, commit them
            before exiting(yes/no/cancel)? [cancel]:
            
            • Entering yes saves configuration changes to the running configuration file, exits the configuration session, and returns the router to EXEC mode.
            • Entering no exits the configuration session and returns the router to EXEC mode without committing the configuration changes.
            • Entering cancel leaves the router in the current configuration session without exiting or committing the configuration changes.
          • Use the commit command to save the configuration changes to the running configuration file, and remain within the configuration session.
           
          Step 16 show mpls traffic-eng tunnels backup


          Example:
          RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# show mpls traffic-eng tunnels backup
          
          
           
          (Optional)

          Displays the backup tunnel information.

           
          Step 17 show mpls traffic-eng tunnels protection frr


          Example:
          RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# show mpls traffic-eng tunnels protection frr
          
          
           
          (Optional)

          Displays the tunnel protection information for Fast-Reroute (FRR).

           
          Step 18 show mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute database


          Example:
          RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# show mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute database
          
          
           
          (Optional)

          Displays the protected tunnel state (for example, the tunnel’s current ready or active state).

           

          Configuring a Prestandard DS-TE Tunnel

          Perform this task to configure a Prestandard DS-TE tunnel.

          Before You Begin

          The following prerequisites are required to configure a Prestandard DS-TE tunnel:

          • You must have a router ID for the neighboring router.
          • Stable router ID is required at either end of the link to ensure that the link is successful. If you do not assign a router ID to the routers, the system defaults to the global router ID. Default router IDs are subject to change, which can result in an unstable link.
          SUMMARY STEPS

            1.    configure

            2.    rsvp interface type interface-path-id

            3.    bandwidth [total reservable bandwidth] [bc0 bandwidth] [global-pool bandwidth] [sub-pool reservable-bw]

            4.    exit

            5.    exit

            6.    interface tunnel-te tunnel-id

            7.    signalled-bandwidth {bandwidth [class-type ct] | sub-pool bandwidth}

            8.    Use one of these commands:

            • end
            • commit


          DETAILED STEPS
              Command or Action Purpose
            Step 1 configure


            Example:
            RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:routerconfigure
            
            
             

            Enters global configuration mode.

             
            Step 2 rsvp interface type interface-path-id


            Example:
            RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# rsvp interface pos0/6/0/0
            
            
             

            Enters RSVP configuration mode and selects an RSVP interface.

             
            Step 3 bandwidth [total reservable bandwidth] [bc0 bandwidth] [global-pool bandwidth] [sub-pool reservable-bw]


            Example:
            RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-rsvp-if)# bandwidth 100 150 sub-pool 50
            
            
             

            Sets the reserved RSVP bandwidth available on this interface by using the prestandard DS-TE mode. The range for the total reserve bandwidth argument is 0 to 4294967295.

            Physical interface bandwidth is not used by MPLS-TE.

             
            Step 4 exit


            Example:
            RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-rsvp-if)# exit
            RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-rsvp)# 
            
            
             

            Exits the current configuration mode.

             
            Step 5 exit


            Example:
            RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-rsvp)# exit
            RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)#
            
            
             

            Exits the current configuration mode.

             
            Step 6 interface tunnel-te tunnel-id


            Example:
            RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# interface tunnel-te 2
            
            
             

            Configures an MPLS-TE tunnel interface.

             
            Step 7 signalled-bandwidth {bandwidth [class-type ct] | sub-pool bandwidth}


            Example:
            RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if)# signalled-bandwidth sub-pool 10
            
            
             

            Sets the bandwidth required on this interface. Because the default tunnel priority is 7, tunnels use the default TE class map (namely, class-type 1, priority 7).

             
            Step 8 Use one of these commands:
            • end
            • commit


            Example:
            RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if)# end

            or

            RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if)# commit
             

            Saves configuration changes.

            • When you issue the end command, the system prompts you to commit changes:
              Uncommitted changes found, commit them
              before exiting(yes/no/cancel)? [cancel]:
              
              • Entering yes saves configuration changes to the running configuration file, exits the configuration session, and returns the router to EXEC mode.
              • Entering no exits the configuration session and returns the router to EXEC mode without committing the configuration changes.
              • Entering cancel leaves the router in the current configuration session without exiting or committing the configuration changes.
            • Use the commit command to save the configuration changes to the running configuration file, and remain within the configuration session.
             
            Related Concepts

            Configuring an IETF DS-TE Tunnel Using RDM

            Perform this task to create an IETF mode DS-TE tunnel using RDM.

            Before You Begin

            The following prerequisites are required to create an IETF mode DS-TE tunnel using RDM:

            • You must have a router ID for the neighboring router.
            • Stable router ID is required at either end of the link to ensure that the link is successful. If you do not assign a router ID to the routers, the system defaults to the global router ID. Default router IDs are subject to change, which can result in an unstable link.
            SUMMARY STEPS

              1.    configure

              2.    rsvp interface type interface-path-id

              3.    bandwidth rdm {total-reservable-bw | bc0 | global-pool} {sub-pool | bc1 reservable-bw}

              4.    exit

              5.    exit

              6.    mpls traffic-eng

              7.    ds-te mode ietf

              8.    exit

              9.    interface tunnel-te tunnel-id

              10.    signalled-bandwidth {bandwidth [class-type ct] | sub-pool bandwidth}

              11.    Use one of these commands:

              • end
              • commit


            DETAILED STEPS
                Command or Action Purpose
              Step 1 configure


              Example:
              RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:routerconfigure
              
              
               

              Enters global configuration mode.

               
              Step 2 rsvp interface type interface-path-id


              Example:
              RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# rsvp interface pos0/6/0/0
              
              
               

              Enters RSVP configuration mode and selects an RSVP interface.

               
              Step 3 bandwidth rdm {total-reservable-bw | bc0 | global-pool} {sub-pool | bc1 reservable-bw}


              Example:
              RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-rsvp-if)# bandwidth rdm 100 150
              
              
               

              Sets the reserved RSVP bandwidth available on this interface by using the Russian Doll Model (RDM) bandwidth constraints model. The range for the total reserve bandwidth argument is 0 to 4294967295.

              Note   

              Physical interface bandwidth is not used by MPLS-TE.

               
              Step 4 exit


              Example:
              RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-rsvp-if)# exit
              RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-rsvp)
              
              
               

              Exits the current configuration mode.

               
              Step 5 exit


              Example:
              RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-rsvp) exit
              RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)
              
              
               

              Exits the current configuration mode.

               
              Step 6 mpls traffic-eng


              Example:
              RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# mpls traffic-eng
              RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-mpls-te)#
              
              
               

              Enters MPLS-TE configuration mode.

               
              Step 7 ds-te mode ietf


              Example:
              RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-mpls-te)# ds-te mode ietf
              
              
               

              Enables IETF DS-TE mode and default TE class map. IETF DS-TE mode is configured on all network nodes.

               
              Step 8 exit


              Example:
              RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-mpls-te)# exit
              
              
               

              Exits the current configuration mode.

               
              Step 9 interface tunnel-te tunnel-id


              Example:
              RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# interface tunnel-te 4
              RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if)#
              
              
               

              Configures an MPLS-TE tunnel interface.

               
              Step 10 signalled-bandwidth {bandwidth [class-type ct] | sub-pool bandwidth}


              Example:
              RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if)# signalled-bandwidth 10 class-type 1
              
              
               

              Configures the bandwidth required for an MPLS TE tunnel. Because the default tunnel priority is 7, tunnels use the default TE class map (namely, class-type 1, priority 7).

               
              Step 11 Use one of these commands:
              • end
              • commit


              Example:
              RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if)# end

              or

              RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if)# commit
               

              Saves configuration changes.

              • When you issue the end command, the system prompts you to commit changes:
                Uncommitted changes found, commit them
                before exiting(yes/no/cancel)? [cancel]:
                
                • Entering yes saves configuration changes to the running configuration file, exits the configuration session, and returns the router to EXEC mode.
                • Entering no exits the configuration session and returns the router to EXEC mode without committing the configuration changes.
                • Entering cancel leaves the router in the current configuration session without exiting or committing the configuration changes.
              • Use the commit command to save the configuration changes to the running configuration file, and remain within the configuration session.
               

              Configuring an IETF DS-TE Tunnel Using MAM

              Perform this task to configure an IETF mode differentiated services traffic engineering tunnel using the Maximum Allocation Model (MAM) bandwidth constraint model.

