Hardware Installation Guide for the Cisco 4451-X Integrated Services Router
ROM Monitor Overview and Basic Procedures
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Table of Contents

ROM Monitor Overview and Basic Procedures

ROM Monitor Overview

Entering ROM Monitor Mode

Checking the Current ROMmon Version

Commonly Used ROM Monitor Commands

Displaying the Available ROM Monitor Commands

Examples

Changing the ROM Monitor Prompt

Displaying the Configuration Register Setting

Environment Variable Settings

Frequently Used Environmental Variables

Displaying Environment Variable Settings

Entering Environment Variable Settings

Saving Environment Variable Settings

Exiting ROM Monitor Mode

Configuration Example

Upgrading the ROMmon for a Router

Example of Upgrade

ROM Monitor Overview and Basic Procedures

This chapter provides an overview of ROM Monitor concepts and operations.

This chapter includes the following main topics:

ROM Monitor Overview

The ROM Monitor is a bootstrap program that initializes the hardware and boots the Cisco IOS XE software when you power on or reload a router. When you connect a terminal to the router that is in ROM Monitor mode, the ROM Monitor command-line interface (CLI) prompt is displayed.

During normal operation, users do not see the ROM Monitor prompt or use ROM Monitor mode. ROM Monitor mode is used only in special circumstances, such as reinstalling the entire software set, resetting the router password, or specifying a configuration file to use at startup.

The ROM Monitor software is known by many names. It is sometimes called ROMMON because of the CLI prompt in ROM Monitor mode. The ROM Monitor software is also called the boot software , boot image , or boot helper . Although it is distributed with routers that use the Cisco IOS XE software, ROM Monitor is a separate program from the Cisco IOS XE software. During normal startup, the ROM Monitor initializes the router, and then control passes to the Cisco IOS XE software. After the Cisco IOS XE software takes over, ROM Monitor is no longer in use.

Environmental Variables and the Configuration Register

Two primary connections exist between ROM Monitor and the Cisco IOS XE software: the ROM Monitor environment variables and the configuration register.

The ROM Monitor environment variables define the location of the Cisco IOS XE software and describe how to load it. After ROM Monitor has initialized the router, it uses the environment variables to locate and load the Cisco IOS XE software.

The configuration register is a software setting that controls how a card starts up. One of the primary uses of the configuration register is to control whether the card starts in ROM Monitor mode or Administration EXEC mode. The configuration register is set in either ROM Monitor mode or Administration EXEC mode as needed. Typically, you set the configuration register using the Cisco IOS XE software prompt when you need to use ROM Monitor mode. When the maintenance in ROM Monitor mode is complete, you change the configuration register so the router reboots with the Cisco IOS XE software.

Accessing ROM Monitor Mode with a Terminal Connection

When the router is in ROM Monitor mode, you can access the ROM Monitor software only from a terminal connected directly to the console port of the card. Because the Cisco IOS XE software (EXEC mode) is not operating, the nonmanagement interfaces are not accessible. Basically, all Cisco IOS XE software resources are unavailable. The hardware is there, but no configuration exists to make use of the hardware.

Network Management Access and ROM Monitor Mode

Checking the Current ROMmon Version. Some people get confused when they start to use ROM Monitor mode. It is important to remember that ROM Monitor mode is a router mode, not a mode within the Cisco IOS XE software. It is best to remember that ROM Monitor software and the Cisco IOS XE software are two separate programs that run on the same router. At any given time, the router is running one of these programs, but it never runs both at the same time.

One area that can be confusing when using ROM Monitor and the Cisco IOS XE software is the area that defines the IP configuration for the Management Ethernet interface. Most router users get comfortable with configuring the Management Ethernet interface in the Cisco IOS XE software. When the router is in ROM Monitor mode, however, the router is not running the Cisco IOS XE software, so that Management Ethernet interface configuration is not available.

When you want to access other devices, such as a TFTP server, while in ROM Monitor mode on the Cisco 4451-X ISR, you must configure the ROM Monitor variables with IP access information.

Entering ROM Monitor Mode

The following sections describe how to enter the ROMMON mode, and contains the following sections:

Checking the Current ROMmon Version

To display the version of ROMmon running on a router, use the show rom-monitor command or the show platform command.

Router# show rom-monitor r0
 
Router#show rom-monitor r0
 
System Bootstrap, Version 12.2(20120829:165313) [jhayduk-ESGROM_20120829_DELTA 101], DEVELOPMENT SOFTWARE
Copyright (c) 1994-2012 by cisco Systems, Inc.
 
