Table Of Contents
Cisco 2651 Modular Access Router with AIM-VPN/BP Security Policy
This is a non-proprietary Cryptographic Module Security Policy for the Cisco 2651 router. This security policy describes how the Cisco 2651 router meets the security requirements of FIPS 140-1, and how to operate the Cisco 2651 router in a secure FIPS 140-1 mode. This policy was prepared as part of the Level 2 FIPS 140-1 certification of the Cisco 2651 router.
Note This document may be copied in its entirety and without modification. All copies must include the copyright notice and statements on the last page.
FIPS 140-1 (Federal Information Processing Standards Publication 140-1 - Security Requirements for Cryptographic Modules) details the U.S. Government requirements for cryptographic modules. More information about the FIPS 140-1 standard and validation program is available on the NIST website at the following NIST website:
This document contains the following sections:
This document deals only with operations and capabilities of the Cisco 2651 router in the technical terms of a FIPS 140-1 cryptographic module security policy. More information is available on the Cisco 2651 router and the entire 2600 Series from the following sources:
•The Cisco Systems website contains information on the full line of Cisco Systems products. Refer to the following website:
•The 2600 Series product descriptions can be found at the following website:
•For answers to technical or sales related questions, please refer to the contacts listed on the following website:
In this document, the Cisco 2651 router is referred to as the router, the module, or the system.
The Security Policy document is part of the complete FIPS 140-1 Submission Package. In addition to this document, the complete Submission Package contains:
•Vendor Evidence document
•Finite State Machine
•Module Software Listing
•Other supporting documentation as additional references
This document provides an overview of the Cisco 2651 router and explains the secure configuration and operation of the module. This introduction section is followed by the "Cisco 2651 Modular Access Routers" section, which details the general features and functionality of the Cisco 2651 router. The "Secure Operation of the Cisco 2651 Router" section specifically addresses the required configuration for the FIPS-mode of operation.
This Security Policy and other Certification Submission Documentation was produced by Corsec Security, Inc. under contract to Cisco Systems. With the exception of this Non-Proprietary Security Policy, the FIPS 140-1 Certification Submission Documentation is Cisco-proprietary and is releasable only under appropriate non-disclosure agreements. For access to these documents, please contact Cisco Systems.
Cisco 2651 Modular Access Routers
Branch office networking requirements are dramatically evolving, driven by web and e-commerce applications to enhance productivity and converging the voice and data infrastructure to reduce costs. The Cisco 2651 modular multi-service router offers versatility, integration, and security to branch offices. With over 70 network modules and interfaces, the modular architecture of the Cisco router easily allows interfaces to be upgraded to accommodate network expansion. The Cisco 2651 provides a scalable, secure, manageable remote access server that meets FIPS 140-1 Level 2 requirements. This section describes the general features and functionality provided by the Cisco 2651 router. "Secure Operation of the Cisco 2651 Router" section provides further details on how the router addresses FIPS 140-1 requirements.
The Cisco 2651 Cryptographic Module
The metal casing that fully encloses the module establishes the cryptographic boundary for the router, all the functionality discussed in this document is provided by components within the casing. Cisco IOS features such as tunneling, data encryption, and termination of Remote Access WANs via IPSec, Layer 2 Forwarding (L2F) and Layer 2 Tunneling Protocols (L2TP) make the Cisco 2600 an ideal platform for building virtual private networks or outsourced dial solutions. Cisco 2600`s RISC-based processor provides the power needed for the dynamic requirements of the remote branch office, achieving wire speed Ethernet to Ethernet routing with up to 25 thousand packets per second (Kpps) throughput capacity.
Figure 1 shows a Cisco 2651 modular access router.
Figure 1 Cisco 2651 Router
The interfaces for the router are located on the rear panel as shown in Figure 2.