              Before You Begin

              The following prerequisites are required to configure an IETF mode differentiated services traffic engineering tunnel using the MAM bandwidth constraint model:

              • You must have a router ID for the neighboring router.
              • Stable router ID is required at either end of the link to ensure that the link is successful. If you do not assign a router ID to the routers, the system defaults to the global router ID. Default router IDs are subject to change, which can result in an unstable link.
              SUMMARY STEPS

                1.    configure

                2.    rsvp interface type interface-path-id

                3.    bandwidth mam {total reservable bandwidth | max-reservable-bw maximum-reservable-bw} [bc0 reservable bandwidth] [bc1 reservable bandwidth]

                4.    exit

                5.    exit

                6.    mpls traffic-eng

                7.    ds-te mode ietf

                8.    ds-te bc-model mam

                9.    exit

                10.    interface tunnel-te tunnel-id

                11.    signalled-bandwidth {bandwidth [class-type ct] | sub-pool bandwidth}

                12.    Use one of the following commands:

                • end
                • commit


              DETAILED STEPS
                  Command or Action Purpose
                Step 1 configure


                Example:
                RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:routerconfigure
                
                
                 

                Enters global configuration mode.

                 
                Step 2 rsvp interface type interface-path-id


                Example:
                RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# rsvp interface pos0/6/0/0
                
                
                 

                Enters RSVP configuration mode and selects the RSVP interface.

                 
                Step 3 bandwidth mam {total reservable bandwidth | max-reservable-bw maximum-reservable-bw} [bc0 reservable bandwidth] [bc1 reservable bandwidth]


                Example:
                RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-rsvp-if)# bandwidth mam max-reservable-bw 400 bc0 300 bc1 200
                
                
                 

                Sets the reserved RSVP bandwidth available on this interface.

                Note   

                Physical interface bandwidth is not used by MPLS-TE.

                 
                Step 4 exit


                Example:
                RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-rsvp-if)# exit
                RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-rsvp)#
                
                
                 

                Exits the current configuration mode.

                 
                Step 5 exit


                Example:
                RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-rsvp)# exit
                RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)#
                
                
                 

                Exits the current configuration mode.

                 
                Step 6 mpls traffic-eng


                Example:
                RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# mpls traffic-eng
                RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-mpls-te)#
                
                
                 

                Enters MPLS-TE configuration mode.

                 
                Step 7 ds-te mode ietf


                Example:
                RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-mpls-te)# ds-te mode ietf
                
                
                 

                Enables IETF DS-TE mode and default TE class map. Configure IETF DS-TE mode on all nodes in the network.

                 
                Step 8 ds-te bc-model mam


                Example:
                RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-mpls-te)# ds-te bc-model mam
                
                
                 

                Enables the MAM bandwidth constraint model globally.

                 
                Step 9 exit


                Example:
                RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-mpls-te)# exit
                
                
                 

                Exits the current configuration mode.

                 
                Step 10 interface tunnel-te tunnel-id


                Example:
                RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# interface tunnel-te 4
                RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if)#
                
                
                 

                Configures an MPLS-TE tunnel interface.

                 
                Step 11 signalled-bandwidth {bandwidth [class-type ct] | sub-pool bandwidth}


                Example:
                RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-rsvp-if)# signalled-bandwidth 10 class-type 1
                
                
                 

                Configures the bandwidth required for an MPLS TE tunnel. Because the default tunnel priority is 7, tunnels use the default TE class map (namely, class-type 1, priority 7).

                 
                Step 12 Use one of the following commands:
                • end
                • commit


                Example:
                RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-rsvp-if)# end
                
                

                or

                RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-rsvp-if)# commit
                
                
                 

                Saves configuration changes.

                • When you issue the end command, the system prompts you to commit changes:
                  Uncommitted changes found, commit them before exiting(yes/no/cancel)?
                  [cancel]:
                  • Entering yes saves configuration changes to the running configuration file, exits the configuration session, and returns the router to EXEC mode.
                  • Entering no exits the configuration session and returns the router to EXEC mode without committing the configuration changes.
                  • Entering cancel leaves the router in the current configuration session without exiting or committing the configuration changes.
                • Use the commit command to save the configuration changes to the running configuration file and remain within the configuration session.
                 

                Configuring MPLS -TE and Fast-Reroute on OSPF

                Perform this task to configure MPLS-TE and Fast Reroute (FRR) on OSPF.

                Before You Begin

                Note


                Only point-to-point (P2P) interfaces are supported for OSPF multiple adjacencies. These may be either native P2P interfaces or broadcast interfaces on which the OSPF P2P configuration command is applied to force them to behave as P2P interfaces as far as OSPF is concerned. This restriction does not apply to IS-IS.

                The tunnel-te interface is not supported under IS-IS.


                SUMMARY STEPS

                  1.    configure

                  2.    interface tunnel-te tunnel-id

                  3.    path-option [protecting ] preference-priority {dynamic [pce [address ipv4 address] | explicit {name pathname | identifier path-number } } [isis instance name {level level} ] [ospf instance name {area area ID} ] ] [verbatim] [lockdown]

                  4.    Repeat Step 3 as many times as needed.

                  5.    Use one of these commands:

                  • end
                  • commit

                  6.    show mpls traffic-eng tunnels [tunnel-number]


                DETAILED STEPS
                    Command or Action Purpose
                  Step 1 configure


                  Example:
                  RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# configure
                  
                  
                   

                  Enters global configuration mode.

                   
                  Step 2 interface tunnel-te tunnel-id


                  Example:
                  RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# interface tunnel-te 1
                  RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if)#
                  
                  
                   

                  Configures an MPLS-TE tunnel interface. The range for the tunnel ID number is 0 to 65535.

                   
                  Step 3 path-option [protecting ] preference-priority {dynamic [pce [address ipv4 address] | explicit {name pathname | identifier path-number } } [isis instance name {level level} ] [ospf instance name {area area ID} ] ] [verbatim] [lockdown]


                  Example:
                  RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if)# path-option 1 explicit identifier 6 ospf green area 0
                  
                  
                   

                  Configures an explicit path option for an MPLS-TE tunnel. OSPF is limited to a single OSPF instance and area.

                   
                  Step 4 Repeat Step 3 as many times as needed.

                  Example:
                  RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if)# path-option 2 explicit name 234 ospf 3 area 7 verbatim
                  
                  
                   

                  Configures another explicit path option.

                   
                  Step 5 Use one of these commands:
                  • end
                  • commit


                  Example:
                  RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if)# end

                  or

                  RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if)# commit
                   

                  Saves configuration changes.

                  • When you issue the end command, the system prompts you to commit changes:
                    Uncommitted changes found, commit them
                    before exiting(yes/no/cancel)? [cancel]:
                    
                    • Entering yes saves configuration changes to the running configuration file, exits the configuration session, and returns the router to EXEC mode.
                    • Entering no exits the configuration session and returns the router to EXEC mode without committing the configuration changes.
                    • Entering cancel leaves the router in the current configuration session without exiting or committing the configuration changes.
                  • Use the commit command to save the configuration changes to the running configuration file, and remain within the configuration session.
                   
                  Step 6 show mpls traffic-eng tunnels [tunnel-number]


                  Example:
                  RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:routershow mpls traffic-eng tunnels 1
                  
                  
                   

                  Displays information about MPLS-TE tunnels.

                   

                  Configuring the Ignore Integrated IS-IS Overload Bit Setting in MPLS-TE

                  Perform this task to configure an overload node avoidance in MPLS-TE. When the overload bit is enabled, tunnels are brought down when the overload node is found in the tunnel path.

                  SUMMARY STEPS

                    1.    configure

                    2.    mpls traffic-eng

                    3.    path-selection ignore overload

                    4.    Use one of these commands:

                    • end
                    • commit


                  DETAILED STEPS
                      Command or Action Purpose
                    Step 1 configure


                    Example:
                    RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# configure
                    
                    
                     

                    Enters global configuration mode.

                     
                    Step 2 mpls traffic-eng


                    Example:
                    RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# mpls traffic-eng
                    RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-mpls-te)#
                    
                    
                     

                    Enters MPLS-TE configuration mode.

                     
                    Step 3 path-selection ignore overload


                    Example:
                    RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-mpls-te)# path-selection ignore overload 
                    
                    
                     

                    Ignores the Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS) overload bit setting for MPLS-TE.

                     
                    Step 4 Use one of these commands:
                    • end
                    • commit


                    Example:
                    RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-mpls-te)# end
                    
                    

                    or

                    RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-mpls-te)# commit
                    
                    
                     

                    Saves configuration changes.

                    • When you issue the end command, the system prompts you to commit changes:
                      Uncommitted changes found, commit them before exiting(yes/no/cancel)?
                      [cancel]:
                      • Entering yes saves configuration changes to the running configuration file, exits the configuration session, and returns the router to EXEC mode.
                      • Entering no exits the configuration session and returns the router to EXEC mode without committing the configuration changes.
                      • Entering cancel leaves the router in the current configuration session without exiting or committing the configuration changes.
                    • Use the commit command to save the configuration changes to the running configuration file and remain within the configuration session.
                     

                    Configuring Flexible Name-based Tunnel Constraints

                    To fully configure MPLS-TE flexible name-based tunnel constraints, you must complete these high-level tasks in order:

                    1. Assigning Color Names to Numeric Values
                    2. Associating Affinity-Names with TE Links
                    3. Associating Affinity Constraints for TE Tunnels

                    Assigning Color Names to Numeric Values

                    The first task in enabling the new coloring scheme is to assign a numerical value (in hexadecimal) to each value (color).