Router#show platform
Chassis type: ISR4451/K9
 
Slot Type State Insert time (ago)
--------- ------------------- --------------------- -----------------
0 ISR4451/K9 ok 21:06:05
0/0 ISR4400-4X1GE ok 21:04:07
1 ISR4451/K9 ok 21:06:05
2 ISR4451/K9 ok 21:06:05
R0 ISR4451/K9 ok, active 21:06:05
F0 ISR4451/K9 ok, active 21:06:05
P0 Unknown ps, fail never
P1 XXX-XXXX-XX ok 21:05:42
P2 ESG-FANTRAY ok 21:05:42
 
Slot CPLD Version Firmware Version
--------- ------------------- ---------------------------------------
0 12090323 12.2(20120829:165313) [jhayduk-ESGRO...
1 12090323 12.2(20120829:165313) [jhayduk-ESGRO...
2 12090323 12.2(20120829:165313) [jhayduk-ESGRO...
R0 12090323 12.2(20120829:165313) [jhayduk-ESGRO...
F0 12090323 12.2(20120829:165313) [jhayduk-ESGRO...
 
Router# show rom
Router# show rom?
rom-monitor romvar
 
Router# show romvar
ROMMON variables:
PS1 = rommon ! >
SR_INIT_SHELL = aux_do_system_shell
TFTP_FILE = /noash/overlord_627.bin
DEFAULT_GATEWAY = 50.0.0.1
TFTP_SERVER = 172.18.40.12
IP_SUBNET_MASK = 255.255.255.0
MCP_STARTUP_TRACEFLAGS = 00000000:00000000
RET_2_RTS =
? = 0
LICENSE_BOOT_LEVEL = adventerprise,all:esg;
IP_ADDRESS = 172.18.40.56
BSI = 0
RET_2_RCALTS =
RANDOM_NUM = 1707176976
Router# reload
 
 
rommon 1 > set
PS1=rommon ! >
SR_INIT_SHELL=aux_do_system_shell
TFTP_FILE=/noash/overlord_627.bin
DEFAULT_GATEWAY=50.0.0.1
TFTP_SERVER=172.18.40.12
IP_SUBNET_MASK=255.255.255.0
MCP_STARTUP_TRACEFLAGS=00000000:00000000
RET_2_RTS=
?=0
LICENSE_BOOT_LEVEL=adventerprise,all:esg;
IP_ADDRESS=172.18.40.56
BSI=0
RANDOM_NUM=1707176976
RET_2_RCALTS=1350127173
 

Commonly Used ROM Monitor Commands

Table 5-1 summarizes the commands commonly used in ROM Monitor. For specific instructions on using these commands, refer to the relevant procedure in this document.

 

Table 5-1 Commonly Used ROM Monitor Commands

ROMMON Command
Description

boot image

Manually boots a Cisco IOS XE software image.

boot image –o config-file-path

Manually boots the Cisco IOS XE software with a temporary alternative administration configuration file.

confreg

Changes the config-register setting.

dev

Displays the available local storage devices.

dir

Displays the files on a storage device.

reset

Resets the node.

set

Displays the currently set ROM Monitor environmental settings.

sync

Saves the new ROM Monitor environmental settings.

unset

Removes an environmental variable setting.

Displaying the Available ROM Monitor Commands

Table 5-2 describes the available help commands for ROM Monitor mode.

 

Table 5-2 Help Commands in ROMMON

Command
Description

help or ?

Displays a summary of all available ROM Monitor commands.

-?

Displays information about command syntax.


Note Commands are case-sensitive. You can halt any command by pressing Ctrl-C.


Examples

The following example shows what appears when you enter the ? command on a Cisco ISR 4451-X:

rommon 1 > ?
alias set and display aliases command
boot boot up an external process
break set/show/clear the breakpoint
confreg configuration register utility
context display the context of a loaded image
cookie display contents of cookie PROM in hex
dev list the device table
dir list files in file system
dis display instruction stream
frame print out a selected stack frame
help monitor builtin command help
history monitor command history
meminfo main memory information
repeat repeat a monitor command
reset system reset
set display the monitor variables
showmon display currently selected ROM monitor
stack produce a stack trace
sync write monitor environment to NVRAM
sysret print out info from last system return
tsec print out info from the ethernet driver
unalias unset an alias
unset unset a monitor variable

Changing the ROM Monitor Prompt

You can change the prompt in ROM Monitor mode by using the PS1= command as shown in the following example:

rommon 8 > PS1="ISR4400 rommon ! > "
ISR4400 rommon 9 >
 

Changing the prompt is useful if you are working with multiple routers in ROM Monitor at the same time. This example specifies that the prompt is “” followed by the line number.

Displaying the Configuration Register Setting

To display the current configuration register setting, enter the confreg command without parameters as follows:

rommon > confreg
 
Configuration Summary
(Virtual Configuration Register: )
enabled are:
console baud: 9600
boot: the ROM Monitor
 
do you wish to change the configuration? y/n [n]:
 

The configuration register setting is labeled Virtual Configuration Register . Enter the no command to avoid changing the configuration register setting.

