Cisco ONS 15454 SDH Reference Manual, Release 6.0
Chapter 9, Security
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Security

Table Of Contents

Security

9.1  User IDs and Security Levels

9.2  User Privileges and Policies

9.2.1  User Privileges by CTC Task

9.2.2  Security Policies

9.3  Audit Trail

9.3.1  Audit Trail Log Entries

9.3.2  Audit Trail Capacities

9.4  RADIUS Security

9.4.1  RADIUS Authentication

9.4.2  Shared Secrets


Security


This chapter provides information about Cisco ONS 15454 SDH user security. To provision security, refer to the Cisco ONS 15454 SDH Procedure Guide.

Chapter topics include:

User IDs and Security Levels

User Privileges and Policies

Audit Trail

RADIUS Security

9.1  User IDs and Security Levels

The CISCO15 user ID is provided with the ONS 15454 SDH system, but this user ID is not prompted when you sign into Cisco Transport Controller (CTC). This ID can be used to set up other ONS 15454 SDH users. (To do this, complete the "Create Users and Assign Security" procedure in the Cisco ONS 15454 SDH Procedure Guide.)

You can have up to 500 user IDs on one ONS 15454 SDH. Each CTC or Transaction Language One (TL1) user can be assigned one of the following security levels:

Retrieve—Users can retrieve and view CTC information but cannot set or modify parameters.

Maintenance—Users can access only the ONS 15454 SDH maintenance options.

Provisioning—Users can access provisioning and maintenance options.

Superuser—Users can perform all of the functions of the other security levels as well as set names, passwords, and security levels for other users.

See Table 9-3 for idle user timeout information for each security level.

By default, multiple concurrent user ID sessions are permitted on the node, that is, multiple users can log into a node using the same user ID. However, you can provision the node to allow only a single login per user and prevent concurrent logins for all users.

9.2  User Privileges and Policies

This section lists user privileges for each CTC task and describes the security policies available to Superuses for provisioning.

9.2.1  User Privileges by CTC Task

Table 9-1 shows the actions that each user privilege level can perform in node view.