                    Note


                    An affinity color name cannot exceed 64 characters. An affinity value cannot exceed a single digit. For example, magenta1.


                    SUMMARY STEPS

                      1.    configure

                      2.    mpls traffic-eng

                      3.    affinity-map affinity name {affinity value | bit-position value}

                      4.    Use one of the following commands:

                      • end
                      • commit


                    DETAILED STEPS
                        Command or Action Purpose
                      Step 1 configure


                      Example:
                      RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:routerconfigure
                      
                      
                       

                      Enters global configuration mode.

                       
                      Step 2 mpls traffic-eng


                      Example:
                      RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# mpls traffic-eng 
                      RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-mpls-te)#
                      
                      
                       

                      Enters MPLS-TE configuration mode.

                       
                      Step 3 affinity-map affinity name {affinity value | bit-position value}


                      Example:
                      RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-mpls-te)# affinity-map red 1
                      
                      
                       

                      Enters an affinity name and a map value by using a color name (repeat this command to assign multiple colors up to a maximum of 64 colors). An affinity color name cannot exceed 64 characters. The value you assign to a color name must be a single digit.

                       
                      Step 4 Use one of the following commands:
                      • end
                      • commit


                      Example:
                      RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-mpls-te)# end

                      or

                      RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-mpls-te)# commit
                       

                      Saves configuration changes.

                      • When you issue the end command, the system prompts you to commit changes:
                        Uncommitted changes found, commit them before exiting(yes/no/cancel)?
                        [cancel]:
                        • Entering yes saves configuration changes to the running configuration file, exits the configuration session, and returns the router to EXEC mode.
                        • Entering no exits the configuration session and returns the router to EXEC mode without committing the configuration changes.
                        • Entering cancel leaves the router in the current configuration session without exiting or committing the configuration changes.
                      • Use the commit command to save the configuration changes to the running configuration file and remain within the configuration session.
                       

                      Associating Affinity-Names with TE Links

                      The next step in the configuration of MPLS-TE Flexible Name-based Tunnel Constraints is to assign affinity names and values to TE links. You can assign up to a maximum of 32 colors. Before you assign a color to a link, you must define the name-to-value mapping for each color.

                      SUMMARY STEPS

                        1.    configure

                        2.    mpls traffic-eng

                        3.    interface type interface-path-id

                        4.    attribute-names attribute name

                        5.    Use one of the following commands:

                        • end
                        • commit


                      DETAILED STEPS
                          Command or Action Purpose
                        Step 1 configure


                        Example:
                        RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:routerconfigure
                        
                        
                         

                        Enters global configuration mode.

                         
                        Step 2 mpls traffic-eng


                        Example:
                        RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# mpls traffic-eng 
                        RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-mpls-te)#
                        
                        
                         

                        Enters MPLS-TE configuration mode.

                         
                        Step 3 interface type interface-path-id


                        Example:
                        RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-mpls-te)# interface tunnel-te 2
                        RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-mpls-te-if)#
                        
                        
                         

                        Enables MPLS-TE on an interface and enters MPLS-TE interface configuration mode.

                         
                        Step 4 attribute-names attribute name


                        Example:
                        RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-mpls-te-if)# attribute-names red
                        
                        
                         

                        Assigns colors to TE links over the selected interface.

                         
                        Step 5 Use one of the following commands:
                        • end
                        • commit


                        Example:
                        RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-mpls-te-if)# end

                        or

                        RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-mpls-te-if)# commit
                         

                        Saves configuration changes.

                        • When you issue the end command, the system prompts you to commit changes:
                          Uncommitted changes found, commit them before exiting(yes/no/cancel)?
                          [cancel]:
                          • Entering yes saves configuration changes to the running configuration file, exits the configuration session, and returns the router to EXEC mode.
                          • Entering no exits the configuration session and returns the router to EXEC mode without committing the configuration changes.
                          • Entering cancel leaves the router in the current configuration session without exiting or committing the configuration changes.
                        • Use the commit command to save the configuration changes to the running configuration file and remain within the configuration session.
                         

                        Associating Affinity Constraints for TE Tunnels

                        The final step in the configuration of MPLS-TE Flexible Name-based Tunnel Constraints requires that you associate a tunnel with affinity constraints.

                        Using this model, there are no masks. Instead, there is support for four types of affinity constraints:

                        • include
                        • include-strict
                        • exclude
                        • exclude-all

                        Note


                        For the affinity constraints above, all but the exclude-all constraint may be associated with up to 10 colors.


                        SUMMARY STEPS

                          1.    configure

                          2.    interface tunnel-te tunnel-id

                          3.    affinity {affinity-value mask mask-value | exclude name | exclude -all | include name | include-strict name}

                          4.    Use one of these commands:

                          • end
                          • commit


                        DETAILED STEPS
                            Command or Action Purpose
                          Step 1 configure


                          Example:
                          RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:routerconfigure
                          
                          
                           

                          Enters global configuration mode.

                           
                          Step 2 interface tunnel-te tunnel-id


                          Example:
                          RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# interface tunnel-te 1
                          
                          
                           

                          Configures an MPLS-TE tunnel interface.

                           
                          Step 3 affinity {affinity-value mask mask-value | exclude name | exclude -all | include name | include-strict name}


                          Example:
                          RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if)# affinity include red
                          
                          
                           

                          Configures link attributes for links comprising a tunnel. You can have up to ten colors.

                          Multiple include statements can be specified under tunnel configuration. With this configuration, a link is eligible for CSPF if it has at least a red color or has at least a green color. Thus, a link with red and any other colors as well as a link with green and any additional colors meet the above constraint.

                           
                          Step 4 Use one of these commands:
                          • end
                          • commit


                          Example:
                          RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if)# end

                          or

                          RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if)# commit
                           

                          Saves configuration changes.

                          • When you issue the end command, the system prompts you to commit changes:
                            Uncommitted changes found, commit them
                            before exiting(yes/no/cancel)? [cancel]:
                            
                            • Entering yes saves configuration changes to the running configuration file, exits the configuration session, and returns the router to EXEC mode.
                            • Entering no exits the configuration session and returns the router to EXEC mode without committing the configuration changes.
                            • Entering cancel leaves the router in the current configuration session without exiting or committing the configuration changes.
                          • Use the commit command to save the configuration changes to the running configuration file, and remain within the configuration session.
                           

                          Configuring IS-IS to Flood MPLS-TE Link Information

                          Perform this task to configure a router running the Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS) protocol to flood MPLS-TE link information into multiple IS-IS levels.

                          This procedure shows how to enable MPLS-TE in both IS-IS Level 1 and Level 2.

                          SUMMARY STEPS

                            1.    configure

                            2.    router isis instance-id

                            3.    net network-entity-title

                            4.    address-family {ipv4 | ipv6} {unicast}

                            5.    metric-style wide

                            6.    mpls traffic-eng level

                            7.    Use one of the following commands:

                            • end
                            • commit


                          DETAILED STEPS
                              Command or Action Purpose
                            Step 1 configure


                            Example:
                            RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# configure
                            
                            
                             

                            Enters global configuration mode.

                             
                            Step 2 router isis instance-id


                            Example:
                            RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# router isis 1
                            
                            
                             

                            Enters an IS-IS instance.

                             
                            Step 3 net network-entity-title


                            Example:
                            RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-isis)# net 47.0001.0000.0000.0002.00
                            
                            
                             

                            Enters an IS-IS network entity title (NET) for the routing process.

                             
                            Step 4 address-family {ipv4 | ipv6} {unicast}


                            Example:
                            RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-isis)# address-family ipv4 unicast
                            
                            
                             

                            Enters address family configuration mode for configuring IS-IS routing that uses IPv4 and IPv6 address prefixes.

                             
                            Step 5 metric-style wide


                            Example:
                            RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-isis-af)# metric-style wide
                            
                            
                             

                            Enters the new-style type, length, and value (TLV) objects.

                             
                            Step 6 mpls traffic-eng level


                            Example:
                            RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-isis-af)# mpls traffic-eng level-1-2
                            
                            
                             

                            Enters the required MPLS-TE level or levels.

                             
                            Step 7 Use one of the following commands:
                            • end
                            • commit


                            Example:
                            RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-isis-af)# end

                            or

                            RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-isis-af)# commit
                             

                            Saves configuration changes.

                            • When you issue the end command, the system prompts you to commit changes:
                              Uncommitted changes found, commit them before exiting(yes/no/cancel)?
                              [cancel]:
                              • Entering yes saves configuration changes to the running configuration file, exits the configuration session, and returns the router to EXEC mode.
                              • Entering no exits the configuration session and returns the router to EXEC mode without committing the configuration changes.
                              • Entering cancel leaves the router in the current configuration session without exiting or committing the configuration changes.
                            • Use the commit command to save the configuration changes to the running configuration file and remain within the configuration session.
                             