Environment Variable Settings

The ROM Monitor environment variables define the attributes of the ROM Monitor. Environmental variables are entered like commands and are always followed by the equal sign (=). Environment variable settings are entered in capital letters, followed by a definition. For example:

IP_ADDRESS=10.0.0.2
 

Under normal operating conditions, you do not need to modify these variables. They are cleared or set only when you need to make changes to the way ROM Monitor operates.

This section includes the following topics:

Frequently Used Environmental Variables

Table 5-3 shows the main ROM Monitor environmental variables. For instructions on how to use these variables, see the relevant instructions in this document.

 

Table 5-3 Frequently Used ROM Monitor Environmental Variables

Environmental variable
Description

IP_ADDRESS= ip_address

Sets the IP address for the Management Ethernet interface.

IP_SUBNET_MASK= ip_address

Sets the subnet mask for the Management Ethernet interface.

DEFAULT_GATEWAY= ip_address

Sets the default gateway that serves.

TFTP_SERVER= ip_address

Sets the IP address of the TFTP server where a bootable software image is located.

TFTP_FILE= path/file

Sets the directory and filename of a bootable software image.

BOOT= path/file

Identifies the boot software for a node. This variable is usually set automatically when the router boots.

Displaying Environment Variable Settings

To display the current environment variable settings, enter the set command :

 
rommon 1 > showmon -v
Current image running (0/1): Boot ROM0
 
System Bootstrap, Version 12.2(20120829:165313) [jhayduk-ESGROM_20120829_DELTA 101], DEVELOPMENT SOFTWARE
Copyright (c) 1994-2012 by cisco Systems, Inc.
 
Compiled Wed 08/29/2012 12:53:32.67 by jhayduk
 
CPLD Version : 35 (MM/DD/YY): 09/03/12 (2.3)
FPGA Version : 0x82020300 (2.3.0)
FPGA Active : read-only image
Board Version : 2 (P1C)
PCH Version : 10 (B0)
DP CPU Version : 00 (1.0)
FPGA-ENV Version: 0105
HDD Status : 0A30
MEFW Version : 6.0.50.1244
System Straps : 00000F00 BE036FF1 B2EB6E8F
Hardware Anchor : F01001R06.0116f365a2012-07-17
Certificate : 946944F17906C95E
Microloader : MA0001R04.013eb9f7f2012-06-22
Module 0/1 : Absent
Module 0/2 : Absent
Module 0/3 : Absent
Module 0/4 : Absent
Module 1/0 : Absent
Module 2/0 : Absent
PCH Enum Errs : 0
 
 
 

Entering Environment Variable Settings

Environment variable settings are entered in capital letters, followed by a definition. The following example shows the environmental variables used to configure the control Ethernet port on a Cisco ISR 4451-X:

rommon > IP_ADDRESS=1.1.1.1
rommon > IP_SUBNET_MASK=255.255.254.0
rommon > DEFAULT_GATEWAY=1.1.0.1

Saving Environment Variable Settings

To save the current environment variable settings, enter the sync command:

rommon > sync

Note Environmental values that are not saved with the sync command are discarded whenever the system is reset or booted.



 

Exiting ROM Monitor Mode

To exit ROM Monitor mode, you must change the configuration register and reset the .

SUMMARY STEPS

1. confreg

2. Respond to each prompt as instructed.

3. reset

DETAILED STEPS

 

Command or Action
Purpose

Step 1

confreg

Example:

rommon 1> confreg

Initiates the configuration register configuration prompts.

Step 2

Respond to each prompt as instructed.

See the example that follows this procedure for more
information.

Step 3

reset

Example:

rommon 2> reset

Resets and initializes the router.

Configuration Example

rommon 3 > confreg
 
 
Configuration Summary
(Virtual Configuration Register: 0x0)
enabled are:
[ 0 ] break/abort has effect
[ 1 ] console baud: 9600
boot: ...... the ROM Monitor
 
do you wish to change the configuration? y/n [n]: y
enable "diagnostic mode"? y/n [n]:
enable "use net in IP bcast address"? y/n [n]:
enable "load rom after netboot fails"? y/n [n]:
enable "use all zero broadcast"? y/n [n]:
disable "break/abort has effect"? y/n [n]:
enable "ignore system config info"? y/n [n]:
change console baud rate? y/n [n]:
change the boot characteristics? y/n [n]:
 
 
Configuration Summary
(Virtual Configuration Register: 0x0)
enabled are:
[ 0 ] break/abort has effect
[ 1 ] console baud: 9600
boot: ...... the ROM Monitor
 
do you wish to change the configuration? y/n [n]:
 
 

Upgrading the ROMmon for a Router

Use this procedure to upgrade the ROMmon on a router:


Step 1 (Optional) Run the show platform command or the show rom-monitor slot command fon the router to see the current release numbers of ROMmon on the hardware. See the “Checking the Current ROMmon Version” section for information about interpreting the output of the command that you run.