Table 9-1 ONS 15454 SDH Security Levels—Node View 

CTC Tab
Subtab
[Subtab]:Actions
Retrieve
Maintenance
Provisioning
Superuser

Alarms

Synchronize/Filter/Delete Cleared Alarms

X 1

X

X

X

Conditions

Retrieve/Filter

X

X

X

X

History

Session

Filter

X

X

X

X

Node

Retrieve/Filter

X

X

X

X

Circuits

Create/Edit/Delete

2

X

X

Filter/Search

X

X

X

X

Provisioning

General

General: Edit

Partial3

X

Power Monitor: Edit

X

X

Ether Bridge

Spanning trees: Edit

X

X

Network

General: Edit

X

General: View4

X

X

X

X

Static Routing: Create/Edit/ Delete

X

X

OSPF: Create/Edit/Delete

X

X

RIP: Create/Edit/Delete

X

X

Proxy: Create/Delete

X

Firewall: Create/Delete

X

OSI

Main Setup

X

TARP

X

Routers

X

GRE Tunnel Routes

X

MS-SPRing

Create/Edit/Delete

X

X

Ring Map/Squelch Table/RIP Table

X

X

X

X

Protection

Create/Delete/Edit

X

X

View

X

X

X

X

Security

Users: Create/Delete

X

Users: Change password

Same user

Same user

Same user

All users

Active Logins: View/Logout

X

Policy: Edit

X

Access: Edit

X

RADIUS Server

X

Legal Disclaimer: Edit

X

Provisioning

SNMP

Create/Delete/Edit

X

X

Browse trap destinations

X

X

X

X

Comm Channels

RS-DCC: Create/Edit/Delete

X

X

MS-DCC: Create/Edit/Delete

X

X

GCC: Create/Edit/Delete

X

X

OSC: OSC Terminations: Create/Edit/Delete

X

X

OSC: DWDM Ring ID: Create/Edit/Delete

X

X

X

PCC: Create/Delete

X

X

Timing

General: Edit

X

X

BITS Facilities: Edit

X

X

Alarm Profiles

Alarm Behavior: Edit

X

X

Alarm Profiles Editor: Store/Delete5

X

X

Alarm Profile Editor: New/Load/Compare/Available/Usage

X

X

X

X

Cross-Connect

View

X

X

X

X

Defaults

Edit/Import

X

Reset/Export

X

X

X

X

WDM-ANS

Provisioning: Edit/Import

X

Provisioning: Reset/Export

X

X

X

X

Connections: Create/Edit/Delete/Commit/ Calculate

X

X

Port Status: Launch

X

X

Inventory

Delete

X

X

Reset

X

X

X

Maintenance

Database

Backup

X

X

X

Restore

X

EtherBridge

Spanning Trees: View

X

X

X

X

MAC Table: Retrieve

X

X

X

X

MAC Table: Clear/Clear All

X

X

X

Trunk Utilization: Refresh

X

X

X

X

Circuits: Refresh

X

X

X

X

OSI

IS-IS RIB

       

ES-IS RIB

       

TDC

       

MS-SPRing

Create/Edit/Delete

X

X

Software

Download

X

X

X

Upgrade/Activate/Revert

X

Cross-Connect

Cards: Switch/Lock/Unlock

X

X

X

Resource Usage: Delete

X

X

Overhead XConnect

View

X

X

X

X

Protection

Switch/Lock out/Lockon/ Clear/ Unlock

X

X

X

Diagnostic

Retrieve/Lamp Test

X

X

X

Timing

Source: Edit

X

X

X

Report: View/Refresh

X

X

X

X

Audit

Retrieve

X

Archive

X

X

RIP Routing Table

Retrieve

X

X

X

X

Routing Table

Retrieve

X

X

X

X

Test Access

View

X

X

X

X

DWDM

APC: Run/Disable/Refresh

X

X

X

WDM Span Check: Retrieve Span Loss values, Reset

X

X

X

X

ROADM Power Monitoring: Refresh

X

X

X

X

1 The "X" indicates that the user can perform the actions.

2 The "—" indicates that the privilege to perform an action is not available to the user.

3 Provisioner user cannot change node name, contact parameters.

4 IP Address is not viewable for Retrieve, Maintenance, and Provisioning users.

5 The action buttons in the subtab are active for all users, but the actions can be completely performed only by the users assigned with the required security levels.


Table 9-2 shows the actions that each user privilege level can perform in network view.

Table 9-2 ONS 15454 SDH Security Levels—Network View 

CTC Tab
Subtab
[Subtab]: Actions
Retrieve
Maintenance
Provisioning
Superuser

Alarms

Synchronize/Filter/Delete cleared alarms

X 1

X

X

X

Conditions

Retrieve/Filter

X

X

X

X

History

Filter

X

X

X

X

Circuits

Create/Edit/Delete

2

X

X

Filter/Search

X

X

X

X

Provisioning

Security

Users: Create/Delete

X

Users: Change

Same user

Same user

Same user

All users

Active Logins: Logout

X

Policy: Change

X

Alarm Profiles

Store/Delete3

X

X

New/Load/Compare/Available/Usage

X

X

X

X

MS-SPRing

Create/Delete/Edit/Upgrade

X

X

Overhead Circuits

Create/Delete/Edit/Merge

X

X

Search

X

X

X

X

Provisionable Patchcords (PPC)

Create/ Delete

X

X

Maintenance

Software

Download/Cancel

X

X

1 The "X" indicates that the user can perform the actions.

2 The "—" indicates that the privilege to perform an action is not available to the user.

3 The action buttons in the subtab are active for all users, but the actions can be completely performed only by the users assigned with the required security levels.


9.2.2  Security Policies

Users with Superuser security privilege can provision security policies on the ONS 15454 SDH. These security policies include idle user timeouts, password changes, password aging, and user lockout parameters. In addition, a Superuser can prevent users from accessing the ONS 15454 SDH through the TCC2/TCC2P RJ-45 port, the MIC-C/T/P LAN connection, or both.