Figure 2 Physical Interfaces
The Cisco 2600 series features single or dual fixed LAN interfaces, a network module slot, two Cisco WAN interface card (WIC) slots, and a new Advanced Integration Module (AIM) slot. LAN support includes single and dual Ethernet options; 10/100 Mbps auto-sensing Ethernet; mixed Token-Ring and Ethernet; and single Token Ring chassis versions. WAN interface cards support a variety of serial, ISDN BRI, and integrated CSU/DSU options for primary and backup WAN connectivity, while available network modules support multi-service voice/data/fax integration, departmental dial concentration, and high-density serial options. The AIM slot supports integration of advanced services such as hardware-assisted data compression and encryption. All Cisco 2600 series routers include an auxiliary port supporting 115Kbps Dial On Demand Routing, ideal for back-up WAN connectivity.
The physical interfaces include power plug for the power supply and a power switch. The router has two Fast Ethernet (10/100 RJ-45) connectors for data transfers in and out. The module also has two other RJ-45 connectors on the back panel for a console terminal for local system access and an auxiliary port for remote system access or dial backup using a modem. The 10/100Base-T LAN ports have Link/Activity, 10/100Mbps, and half/full duplex LEDs.
Figure 3 Rear Panel LEDs
Figure 4 shows the front panel LEDs, which provide overall status of the router's operation. The front panel displays whether or not the router is booted, if the redundant power is (successfully) attached and operational, and overall activity/link status.
Figure 4 Front Panel LEDs
The following table provides more detailed information conveyed by the LEDs on the front panel of the router:
All of these physical interfaces are separated into the logical interfaces from FIPS as described in the following table:
*The auxiliary port must be disabled in FIPS mode. See the "Secure Operation of the Cisco 2651 Router" section.
In addition to the built-in interfaces, the router also has approximately 70 network modules that can optionally be placed in an available slot. These networks modules have many embodiments, including multiple Ethernet, token ring, and modem cards to handle frame relay, ATM, and ISDN connections. See the "Network Modules and WAN Interface Cards" section for a more detailed description of network modules and how they apply to the FIPS certification.
Roles and Services
There are two main roles in the router (as required by FIPS 140-1) that operators may assume: Crypto Officer role and User role. The administrator of the router assumes the Crypto Officer role in order to configure and maintain the router using Crypto Officer services, while the Users exercise only the basic User services.
Crypto Officer Services
During initial configuration of the router a Crypto Officer or Administrator password is defined and all management services are available from this role. The Administrator connects to the router through the console port via terminal program. An administrator of the router may assign permission to access the Administrator role to additional accounts, thereby creating additional administrators.
At the highest level, Crypto Officer services include the following:
•Configure the router: define network interfaces and settings, create command aliases, set the protocols the router will support, enable interfaces and network services, set system date and time, load authentication information, etc.
•Define Rules and Filters: create packet Filters that are applied to User data streams on each interface. Each Filter consists of a set of Rules, which define a set of packets to permit or deny based characteristics such as protocol ID, addresses, ports, TCP connection establishment, or packet direction.
•Status Functions: view the router configuration, routing tables, active sessions, use Gets to view SNMP MIB II statistics, health, temperature, memory status, voltage, packet statistics, review accounting logs, and view physical interface status
•Manage the router: log off users, shutdown or reload the router, manually back up router configurations, view complete configurations, manager user rights, restore router configurations, etc.
•Set Encryption/Bypass: set up the configuration tables for IP tunneling. Set keys and algorithms to be used for each IP range or allow plaintext packets to be set from specified IP address.
•Change Network Modules: insert and remove modules in the network module slot as described in the "Physical Security" section of this document.
•Change WAN Interface Cards: insert and remove modules in the network module slot as described in the "Physical Security" section of this document.
A complete description of all the management and configuration capabilities of the Cisco 2651 router can be found in the Performing Basic System Management manual and in the online help for the router.