Step 2 If the ROMmon image has not been copied onto the router, copy the PKG file that is made available as part of this ROMmon release onto the bootflash: or usb[0-1]: file system using the copy source-location destination-location command. For example, if you are upgrading to Release 15.2(1r)S, copy the asr1000-rommon.152-1r.S.pkg file.

Step 3 Run the dir file-system command to verify that the ROMmon file is copied into the specified directory.

Step 4 Run the upgrade rom-monitor filename location all command to begin the ROMmon image upgrade, where location is the path to the ROMmon file.


Caution Do not remove hardware, turn off power, or interrupt the router in any way during the ROMmon upgrade. Although the router should be able to recover from most interruptions during the ROMmon upgrade, certain scenarios may cause unpredictable problems.

Step 5 Messages pertaining to the upgrade are displayed on the console. After the display of these messages stops and the router prompt is available, run the reload command to reload the router.

Step 6 If autoboot has not been enabled by using the config-register 0x2102 command, run the boot filesystem:/file-location command at the ROMmon prompt to boot the Cisco IOS XE image, where filesystem:/file-location is the path to the consolidated package file. The ROMmon upgrade is not permanent for any piece of hardware until the Cisco IOS XE image is booted.

Step 7 Run the enable command at the user prompt to enter the privileged EXEC mode after the boot is complete.

Step 8 Run the show platform command or the show rom-monitor slot command to verify whether the ROMmon has been upgraded.


 

Example of Upgrade

The following sequence of commands is an example of the procedure to upgrade the ROMmon:


Note The release numbers of ROMmon mentioned in this example are for illustrative purposes only.


Router#show rom-monitor r0
 
System Bootstrap, Version 12.2(20120829:165313) [jhayduk-ESGROM_20120829_DELTA 101], DEVELOPMENT SOFTWARE
Copyright (c) 1994-2012 by cisco Systems, Inc.
 
Router#show platform
Chassis type: ISR4451/K9
 
Slot Type State Insert time (ago)
--------- ------------------- --------------------- -----------------
0 ISR4451/K9 ok 21:06:05
0/0 ISR4400-4X1GE ok 21:04:07
1 ISR4451/K9 ok 21:06:05
2 ISR4451/K9 ok 21:06:05
R0 ISR4451/K9 ok, active 21:06:05
F0 ISR4451/K9 ok, active 21:06:05
P0 Unknown ps, fail never
P1 XXX-XXXX-XX ok 21:05:42
P2 ESG-FANTRAY ok 21:05:42
 
Slot CPLD Version Firmware Version
--------- ------------------- ---------------------------------------
0 12090323 12.2(20120829:165313) [jhayduk-ESGRO...
1 12090323 12.2(20120829:165313) [jhayduk-ESGRO...
2 12090323 12.2(20120829:165313) [jhayduk-ESGRO...
R0 12090323 12.2(20120829:165313) [jhayduk-ESGRO...
F0 12090323 12.2(20120829:165313) [jhayduk-ESGRO...
 
Router# show rom
Router# show rom?
rom-monitor romvar
 
Router# show romvar
ROMMON variables:
PS1 = rommon ! >
SR_INIT_SHELL = aux_do_system_shell
TFTP_FILE = /noash/overlord_627.bin
DEFAULT_GATEWAY = 50.0.0.1
TFTP_SERVER = 172.18.40.12
IP_SUBNET_MASK = 255.255.255.0
MCP_STARTUP_TRACEFLAGS = 00000000:00000000
RET_2_RTS =
? = 0
LICENSE_BOOT_LEVEL = adventerprise,all:esg;
IP_ADDRESS = 172.18.40.56
BSI = 0
RET_2_RCALTS =
RANDOM_NUM = 1707176976
Router# reload
 
 
rommon 1 > set
PS1=rommon ! >
SR_INIT_SHELL=aux_do_system_shell
TFTP_FILE=/noash/overlord_627.bin
DEFAULT_GATEWAY=50.0.0.1
TFTP_SERVER=172.18.40.12
IP_SUBNET_MASK=255.255.255.0
MCP_STARTUP_TRACEFLAGS=00000000:00000000
RET_2_RTS=
?=0
LICENSE_BOOT_LEVEL=adventerprise,all:esg;
IP_ADDRESS=172.18.40.56
BSI=0
RANDOM_NUM=1707176976
RET_2_RCALTS=1350127173