                            Configuring an OSPF Area of MPLS-TE

                            Perform this task to configure an OSPF area for MPLS-TE in both the OSPF backbone area 0 and area 1.

                            SUMMARY STEPS

                              1.    configure

                              2.    router ospf process-name

                              3.    mpls traffic-eng router-id type interface-path-id

                              4.    area area-id

                              5.    interface type interface-path-id

                              6.    Use one of the following commands:

                              • end
                              • commit


                            DETAILED STEPS
                                Command or Action Purpose
                              Step 1 configure


                              Example:
                              RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# configure
                              
                              
                               

                              Enters global configuration mode.

                               
                              Step 2 router ospf process-name


                              Example:
                              RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# router ospf 100
                              
                              
                               
                              Enters a name that uniquely identifies an OSPF routing process.
                              process-name

                              Any alphanumeric string no longer than 40 characters without spaces.

                               
                              Step 3 mpls traffic-eng router-id type interface-path-id


                              Example:
                              RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-ospf)# mpls traffic-eng router-id Loopback0
                              
                              
                               

                              Enters the MPLS interface type. For more information, use the question mark (?) online help function.

                               
                              Step 4 area area-id


                              Example:
                              RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-ospf)# area 0
                              
                              
                               
                              Enters an OSPF area identifier.
                              area-id

                              Either a decimal value or an IP address.

                               
                              Step 5 interface type interface-path-id


                              Example:
                              RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-ospf-ar)# interface POS 0/2/0/0
                              
                              
                               

                              Identifies an interface ID. For more information, use the question mark (?) online help function.

                               
                              Step 6 Use one of the following commands:
                              • end
                              • commit


                              Example:
                              RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-ospf-ar)# end

                              or

                              RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-ospf-ar)# commit
                               

                              Saves configuration changes.

                              • When you issue the end command, the system prompts you to commit changes:
                                Uncommitted changes found, commit them before exiting(yes/no/cancel)?
                                [cancel]:
                                • Entering yes saves configuration changes to the running configuration file, exits the configuration session, and returns the router to EXEC mode.
                                • Entering no exits the configuration session and returns the router to EXEC mode without committing the configuration changes.
                                • Entering cancel leaves the router in the current configuration session without exiting or committing the configuration changes.
                              • Use the commit command to save the configuration changes to the running configuration file and remain within the configuration session.
                               

                              Configuring Explicit Paths with ABRs Configured as Loose Addresses

                              Perform this task to specify an IPv4 explicit path with ABRs configured as loose addresses.

                              SUMMARY STEPS

                                1.    configure

                                2.    explicit-path name name

                                3.    index index-id next-address [loose] ipv4 unicast ip-address

                                4.    Use one of the following commands:

                                • end
                                • commit


                              DETAILED STEPS
                                  Command or Action Purpose
                                Step 1 configure


                                Example:
                                RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# configure
                                
                                
                                 

                                Enters global configuration mode.

                                 
                                Step 2 explicit-path name name


                                Example:
                                RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# explicit-path name interarea1
                                
                                
                                 

                                Enters a name for the explicit path.

                                 
                                Step 3 index index-id next-address [loose] ipv4 unicast ip-address


                                Example:
                                RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-expl-path)# index 1 next-address loose ipv4 unicast 10.10.10.10
                                
                                
                                 

                                Includes an address in an IP explicit path of a tunnel.

                                 
                                Step 4 Use one of the following commands:
                                • end
                                • commit


                                Example:
                                RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-expl-path)# end

                                or

                                RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-expl-path)# commit
                                 

                                Saves configuration changes.

                                • When you issue the end command, the system prompts you to commit changes:
                                  Uncommitted changes found, commit them before exiting(yes/no/cancel)?
                                  [cancel]:
                                  • Entering yes saves configuration changes to the running configuration file, exits the configuration session, and returns the router to EXEC mode.
                                  • Entering no exits the configuration session and returns the router to EXEC mode without committing the configuration changes.
                                  • Entering cancel leaves the router in the current configuration session without exiting or committing the configuration changes.
                                • Use the commit command to save the configuration changes to the running configuration file and remain within the configuration session.
                                 

                                Configuring MPLS-TE Forwarding Adjacency

                                Perform this task to configure forwarding adjacency on a specific tunnel-te interface.

                                SUMMARY STEPS

                                  1.    configure

                                  2.    interface tunnel-te tunnel-id

                                  3.    forwarding-adjacency holdtime value

                                  4.    Use one of these commands:

                                  • end
                                  • commit


                                DETAILED STEPS
                                    Command or Action Purpose
                                  Step 1 configure


                                  Example:
                                  RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# configure
                                  
                                  
                                   

                                  Enters global configuration mode.

                                   
                                  Step 2 interface tunnel-te tunnel-id


                                  Example:
                                  RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# interface tunnel-te 1
                                  
                                  
                                   

                                  Enters MPLS-TE interface configuration mode.

                                   
                                  Step 3 forwarding-adjacency holdtime value


                                  Example:
                                  RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if)# forwarding-adjacency holdtime 60
                                  
                                  
                                   

                                  Configures forwarding adjacency using an optional specific holdtime value. By default, this value is 0 (milliseconds).

                                   
                                  Step 4 Use one of these commands:
                                  • end
                                  • commit


                                  Example:
                                  RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if)# end

                                  or

                                  RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if)# commit
                                   

                                  Saves configuration changes.

                                  • When you issue the end command, the system prompts you to commit changes:
                                    Uncommitted changes found, commit them
                                    before exiting(yes/no/cancel)? [cancel]:
                                    
                                    • Entering yes saves configuration changes to the running configuration file, exits the configuration session, and returns the router to EXEC mode.
                                    • Entering no exits the configuration session and returns the router to EXEC mode without committing the configuration changes.
                                    • Entering cancel leaves the router in the current configuration session without exiting or committing the configuration changes.
                                  • Use the commit command to save the configuration changes to the running configuration file, and remain within the configuration session.
                                   

                                  Configuring a Path Computation Client and Element

                                  Perform these tasks to configure Path Comptation Client (PCC) and Path Computation Element (PCE):

                                  Configuring a Path Computation Client

                                  Perform this task to configure a TE tunnel as a PCC.


                                  Note


                                  Only one TE-enabled IGP instance can be used at a time.


                                  SUMMARY STEPS

                                    1.    configure

                                    2.    interface tunnel-te tunnel-id

                                    3.    path-option preference-priority dynamic pce

                                    4.    Use one of these commands:

                                    • end
                                    • commit


                                  DETAILED STEPS
                                      Command or Action Purpose
                                    Step 1 configure


                                    Example:
                                    RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# configure
                                    
                                    
                                     

                                    Enters global configuration mode.

                                     
                                    Step 2 interface tunnel-te tunnel-id


                                    Example:
                                    RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# interface tunnel-te 6
                                    
                                    
                                     

                                    Enters MPLS-TE interface configuration mode and enables traffic engineering on a particular interface on the originating node.

                                     
                                    Step 3 path-option preference-priority dynamic pce


                                    Example:
                                    RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if)# path-option 1 dynamic pce
                                    
                                    
                                     

                                    Configures a TE tunnel as a PCC.

                                     
                                    Step 4 Use one of these commands:
                                    • end
                                    • commit


                                    Example:
                                    RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if)# end

                                    or

                                    RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if)# commit
                                     

                                    Saves configuration changes.

                                    • When you issue the end command, the system prompts you to commit changes:
                                      Uncommitted changes found, commit them
                                      before exiting(yes/no/cancel)? [cancel]:
                                      
                                      • Entering yes saves configuration changes to the running configuration file, exits the configuration session, and returns the router to EXEC mode.
                                      • Entering no exits the configuration session and returns the router to EXEC mode without committing the configuration changes.
                                      • Entering cancel leaves the router in the current configuration session without exiting or committing the configuration changes.
                                    • Use the commit command to save the configuration changes to the running configuration file, and remain within the configuration session.
                                     
                                    Related Concepts
                                    Related References

                                    Configuring a Path Computation Element Address

                                    Perform this task to configure a PCE address.


                                    Note


                                    Only one TE-enabled IGP instance can be used at a time.


                                    SUMMARY STEPS

                                      1.    configure

                                      2.    mpls traffic-eng

                                      3.    pce address ipv4 address

                                      4.    Use one of the following commands:

                                      • end
                                      • commit


                                    DETAILED STEPS
                                        Command or Action Purpose
                                      Step 1 configure


                                      Example:
                                      RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# configure
                                      
                                      
                                       

                                      Enters global configuration mode.

                                       
                                      Step 2 mpls traffic-eng


                                      Example:
                                      RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# mpls traffic-eng
                                      
                                      
                                       

                                      Enters the MPLS-TE configuration mode.