A User enters the system by accessing the console port with a terminal program. The IOS prompts the User for their password. If it matches the plaintext password stored in IOS memory, the User is allowed entry to the IOS executive program. The services available to the User role include:
At the highest level, User services include the following:
•Status Functions: view state of interfaces, state of layer 2 protocols, version of IOS currently running
•Network Functions: connect to other network devices through outgoing telnet, PPP, etc. and initiate diagnostic network services (i.e., ping, mtrace)
•Terminal Functions: adjust the terminal session (e.g., lock the terminal, adjust flow control)
•Directory Services: display directory of files kept in flash memory
The router is entirely encased by a thick steel chassis. The rear of the unit provides 1 Network Module slot, 2 WIC slots, on-board LAN connectors, Console/Auxiliary connectors, the power cable connection and a power switch. The top portion of the chassis may be removed (see Figure 5) to allow access to the motherboard, memory, expansion slots and Advanced Interface Module.
Warning Two people are required to lift the chassis. Grasp the chassis underneath the lower edge and lift with both hands. To prevent injury, keep your back straight and lift with your legs, not your back. To prevent damage to the chassis and components, never attempt to lift the chassis with the handles on the power supplies or on the interface processors, or by the plastic panels on the front of the chassis. These handles were not designed to support the weight of the chassis. To see translations of the warnings that appear in this publication, refer to the Regulatory Compliance and Safety Information document that accompanied this device.
Figure 5 Chassis Removal
Once the router has been configured in to meet FIPS 140-1 Level 2 requirements, the router cannot be accessed without signs of tampering. To seal the system, apply serialized tamper-evidence labels as follows:
Step 1 Clean the cover of any grease, dirt, or oil before applying the tamper evidence labels. Alcohol-based cleaning pads are recommended for this purpose. The temperature of the router should be above 10(C.
Step 2 Place the first label on the router as shown in Figure 6. The tamper evidence label should be placed so that the one half of the tamper evidence label covers the enclosure and the other half covers the side of the router. Any attempt to remove the enclosure will leave tamper evidence.
Step 3 Place the second label on the router as shown in Figure 6. The tamper evidence label should be placed so that the one half of the tamper evidence label covers the enclosure and the other half covers the side of the router. Any attempt to remove the enclosure will leave tamper evidence.
Step 4 Place the third label on the router as shown in Figure 6. The tamper evidence label should be placed so that the one half of the label covers the enclosure and the other half covers the Network Module slot. Any attempt to remove a network module will leave tamper evidence.
Step 5 Place the fourth label on the router as shown in Figure 6. The tamper evidence label should be placed so that the half of the label covers the enclosure and the other half covers the WAN interface card slot. Any attempt to remove a WAN interface card will leave tamper evidence.
Step 6 Place the fifth label on the router as shown in Figure 6. The tamper evidence label should be placed so that one half of the label covers the enclosure and the other half covers the WAN interface card slot. Any attempt to remove a WAN interface card will leave tamper evidence.
Step 7 The labels completely cure within five minutes.
Figure 6 Tamper-Evident Labels
The tamper evidence seals are produced from a special thin gauge vinyl with self-adhesive backing. Any attempt to open the router, remove network modules or WIC cards, or the front faceplate will damage the tamper evidence seals or the painted surface and metal of the module cover. Since the tamper evidence labels have non-repeated serial numbers, the labels may be inspected for damage and compared against the applied serial numbers to verify that the module has not been tampered. Tamper evidence labels can also be inspected for signs of tampering, which include the following: curled corners, bubbling, crinkling, rips, tears, and slices. The word "Opened" may appear if the label was peeled back.
Cryptographic Key Management
The router securely administers both cryptographic keys and other critical security parameters such as passwords. The tamper evidence seals provide physical protection for all keys. Keys are also password protected and can be zeroized by the Crypto Officer. Keys are exchanged manually and entered electronically via manual key exchange or Internet Key Exchange (IKE).