9.2.2.1  Idle User Timeout

Each ONS 15454 SDH CTC or TL1 user can be idle during his or her login session for a specified amount of time before the CTC window is locked. The lockouts prevent unauthorized users from making changes. Higher-level users have shorter default idle periods and lower-level users have longer or unlimited default idle periods, as shown in Table 9-3. The user idle period can be modified by a Superuser; refer to the Cisco ONS 15454 SDH Procedure Guide for instructions.

Table 9-3 ONS 15454 SDH Default User Idle Times 

Security Level
Idle Time

Superuser

15 minutes

Provisioning

30 minutes

Maintenance

60 minutes

Retrieve

Unlimited


9.2.2.2  User Password, Login, and Access Policies

Superusers can view real-time lists of users who are logged into CTC or TL1 by node. Superusers can also provision the following password, login, and node access policies.

Password expirations and reuse—Superusers can specify when users must change and when they can reuse their passwords.

Login attempts—Superusers can specify the maximum number of times that users are allowed to attempt to log into CTC.

Locking out and disabling users—Superusers can provision the number of invalid logins that are allowed before locking out users and the length of time before inactive users are disabled.

Node access and user sessions—Superusers can limit the number of CTC sessions one user can have, and they can prohibit access to the ONS 15454 SDH using the LAN or MIC-C/T/P connections.

In addition, a Superuser can select secure shell (SSH) instead of Telnet at the CTC Provisioning > Security > Access tabs. SSH is a terminal-remote host Internet protocol that uses encrypted links. It provides authentication and secure communication over unsecure channels. Port 22 is the default port and cannot be changed.


Note The superuser cannot modify the privilege level of an active user. The CTC displays a warning message when the superuser attempts to modify the privilege level of an active user.


9.2.2.3  Secure Access

Secure access is based on SSH and SSL protocols. Secure access can be enabled for EMS (applicable to CTC). When access is set to secure, CTC provides enhanced SFTP and SSH security when communicating with the node.

For more information on how to enable EMS secure access, refer Cisco ONS 15454 SDH Procedure Guide for instructions.

9.3  Audit Trail

The ONS 15454 SDH maintains an audit trail log that resides on the TCC2/TCC2P. This record shows who has accessed the system and what operations were performed during a given time period. The log includes authorized Cisco logins and logouts using the operating system command line interface, Cisco Transport Controller (CTC), and TL1; the log also includes FTP actions, circuit creation/deletion, and user/system generated actions.

Event monitoring is also recorded in the audit log. An event is defined as the change in status of an element within the network. External events, internal events, attribute changes, and software upload/download activities are recorded in the audit trail.

Audit trails are useful for maintaining security, recovering lost transactions and enforcing accountability. Accountability is the ability to trace user activities by associating a process or action with a specific user. To view the audit trail log, refer to the Cisco ONS 15454 SDH Procedure Guide. to view the audit trail record. Any management interface (CTC, CTM, TL1) can access the audit trail logs.

The audit trail is stored in persistent memory and is not corrupted by processor switches, resets or upgrades. However, if the TCC2/TCC2Ps are removed, the audit trail log is lost.

9.3.1  Audit Trail Log Entries

Table 9-4 contains the columns listed in Audit Trail window.

Table 9-4 Audit Trail Window Columns

Heading
Explanation

Date

Date when the action occurred

Num

Incrementing count of actions

User

User ID that initiated the action

P/F

Pass/Fail (whether or not the action was executed)

Operation

Action that was taken


Audit trail records capture the following activities:

User—Name of the user performing the action

Host—Host from where the activity is logged

Device ID—IP address of the device involved in the activity

Application—Name of the application involved in the activity

Task—Name of the task involved in the activity (View a dialog, apply configuration and so on)

Connection Mode—Telnet, Console, SNMP

Category—Type of change; Hardware, Software, Configuration

Status—Status of the user action (Read, Initial, Successful, Timeout, Failed)

Time—Time of change

Message Type—Denotes if the event is Success/Failure type

Message Details—A description of the change

9.3.2  Audit Trail Capacities

The system is able to store 640 log entries.When this limit is reached, the oldest entries are overwritten with new events.