                                       
                                      Step 3 pce address ipv4 address


                                      Example:
                                      RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-mpls-te)# pce address ipv4 10.1.1.1
                                      
                                      
                                       

                                      Configures a PCE IPv4 address.

                                       
                                      Step 4 Use one of the following commands:
                                      • end
                                      • commit


                                      Example:
                                      RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-mpls-te)# end

                                      or

                                      RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-mpls-te)# commit
                                       

                                      Saves configuration changes.

                                      • When you issue the end command, the system prompts you to commit changes:
                                        Uncommitted changes found, commit them before exiting(yes/no/cancel)?
                                        [cancel]:
                                        • Entering yes saves configuration changes to the running configuration file, exits the configuration session, and returns the router to EXEC mode.
                                        • Entering no exits the configuration session and returns the router to EXEC mode without committing the configuration changes.
                                        • Entering cancel leaves the router in the current configuration session without exiting or committing the configuration changes.
                                      • Use the commit command to save the configuration changes to the running configuration file and remain within the configuration session.
                                       
                                      Related Concepts
                                      Related References

                                      Configuring PCE Parameters

                                      Perform this task to configure PCE parameters, including a static PCE peer, periodic reoptimization timer values, and request timeout values.

                                      SUMMARY STEPS

                                        1.    configure

                                        2.    mpls traffic-eng

                                        3.    pce address ipv4 address

                                        4.    pce peer ipv4 address

                                        5.    pce keepalive interval

                                        6.    pce deadtimer value

                                        7.    pce reoptimize value

                                        8.    pce request-timeout value

                                        9.    pce tolerance keepalive value

                                        10.    Use one of the following commands:

                                        • end
                                        • commit

                                        11.    show mpls traffic-eng pce peer [address | all]

                                        12.    show mpls traffic-eng pce tunnels


                                      DETAILED STEPS
                                          Command or Action Purpose
                                        Step 1 configure


                                        Example:
                                        RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# configure
                                        
                                        
                                         

                                        Enters global configuration mode.

                                         
                                        Step 2 mpls traffic-eng


                                        Example:
                                        RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# mpls traffic-eng
                                        
                                        
                                         

                                        Enters MPLS-TE configuration mode.

                                         
                                        Step 3 pce address ipv4 address


                                        Example:
                                        RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-mpls-te)# pce address ipv4 10.1.1.1
                                        
                                        
                                         

                                        Configures a PCE IPv4 address.

                                         
                                        Step 4 pce peer ipv4 address


                                        Example:
                                        RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-mpls-te)# pce peer address ipv4 10.1.1.1
                                        
                                        
                                         

                                        Configures a static PCE peer address. PCE peers are also discovered dynamically through OSPF or ISIS.

                                         
                                        Step 5 pce keepalive interval


                                        Example:
                                        RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-mpls-te)# pce keepalive 10
                                        
                                        
                                         

                                        Configures a PCEP keepalive interval. The range is from 0 to 255 seconds. When the keepalive interval is 0, the LSR does not send keepalive messages.

                                         
                                        Step 6 pce deadtimer value


                                        Example:
                                        RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-mpls-te)# pce deadtimer 50
                                        
                                        
                                         

                                        Configures a PCE deadtimer value. The range is from 0 to 255 seconds. When the dead interval is 0, the LSR does not timeout a PCEP session to a remote peer.

                                         
                                        Step 7 pce reoptimize value


                                        Example:
                                        RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-mpls-te)# pce reoptimize 200
                                        
                                        
                                         

                                        Configures a periodic reoptimization timer value. The range is from 60 to 604800 seconds. When the dead interval is 0, the LSR does not timeout a PCEP session to a remote peer.

                                         
                                        Step 8 pce request-timeout value


                                        Example:
                                        RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-mpls-te)# pce request-timeout 10
                                        
                                        
                                         

                                        Configures a PCE request-timeout. Range is from 5 to 100 seconds. PCC or PCE keeps a pending path request only for the request-timeout period.

                                         
                                        Step 9 pce tolerance keepalive value


                                        Example:
                                        RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-mpls-te)# pce tolerance keepalive 10
                                        
                                        
                                         

                                        Configures a PCE tolerance keepalive value (which is the minimum acceptable peer proposed keepalive).

                                         
                                        Step 10 Use one of the following commands:
                                        • end
                                        • commit


                                        Example:
                                        RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-mpls-te)# end

                                        or

                                        RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-mpls-te)# commit
                                         

                                        Saves configuration changes.

                                        • When you issue the end command, the system prompts you to commit changes:
                                          Uncommitted changes found, commit them before exiting(yes/no/cancel)?
                                          [cancel]:
                                          • Entering yes saves configuration changes to the running configuration file, exits the configuration session, and returns the router to EXEC mode.
                                          • Entering no exits the configuration session and returns the router to EXEC mode without committing the configuration changes.
                                          • Entering cancel leaves the router in the current configuration session without exiting or committing the configuration changes.
                                        • Use the commit command to save the configuration changes to the running configuration file and remain within the configuration session.
                                         
                                        Step 11 show mpls traffic-eng pce peer [address | all]


                                        Example:
                                        RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# show mpls traffic-eng pce peer
                                        
                                        
                                         

                                        Displays the PCE peer address and state.

                                         
                                        Step 12 show mpls traffic-eng pce tunnels


                                        Example:
                                        RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# show mpls traffic-eng pce tunnels
                                        
                                        
                                         

                                        Displays the status of the PCE tunnels.

                                         
                                        Related Concepts
                                        Related References

                                        Configuring Path Protection on MPLS-TE

                                        These tasks show how to configure path protection on MPLS-TE:

                                        Enabling Path Protection for an Interface

                                        Perform this task to enable path protection for a given tunnel interface.

                                        SUMMARY STEPS

                                          1.    configure

                                          2.    interface tunnel-te tunnel-id

                                          3.    path-protection

                                          4.    Use one of these commands:

                                          • end
                                          • commit

                                          5.    show mpls traffic-eng tunnels [tunnel-number]


                                        DETAILED STEPS
                                            Command or Action Purpose
                                          Step 1 configure


                                          Example:
                                          RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# configure
                                          
                                          
                                           

                                          Enters global configuration mode.

                                           
                                          Step 2 interface tunnel-te tunnel-id


                                          Example:
                                          RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# interface tunnel-te 6
                                          
                                          
                                           

                                          Configures an MPLS-TE tunnel interface and enables traffic engineering on a particular interface on the originating node.

                                           
                                          Step 3 path-protection


                                          Example:
                                          RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if)# path-protection
                                          
                                          
                                           

                                          Enables path protection on the tunnel-te interface.

                                           
                                          Step 4 Use one of these commands:
                                          • end
                                          • commit


                                          Example:
                                          RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if)# end

                                          or

                                          RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if)# commit
                                           

                                          Saves configuration changes.

                                          • When you issue the end command, the system prompts you to commit changes:
                                            Uncommitted changes found, commit them
                                            before exiting(yes/no/cancel)? [cancel]:
                                            
                                            • Entering yes saves configuration changes to the running configuration file, exits the configuration session, and returns the router to EXEC mode.
                                            • Entering no exits the configuration session and returns the router to EXEC mode without committing the configuration changes.
                                            • Entering cancel leaves the router in the current configuration session without exiting or committing the configuration changes.
                                          • Use the commit command to save the configuration changes to the running configuration file, and remain within the configuration session.
                                           
                                          Step 5 show mpls traffic-eng tunnels [tunnel-number]


                                          Example:
                                          RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# show mpls traffic-eng tunnels 6
                                          
                                          
                                           

                                          Displays information that path protection is enabled on the tunnel-te interface for tunnel number 6.

                                           

                                          Assigning a Dynamic Path Option to a Tunnel

                                          Perform this task to assign a secondary path option in case there is a link or node failure along a path and all interfaces in your network are not protected.

                                          SUMMARY STEPS

                                            1.    configure

                                            2.    interface tunnel-te tunnel-id

                                            3.    path-option preference-priority dynamic

                                            4.    Use one of these commands:

                                            • end
                                            • commit

                                            5.    show mpls traffic-eng tunnels [tunnel-number]


                                          DETAILED STEPS
                                              Command or Action Purpose
                                            Step 1 configure


                                            Example:
                                            RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# configure
                                            
                                            
                                             

                                            Enters global configuration mode.

                                             
                                            Step 2 interface tunnel-te tunnel-id


                                            Example:
                                            RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# interface tunnel-te 6
                                            
                                            
                                             

                                            Configures an MPLS-TE tunnel interface and enables traffic engineering on a particular interface on the originating node.

                                             
                                            Step 3 path-option preference-priority dynamic


                                            Example:
                                            RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if)# path-option 10 dynamic
                                            
                                            
                                             

                                            Configures a secondary path option for an MPLS-TE tunnel.