The Cisco 2651router contains a cryptographic accelerator card, which provides DES (56-bit) and 3DES (168-bit) IPSec encryption at up to 32Mbps (3DES, 96Mbps DES), MD5 and SHA-1 hashing, and has hardware support for DH, RSA, and DSA key generation.
In order to prevent any secure data being released, it is important to test the cryptographic components of a security module to insure all components are functioning correctly. The router includes an array of self-tests that are run during startup and periodically during operations. The self-test run at power-up includes a cryptographic known answer tests (KAT) on the FIPS-approved cryptographic algorithms (DES, 3DES), on the message digest (SHA-1) and on Diffie-Hellman algorithm. Also performed at startup are software integrity test using an EDC, and a set of Statistical Random Number Generator (RNG) tests. The following tests are also run periodically or conditionally: a Bypass Mode test performed conditionally prior to executing IPSec, a software load test for upgrades and the continuous random number generator test. If any of these self-tests fail, the router will transition into an error state. Within the error state, all secure data transmission is halted and the router outputs status information indicating the failure.
Secure Operation of the Cisco 2651 Router
The Cisco 2651 router meets all the Level 2 requirements for FIPS 140-1. Follow the setting instructions provided below to place the module in FIPS mode. Operating this router without maintaining the following settings will remove the module from the FIPS approved mode of operation.
Step 1 The Crypto Officer must apply tamper evidence labels as described in the "Physical Security" section of this document. The Crypto Officer must securely store tamper evidence labels before use, and any tamper evidence labels not used should also be stored securely.
Step 2 Only a Crypto Officer may add and remove network modules. When removing the tamper evidence label, the Crypto Officer should remove the entire label from the router and clean the cover of any grease, dirt, or oil with an alcohol-based cleaning pad. The Crypto Officer must re-apply tamper evidence labels on the router as described inthe "Physical Security" section
Step 3 Only a Crypto Officer may add and remove WAN Interface Cards. When removing the tamper evidence label, the Crypto Officer should remove the entire label from the router and clean the cover of any grease, dirt, or oil with an alcohol-based cleaning pad. The Crypto Officer must re-apply tamper evidence labels on the router as described in the "Physical Security" section.
System Initialization and Configuration
Step 1 The Crypto Officer must perform the initial configuration. The IOS version shipped with the router, version 12.1(5)T, is the only allowable image. No other image may be loaded.
Step 2 The value of the boot field must be 0x0101 (the factory default). This setting disables break from the console to the ROM monitor and automatically and boots the IOS image. From the "configure terminal" command line, the Crypto Officer enters the following syntax:config-register 0x0101
Step 3 The Crypto Officer must create the "enable" password for the Crypto Officer role. The password must be at least 8 characters and is entered when the Crypto Officer first engages the "enable" command. The Crypto Officer enters the following syntax at the "#" prompt:enable secret [PASSWORD]
Step 4 The Crypto Officer must always assign passwords (of at least 8 characters) to users. Identification and authentication of the console port is required for Users. From the "configure terminal" command line, the Crypto Officer enters the following syntax:line con 0password [PASSWORD]login local
Step 5 The Crypto Officer shall only assign users to a privilege level 1 (the default).
Step 6 The Crypto Officer shall not assign a command to any privilege level other than its default.
Non-FIPS Approved Algorithms
The following algorithms are not FIPS approved and should be disabled:
•RSA for encryption
•MD-4 and MD-5 for signing
The following network services affect the security data items and must not be configured: NTP, TACACS+, RADIUS, Kerberos.
SNMP v3 over a secure IPSec tunnel may be employed for authenticated, secure SNMP gets and sets. Since SNMP v2C uses community strings for authentication, only gets are allowed under SNMP v2C.
Auxiliary terminal services must be disabled, except for the console. The following configuration disables login services on the auxiliary console line.line aux 0no exec
Telnet access to the module is only allowed via a secure IPSec tunnel between the remote system and the module. The Crypto officer must configure the module so that any remote connections via telnet are secured through IPSec.