When the log server is 80 percent full, an AUD-LOG-LOW condition is raised and logged (by way of CORBA/CTC).

When the log server reaches a maximum capacity of 640 entries and begins overwriting records that were not archived, an AUD-LOG-LOSS condition is raised and logged. This event indicates that audit trail records have been lost. Until the user off-loads the file, this event occurs once regardless of the amount of entries that are overwritten by the system. To export the audit trail log, refer to the Cisco ONS 15454 SDH Procedure Guide.

9.4  RADIUS Security

Users with Superuser security privileges can configure nodes to use Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS) authentication. Cisco Systems uses a strategy known as authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA) for verifying the identity of, granting access to, and tracking the actions of remote users.

9.4.1  RADIUS Authentication

RADIUS is a system of distributed security that secures remote access to networks and network services against unauthorized access. RADIUS comprises three components:

A protocol with a frame format that utilizes User Datagram Protocol (UDP)/IP

A server

A client

The server runs on a central computer typically at the customer's site, while the clients reside in the dial-up access servers and can be distributed throughout the network.

An ONS 15454 SDH node operates as a client of RADIUS. The client is responsible for passing user information to designated RADIUS servers, and then acting on the response that is returned. RADIUS servers are responsible for receiving user connection requests, authenticating the user, and returning all configuration information necessary for the client to deliver service to the user. The RADIUS servers can act as proxy clients to other kinds of authentication servers. Transactions between the client and RADIUS server are authenticated through the use of a shared secret, which is never sent over the network. In addition, any user passwords are sent encrypted between the client and RADIUS server. This eliminates the possibility that someone snooping on an unsecured network could determine a user's password. Refer to the Cisco ONS 15454 SDH Procedure Guide for detailed instructions for implementing RADIUS authentication.

9.4.2  Shared Secrets

A shared secret is a text string that serves as a password between:

A RADIUS client and RADIUS server

A RADIUS client and a RADIUS proxy

A RADIUS proxy and a RADIUS server

For a configuration that uses a RADIUS client, a RADIUS proxy, and a RADIUS server, the shared secret that is used between the RADIUS client and the RADIUS proxy can be different than the shared secret used between the RADIUS proxy and the RADIUS server.

Shared secrets are used to verify that RADIUS messages, with the exception of the Access-Request message, are sent by a RADIUS-enabled device that is configured with the same shared secret. Shared secrets also verify that the RADIUS message has not been modified in transit (message integrity). The shared secret is also used to encrypt some RADIUS attributes, such as User-Password and Tunnel-Password.

When creating and using a shared secret:

Use the same case-sensitive shared secret on both RADIUS devices.

Use a different shared secret for each RADIUS server-RADIUS client pair.

To ensure a random shared secret, generate a random sequence at least 16 characters long.

You can use any standard alphanumeric and special characters.

You can use a shared secret of up to 16 characters in length. To protect your server and your RADIUS clients from brute force attacks, use long shared secrets (up to 16 characters).

Make the shared secret a random sequence of letters, numbers, and punctuation and change it often to protect your server and your RADIUS clients from dictionary attacks. Shared secrets should contain characters from each of the three groups listed in Table 9-5.

Table 9-5 Shared Secret Character Groups

Group
Examples

Letters (uppercase and lowercase)

A, B, C, D and a, b, c, d

Numerals

0, 1, 2, 3

Symbols (all characters not defined as letters or numerals)

Exclamation point (!), asterisk (*), colon (:)


The stronger your shared secret, the more secure are the attributes (for example, those used for passwords and encryption keys) that are encrypted with it. An example of a strong shared secret is 8d#>9fq4bV)H7%a3.