                                             
                                            Step 4 Use one of these commands:
                                            • end
                                            • commit


                                            Example:
                                            RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if)# end

                                            or

                                            RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if)# commit
                                             

                                            Saves configuration changes.

                                            • When you issue the end command, the system prompts you to commit changes:
                                              Uncommitted changes found, commit them
                                              before exiting(yes/no/cancel)? [cancel]:
                                              
                                              • Entering yes saves configuration changes to the running configuration file, exits the configuration session, and returns the router to EXEC mode.
                                              • Entering no exits the configuration session and returns the router to EXEC mode without committing the configuration changes.
                                              • Entering cancel leaves the router in the current configuration session without exiting or committing the configuration changes.
                                            • Use the commit command to save the configuration changes to the running configuration file, and remain within the configuration session.
                                             
                                            Step 5 show mpls traffic-eng tunnels [tunnel-number]


                                            Example:
                                            RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# show mpls traffic-eng tunnels 6
                                            
                                            
                                             

                                            Displays information about the secondary path option that on the tunnel-te interface for tunnel number 6.

                                             

                                            Forcing a Manual Switchover on a Path-Protected Tunnel

                                            Perform this task to force a manual switchover on a path-protected tunnel.

                                            SUMMARY STEPS

                                              1.    mpls traffic-eng path-protection switchover tunnel-te tunnel-ID


                                            DETAILED STEPS
                                                Command or Action Purpose
                                              Step 1 mpls traffic-eng path-protection switchover tunnel-te tunnel-ID


                                              Example:
                                              RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# mpls traffic-eng path-protection switchover tunnel-te 6
                                              
                                              
                                               

                                              Forces the path protection switchover of the Point-to-Point (P2P) tunnel on the tunnel-te interface.

                                               

                                              Configuring the Delay the Tunnel Takes Before Reoptimization

                                              Perform this task to configure the time between when a path-protection switchover event is effected on a tunnel head to when a reoptimization is performed on that tunnel. This timer affects only the required reoptimization that is attempted due to a switchover and does not override the global reoptimization timer.

                                              SUMMARY STEPS

                                                1.    configure

                                                2.    mpls traffic-eng

                                                3.    reoptimize timers delay path-protection seconds

                                                4.    Use one of the following commands:

                                                • end
                                                • commit


                                              DETAILED STEPS
                                                  Command or Action Purpose
                                                Step 1 configure


                                                Example:
                                                RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# configure
                                                
                                                
                                                 

                                                Enters global configuration mode.

                                                 
                                                Step 2 mpls traffic-eng


                                                Example:
                                                RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# mpls traffic-eng
                                                
                                                
                                                 

                                                Enters MPLS-TE configuration mode.

                                                 
                                                Step 3 reoptimize timers delay path-protection seconds


                                                Example:
                                                RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-mpls-te)#  reoptimize timers delay path-protection 180
                                                
                                                
                                                 
                                                Adjusts the number of seconds that the tunnel takes before triggering reoptimization after switchover has happened.
                                                Note   

                                                The restriction is that at least one dynamic path-option must be configured for a standby LSP to come up. The strict (explicit) path option is not supported for the standby LSP.

                                                 
                                                Step 4 Use one of the following commands:
                                                • end
                                                • commit


                                                Example:
                                                RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-mpls-te)# end

                                                or

                                                RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-mpls-te)# commit
                                                 

                                                Saves configuration changes.

                                                • When you issue the end command, the system prompts you to commit changes:
                                                  Uncommitted changes found, commit them before exiting(yes/no/cancel)?
                                                  [cancel]:
                                                  • Entering yes saves configuration changes to the running configuration file, exits the configuration session, and returns the router to EXEC mode.
                                                  • Entering no exits the configuration session and returns the router to EXEC mode without committing the configuration changes.
                                                  • Entering cancel leaves the router in the current configuration session without exiting or committing the configuration changes.
                                                • Use the commit command to save the configuration changes to the running configuration file and remain within the configuration session.
                                                 

                                                Configuring the Automatic Bandwidth

                                                Perform these tasks to configure the automatic bandwidth:

                                                Configuring the Collection Frequency

                                                Perform this task to configure the collection frequency. You can configure only one global collection frequency.

                                                SUMMARY STEPS

                                                  1.    configure

                                                  2.    mpls traffic-eng

                                                  3.    auto-bw collect frequency minutes

                                                  4.    Use one of the following commands:

                                                  • end
                                                  • commit

                                                  5.    show mpls traffic-eng tunnels [auto-bw]


                                                DETAILED STEPS
                                                    Command or Action Purpose
                                                  Step 1 configure


                                                  Example:
                                                  RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# configure
                                                  
                                                  
                                                   

                                                  Enters global configuration mode.

                                                   
                                                  Step 2 mpls traffic-eng


                                                  Example:
                                                  RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# mpls traffic-eng
                                                  RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-mpls-te)# 
                                                  
                                                  
                                                   

                                                  Enters MPLS-TE configuration mode.

                                                   
                                                  Step 3 auto-bw collect frequency minutes


                                                  Example:
                                                  RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-mpls-te)# auto-bw collect frequency 1
                                                  
                                                  
                                                   

                                                  Configures the automatic bandwidth collection frequency, and controls the manner in which the bandwidth for a tunnel collects output rate information; but does not adjust the tunnel bandwidth.

                                                  minutes

                                                  Configures the interval between automatic bandwidth adjustments in minutes. Range is from 1 to 10080.

                                                   
                                                  Step 4 Use one of the following commands:
                                                  • end
                                                  • commit


                                                  Example:
                                                  RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-mpls-te)# end

                                                  or

                                                  RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-mpls-te)# commit
                                                   

                                                  Saves configuration changes.

                                                  • When you issue the end command, the system prompts you to commit changes:
                                                    Uncommitted changes found, commit them before exiting(yes/no/cancel)?
                                                    [cancel]:
                                                    • Entering yes saves configuration changes to the running configuration file, exits the configuration session, and returns the router to EXEC mode.
                                                    • Entering no exits the configuration session and returns the router to EXEC mode without committing the configuration changes.
                                                    • Entering cancel leaves the router in the current configuration session without exiting or committing the configuration changes.
                                                  • Use the commit command to save the configuration changes to the running configuration file and remain within the configuration session.
                                                   
                                                  Step 5 show mpls traffic-eng tunnels [auto-bw]


                                                  Example:
                                                  RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# show mpls traffic tunnels auto-bw
                                                  
                                                  
                                                   

                                                  Displays information about MPLS-TE tunnels for the automatic bandwidth. The globally configured collection frequency is displayed.

                                                   

                                                  Forcing the Current Application Period to Expire Immediately

                                                  Perform this task to force the current application period to expire immediately on the specified tunnel. The highest bandwidth is applied on the tunnel before waiting for the application period to end on its own.

                                                  SUMMARY STEPS

                                                    1.    mpls traffic-eng auto-bw apply {all | tunnel-te tunnel-number}

                                                    2.    show mpls traffic-eng tunnels [auto-bw]


                                                  DETAILED STEPS
                                                      Command or Action Purpose
                                                    Step 1 mpls traffic-eng auto-bw apply {all | tunnel-te tunnel-number}


                                                    Example:
                                                    RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# mpls traffic-eng auto-bw apply tunnel-te 1
                                                    
                                                    
                                                     
                                                    Configures the highest bandwidth available on a tunnel without waiting for the current application period to end.
                                                    all

                                                    Configures the highest bandwidth available instantly on all the tunnels.

                                                    tunnel-te

                                                    Configures the highest bandwidth instantly to the specified tunnel. Range is from 0 to 65535.

                                                     
                                                    Step 2 show mpls traffic-eng tunnels [auto-bw]


                                                    Example:
                                                    RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# show mpls traffic-eng tunnels auto-bw
                                                    
                                                    
                                                     

                                                    Displays information about MPLS-TE tunnels for the automatic bandwidth.

                                                     

                                                    Configuring the Automatic Bandwidth Functions

                                                    Perform this task to configure the following automatic bandwidth functions:

                                                    Application frequency

                                                    Configures the application frequency in which a tunnel bandwidth is updated by the automatic bandwidth.

                                                    Bandwidth collection

                                                    Configures only the bandwidth collection.

                                                    Bandwidth parameters

                                                    Configures the minimum and maximum automatic bandwidth to set on a tunnel.

                                                    Adjustment threshold

                                                    Configures the adjustment threshold for each tunnel.

                                                    Overflow detection

                                                    Configures the overflow detection for each tunnel.

                                                    SUMMARY STEPS

                                                      1.    configure

                                                      2.    interface tunnel-te tunnel-id

                                                      3.    auto-bw

                                                      4.    application minutes

                                                      5.    bw-limit {min bandwidth } {max bandwidth}

                                                      6.    adjustment-threshold percentage [min minimum-bandwidth]

                                                      7.    overflow threshold percentage [min bandwidth] limit limit

                                                      8.    Use one of the following commands:

                                                      • end
                                                      • commit

                                                      9.    show mpls traffic-eng tunnels [auto-bw]


                                                    DETAILED STEPS
                                                        Command or Action Purpose
                                                      Step 1 configure


                                                      Example:
                                                      RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# configure
                                                      
                                                      
                                                       

                                                      Enters global configuration mode.