Network Modules and WAN Interface Cards
With over 70 modular interface options, the Cisco 2651 provides solutions for data, voice, video, hybrid dial access, virtual private networks (VPNs), and multi-protocol data routing. The high-performance, modular architecture protects customers' investment in network technology and integrates the functions of several devices into a single, manageable solution.
Each network module and WAN Interface Card (WIC) meets FIPS 140-1 requirements for physical interfaces. They are classified as data input interfaces and data output interfaces. Network modules and WICs are an external interface, similar to the 100Base-T LAN ports. They expand the router's physical interfaces with multi-port ATM modules, multi-port Ethernet modules, high-speed serial interfaces, etc. A list all network modules and WICs is included with this document (See the "Tables of Supported Cards" section).
When a network module is inserted, it fits into an adapter called the network module expansion bus. The expansion bus interacts with the PCI bridge in the same way that the fixed LAN ports do; therefore, no critical security parameters pass through the network module (just as they don't pass through the LAN ports).
The Advanced Interface Module (AIM) socket, which contains the cryptographic accelerator card, interacts with only the PCI bridge. There is no direct interaction between the AIM socket and the network module expansion bus, just as there is no interaction between the fixed AIM socket and the fixed LAN ports. Furthermore, network modules do not perform any cryptographic functions.
The Cisco 2651 block diagram clearly depicts the distinction between the network module slot and the AIM socket. The block diagram for the crypto card clearly delineates that the network modules and network module expansion bus have no direct interaction with the crypto card. Therefore, no security parameters pass through the network module expansion bus to the crypto card or vice versa.
The expansion bus for the network module card is inside the cryptographic boundary, but it services only the network modules (physical interfaces) and has no effect on the cryptographic processing of the module. If the expansion bus were at the router's cryptographic boundary (as opposed to being inside the boundary), the same principles would apply. While the cryptographic boundary is drawn at the router case, adding and removing network modules will not compromise the security of the router.
As described in the "Roles and Services" section, only a Crypto Officer may replace a network module. If someone other than the Crypto Officer attempts to change a network module, the stickers over the network module slot will indicate tamper evidence. Thus, only valid network modules will be used and only the proper authority may change them. The "Physical Security" section provides instructions to change network modules in a FIPS-approved manner.
WAN Interface Cards
WICs are similar to network modules in that they greatly increase the router's flexibility. The WICs are inserted into one of two slots, which are located above the fixed LAN ports. WICs interface directly with the processor. They do not interface with the cryptographic card; therefore no security parameters will pass through them. WICs cannot perform cryptographic functions; they only serve as a data input and data output physical interface. Please refer to the block diagrams for further reference. Only the Crypto Officer may change WICs, and they must follow the same guidelines for changing network modules (see the "Physical Security" section).
Additionally, the console port does not directly interface with the network modules, the WICs, or the AIM socket; therefore, no critical security parameters will be passed over the network modules, WICs, or cryptographic processing card from the terminal.
Network modules and WAN Interface Cards do not affect the cryptographic processing of the router, nor are they privy to any security parameters contained in the router's cryptographic card. The following table describes the input data types and output data types of network modules and WICs:
No critical security parameters are passed though either of these interfaces. These interfaces do not perform any cryptographic functions, and "hot swapping" these interfaces by the Crypto Officer as described in the "Initial Setup" section does not compromise the security of the router.
Tables of Supported Cards
Network Modules Supported
Voice/Fax Network Modules Supported
Cisco 2600 Voice/Fax Network Modules Part Number
One-slot Voice/fax Network Module
One-Slot Voice/fax Network Module-Spare
Two-Slot Voice/fax Network Module
Two-Slot Voice/fax Network Module-Spare
Voice/Fax Interface Card for Voice/Fax Modules Supported
Multiflex Voice / WAN interface Cards Supported
WAN Interface Cards Supported
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