                                                       
                                                      Step 2 interface tunnel-te tunnel-id


                                                      Example:
                                                      RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# interface tunnel-te 6
                                                      RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if)#
                                                      
                                                      
                                                       

                                                      Configures an MPLS-TE tunnel interface and enables traffic engineering on a particular interface on the originating node.

                                                       
                                                      Step 3 auto-bw


                                                      Example:
                                                      RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if)# auto-bw
                                                      RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if-tunte-autobw)# 
                                                      
                                                      
                                                       

                                                      Configures automatic bandwidth on a tunnel interface and enters MPLS-TE automatic bandwidth interface configuration mode.

                                                       
                                                      Step 4 application minutes


                                                      Example:
                                                      RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if-tunte-autobw)# application 1000
                                                      
                                                      
                                                       
                                                      Configures the application frequency in minutes for the applicable tunnel.
                                                      minutes

                                                      Frequency in minutes for the automatic bandwidth application. Range is from 5 to 10080 (7 days). The default value is 1440 (24 hours).

                                                       
                                                      Step 5 bw-limit {min bandwidth } {max bandwidth}


                                                      Example:
                                                      RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if-tunte-autobw)# bw-limit min 30 max 80
                                                      
                                                      
                                                       
                                                      Configures the minimum and maximum automatic bandwidth set on a tunnel.
                                                      min

                                                      Applies the minimum automatic bandwidth in kbps on a tunnel. Range is from 0 to 4294967295.

                                                      max

                                                      Applies the maximum automatic bandwidth in kbps on a tunnel. Range is from 0 to 4294967295.

                                                       
                                                      Step 6 adjustment-threshold percentage [min minimum-bandwidth]


                                                      Example:
                                                      RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if-tunte-autobw)# adjustment-threshold 50 min 800
                                                      
                                                      
                                                       
                                                      Configures the tunnel bandwidth change threshold to trigger an adjustment.
                                                      percentage

                                                      Bandwidth change percent threshold to trigger an adjustment if the largest sample percentage is higher or lower than the current tunnel bandwidth. Range is from 1 to 100 percent. The default value is 5 percent.

                                                      min

                                                      Configures the bandwidth change value to trigger an adjustment. The tunnel bandwidth is changed only if the largest sample is higher or lower than the current tunnel bandwidth. Range is from 10 to 4294967295 kilobits per second (kbps). The default value is 10 kbps.

                                                       
                                                      Step 7 overflow threshold percentage [min bandwidth] limit limit


                                                      Example:
                                                      RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if-tunte-autobw)# overflow threshold 100 limit 1
                                                      
                                                      
                                                       
                                                      Configures the tunnel overflow detection.
                                                      percentage

                                                      Bandwidth change percent to trigger an overflow. Range is from 1 to 100 percent.

                                                      limit

                                                      Configures the number of consecutive collection intervals that exceeds the threshold. The bandwidth overflow triggers an early tunnel bandwidth update. Range is from 1 to 10 collection periods. The default value is none.

                                                      min

                                                      Configures the bandwidth change value in kbps to trigger an overflow. Range is from 10 to 4294967295. The default value is 10.

                                                       
                                                      Step 8 Use one of the following commands:
                                                      • end
                                                      • commit


                                                      Example:
                                                      RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if-tunte-autobw)# end

                                                      or

                                                      RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if-tunte-autobw)# commit
                                                       

                                                      Saves configuration changes.

                                                      • When you issue the end command, the system prompts you to commit changes:
                                                        Uncommitted changes found, commit them before exiting(yes/no/cancel)?
                                                        [cancel]:
                                                        • Entering yes saves configuration changes to the running configuration file, exits the configuration session, and returns the router to EXEC mode.
                                                        • Entering no exits the configuration session and returns the router to EXEC mode without committing the configuration changes.
                                                        • Entering cancel leaves the router in the current configuration session without exiting or committing the configuration changes.
                                                      • Use the commit command to save the configuration changes to the running configuration file and remain within the configuration session.
                                                       
                                                      Step 9 show mpls traffic-eng tunnels [auto-bw]


                                                      Example:
                                                      RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router# show mpls traffic-eng tunnels auto-bw
                                                      
                                                      
                                                       

                                                      Displays the MPLS-TE tunnel information only for tunnels in which the automatic bandwidth is enabled.

                                                       

                                                      Configuration Examples for Cisco MPLS-TE

                                                      These configuration examples are used for MPLS-TE:

                                                      Build MPLS-TE Topology and Tunnels: Example

                                                      The following examples show how to build an OSPF and IS-IS topology:

                                                        (OSPF)
                                                        ...
                                                        configure
                                                          mpls traffic-eng
                                                          interface pos 0/6/0/0 
                                                          router id loopback 0
                                                          router ospf 1
                                                          router-id 192.168.25.66
                                                          area 0
                                                          interface pos 0/6/0/0
                                                          interface loopback 0
                                                          mpls traffic-eng router-id loopback 0
                                                          mpls traffic-eng area 0 
                                                          rsvp
                                                          interface pos 0/6/0/0
                                                          bandwidth 100
                                                          commit
                                                        show mpls traffic-eng topology
                                                        show mpls traffic-eng link-management advertisement
                                                        !
                                                        (IS-IS)
                                                        ...
                                                        configure
                                                          mpls traffic-eng
                                                          interface pos 0/6/0/0
                                                          router id loopback 0
                                                          router isis lab
                                                          address-family ipv4 unicast
                                                          mpls traffic-eng level 2
                                                          mpls traffic-eng router-id Loopback 0
                                                          !
                                                          interface POS0/0/0/0
                                                          address-family ipv4 unicast
                                                        !
                                                        
                                                        

                                                      The following example shows how to configure tunnel interfaces:

                                                        interface tunnel-te1 
                                                          destination 192.168.92.125
                                                          ipv4 unnumbered loopback 0 
                                                          path-option l dynamic
                                                          bandwidth 100 
                                                          commit
                                                        show mpls traffic-eng tunnels
                                                        show ipv4 interface brief
                                                        show mpls traffic-eng link-management admission-control
                                                        !
                                                        interface tunnel-te1
                                                          autoroute announce
                                                          route ipv4 192.168.12.52/32 tunnel-te1
                                                          commit
                                                        ping 192.168.12.52
                                                        show mpls traffic autoroute
                                                        !
                                                        interface tunnel-te1
                                                          fast-reroute
                                                          mpls traffic-eng interface pos 0/6/0/0
                                                          backup-path tunnel-te 2
                                                          interface tunnel-te2
                                                          backup-bw global-pool 5000
                                                          ipv4 unnumbered loopback 0 
                                                          path-option l explicit name backup-path
                                                          destination 192.168.92.125
                                                         commit
                                                        show mpls traffic-eng tunnels backup
                                                        show mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute database
                                                        !
                                                        rsvp
                                                          interface pos 0/6/0/0
                                                          bandwidth 100 150 sub-pool 50
                                                          interface tunnel-te1
                                                          bandwidth sub-pool 10
                                                        commit
                                                        
                                                      Related Concepts

                                                      Configure IETF DS-TE Tunnels: Example

                                                      The following example shows how to configure DS-TE:

                                                        rsvp 
                                                         interface pos 0/6/0/0
                                                         bandwidth rdm 100 150 bc1 50
                                                         mpls traffic-eng
                                                         ds-te mode ietf
                                                         interface tunnel-te 1
                                                         bandwidth 10 class-type 1
                                                         commit
                                                        
                                                        configure
                                                         rsvp interface 0/6/0/0
                                                         bandwidth mam max-reservable-bw 400 bc0 300 bc1 200
                                                         mpls traffic-eng
                                                         ds-te mode ietf
                                                         ds-te model mam
                                                         interface tunnel-te 1bandwidth 10 class-type 1
                                                         commit
                                                        
                                                        
                                                      Related Concepts

                                                      Configure MPLS-TE and Fast-Reroute on OSPF: Example

                                                      CSPF areas are configured on a per-path-option basis. The following example shows how to use the traffic-engineering tunnels (tunnel-te) interface and the active path for the MPLS-TE tunnel:

                                                        configure
                                                         interface tunnel-te 0
                                                          path-option 1 explicit id 6 ospf 126 area 0
                                                          path-option 2 explicit name 234 ospf 3 area 7 verbatim
                                                          path-option 3 dynamic isis mtbf level 1 lockdown
                                                          commit
                                                        
                                                        

                                                      Configure the Ignore IS-IS Overload Bit Setting in MPLS-TE: Example

                                                      This example shows how to configure the IS-IS overload bit setting in MPLS-TE:

                                                        configure
                                                         mpls traffic-eng
                                                          path-selection ignore overload  
                                                           commit
                                                        
                                                        

                                                      Configure Flexible Name-based Tunnel Constraints: Example

                                                      The following configuration shows the three-step process used to configure flexible name-based tunnel constraints.

                                                        R2
                                                        line console
                                                         exec-timeout 0 0
                                                         width 250
                                                        !
                                                        logging console debugging
                                                        explicit-path name mypath
                                                         index 1 next-address loose ipv4 unicast 3.3.3.3 !
                                                        explicit-path name ex_path1
                                                         index 10 next-address loose ipv4 unicast 2.2.2.2  index 20 next-address loose ipv4 unicast 3.3.3.3 !
                                                        interface Loopback0
                                                         ipv4 address 22.22.22.22 255.255.255.255 !
                                                        interface tunnel-te1
                                                         ipv4 unnumbered Loopback0
                                                         signalled-bandwidth 1000000
                                                         destination 3.3.3.3
                                                         affinity include green
                                                         affinity include yellow
                                                         affinity exclude white
                                                         affinity exclude orange
                                                         path-option 1 dynamic
                                                        !
                                                        router isis 1
                                                         is-type level-1
                                                         net 47.0001.0000.0000.0001.00
                                                         nsf cisco
                                                         address-family ipv4 unicast
                                                          metric-style wide
                                                          mpls traffic-eng level-1
                                                          mpls traffic-eng router-id Loopback0
                                                         !
                                                         interface Loopback0
                                                          passive
                                                          address-family ipv4 unicast
                                                          !
                                                         !
                                                         interface GigabitEthernet0/1/0/0
                                                          address-family ipv4 unicast
                                                          !
                                                         !
                                                         interface GigabitEthernet0/1/0/1
                                                          address-family ipv4 unicast
                                                          !
                                                         !
                                                         interface GigabitEthernet0/1/0/2
                                                          address-family ipv4 unicast
                                                          !
                                                         !
                                                         interface GigabitEthernet0/1/0/3
                                                          address-family ipv4 unicast
                                                          !
                                                         !
                                                        !
                                                        rsvp
                                                         interface GigabitEthernet0/1/0/0
                                                          bandwidth 1000000 1000000
                                                         !
                                                         interface GigabitEthernet0/1/0/1
                                                          bandwidth 1000000 1000000
                                                         !
                                                         interface GigabitEthernet0/1/0/2
                                                          bandwidth 1000000 1000000
                                                         !
                                                         interface GigabitEthernet0/1/0/3
                                                          bandwidth 1000000 1000000
                                                         !
                                                        !
                                                        mpls traffic-eng
                                                         interface GigabitEthernet0/1/0/0
                                                          attribute-names red purple
                                                         !
                                                         interface GigabitEthernet0/1/0/1
                                                          attribute-names red orange
                                                         !
                                                         interface GigabitEthernet0/1/0/2
                                                          attribute-names green purple
                                                         !
                                                         interface GigabitEthernet0/1/0/3
                                                          attribute-names green orange
                                                         !
                                                         affinity-map red 1
                                                         affinity-map blue 2
                                                         affinity-map black 80
                                                         affinity-map green 4
                                                         affinity-map white 40
                                                         affinity-map orange 20
                                                         affinity-map purple 10
                                                         affinity-map yellow 8
                                                        !
                                                        

                                                      Configure an Interarea Tunnel: Example

                                                      The following configuration example shows how to configure a traffic engineering interarea tunnel. .


                                                      Note


                                                      Specifying the tunnel tailend in the loosely routed path is optional.


                                                        configure
                                                       		 interface Tunnel-te1
                                                        				ipv4 unnumbered Loopback0
                                                        				destination 192.168.20.20
                                                        				signalled-bandwidth 300
                                                       				 path-option 1 explicit name path-tunnel1
                                                       
                                                        explicit-path name path-tunnel1
                                                       		 index 10 next-address loose ipv4 unicast 192.168.40.40
                                                       		 index 20 next-address loose ipv4 unicast 192.168.60.60
                                                       		 index 30 next-address loose ipv4 unicast 192.168.20.20 
                                                        

                                                      Configure Forwarding Adjacency: Example

                                                      The following configuration example shows how to configure an MPLS-TE forwarding adjacency on tunnel-te 68 with a holdtime value of 60:

                                                        configure
                                                         interface tunnel-te 68
                                                         forwarding-adjacency holdtime 60
                                                         commit
                                                        
                                                        

                                                      Configure PCE: Example

                                                      The following configuration example illustrates a PCE configuration:

                                                        configure
                                                        mpls traffic-eng
                                                          interface pos 0/6/0/0
                                                          pce address ipv4 192.168.25.66
                                                          router id loopback 0
                                                          router ospf 1
                                                          router-id 192.168.25.66
                                                          area 0
                                                          interface pos 0/6/0/0
                                                          interface loopback 0
                                                          mpls traffic-eng router-id loopback 0
                                                          mpls traffic-eng area 0 
                                                          rsvp
                                                          interface pos 0/6/0/0
                                                          bandwidth 100
                                                          commit
                                                        
                                                        

                                                      The following configuration example illustrates PCC configuration:

                                                        configure
                                                          interface tunnel-te 10
                                                          ipv4 unnumbered loopback 0
                                                          destination 1.2.3.4
                                                          path-option 1 dynamic pce
                                                          mpls traffic-eng
                                                          interface pos 0/6/0/0
                                                          router id loopback 0
                                                          router ospf 1
                                                          router-id 192.168.25.66
                                                          area 0
                                                          interface pos 0/6/0/0
                                                          interface loopback 0
                                                          mpls traffic-eng router-id loopback 0
                                                          mpls traffic-eng area 0 
                                                          rsvp
                                                          interface pos 0/6/0/0
                                                          bandwidth 100
                                                          commit
                                                        
                                                      Related Concepts

                                                      Configure Tunnels for Path Protection: Example

                                                      The path protection feature is configured on only the source router. The dynamic path option is a prerequisite to configure a path protection.

                                                      interface tunnel-te150
                                                       ipv4 unnumbered Loopback150
                                                       autoroute announce
                                                       destination 151.151.151.151
                                                       affinity 11 mask 11
                                                       path-protection
                                                       path-option 2 explicit name p2mp3-p2mp4-p2mp5_1
                                                       path-option 10 dynamic 
                                                      

                                                      Configure Automatic Bandwidth: Example

                                                      The following configuration example illustrates an automatic bandwidth configuration:

                                                        configure
                                                         interface tunnel-te6
                                                          auto-bw
                                                           bw-limit min 10000 max 500000
                                                           overflow threshold 50 min 1000 limit 3
                                                           adjustment-threshold 20 min 1000
                                                           application 180
                                                        
                                                        

                                                      Additional References

                                                      For additional information related to implementing MPLS-TE, refer to the following references:

                                                      Related Documents

                                                      Related Topic

                                                      Document Title

                                                      MPLS-TE commands

                                                      MPLS Traffic Engineering Commands on Cisco ASR 9000 Series Router module in Cisco ASR 9000 Series Aggregation Services Router MPLS Command Reference

                                                      Getting started material

                                                      Cisco ASR 9000 Series Aggregation Services Router Getting Started Guide

                                                      Standards

                                                      Standards

                                                      Title

                                                      No new or modified standards are supported by this feature, and support for existing standards has not been modified by this feature.

                                                      MIBs

                                                      MIBs

                                                      MIBs Link

                                                      To locate and download MIBs using Cisco IOS XR software, use the Cisco MIB Locator found at the following URL and choose a platform under the Cisco Access Products menu: http:/​/​cisco.com/​public/​sw-center/​netmgmt/​cmtk/​mibs.shtml

                                                      RFCs

                                                      RFCs

                                                      Title

                                                      RFC 4124

                                                      Protocol Extensions for Support of Diffserv-aware MPLS Traffic Engineering, F. Le Faucheur, Ed. June 2005.

                                                      (Format: TXT=79265 bytes) (Status: PROPOSED STANDARD)

                                                      RFC 4125

                                                      Maximum Allocation Bandwidth Constraints Model for Diffserv-aware MPLS Traffic Engineering, F. Le Faucheur, W. Lai. June 2005.

                                                      (Format: TXT=22585 bytes) (Status: EXPERIMENTAL)

                                                      RFC 4127

                                                      Russian Dolls Bandwidth Constraints Model for Diffserv-aware MPLS Traffic Engineering, F. Le Faucheur, Ed. June 2005.

                                                      (Format: TXT=23694 bytes) (Status: EXPERIMENTAL)

                                                      Technical Assistance

                                                      Description

                                                      Link

                                                      The Cisco Technical Support website contains thousands of pages of searchable technical content, including links to products, technologies, solutions, technical tips, and tools. Registered Cisco.com users can log in from this page to access even more content.

                                                      http:/​/​www.cisco.com/​techsupport