Cisco ONS 15327 Troubleshooting Guide, Release 6.0
Chapter 6, SNMP
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SNMP

Table Of Contents

SNMP

6.1  SNMP Overview

6.2  Basic SNMP Components

6.3  SNMP External Interface Requirement

6.4  SNMP Version Support

6.5  SNMP Message Types

6.6  SNMP Management Information Bases

6.6.1  IETF-Standard MIBs for ONS 15454

6.6.2  Proprietary ONS 15327 MIBs

6.6.3  Generic Threshold and Performance Monitoring MIBs

6.7  SNMP Trap Content

6.7.1  Generic and IETF Traps

6.7.2  Variable Trap Bindings

6.8  SNMP Community Names

6.9  Proxy Over Firewalls

6.10  Remote Monitoring

6.10.1  64-Bit RMON Monitoring over DCC

6.10.2  HC-RMON-MIB Support

6.10.3  Ethernet Statistics RMON Group

6.10.4  History Control RMON Group

6.10.5  Ethernet History RMON Group

6.10.6  Alarm RMON Group

6.10.7  Event RMON Group


SNMP


This chapter explains Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) as implemented by the Cisco ONS 15327.

For SNMP set up information, refer to the Cisco ONS 15327 Procedure Guide.

Chapter topics include:

SNMP Overview

Basic SNMP Components

SNMP External Interface Requirement

SNMP Version Support

SNMP Message Types

SNMP Management Information Bases

SNMP Trap Content

SNMP Community Names

Proxy Over Firewalls

6.1  SNMP Overview

SNMP is an application-layer communication protocol that allows ONS 15327 network devices to exchange management information among these systems and with other devices outside the network. Through SNMP, network administrators can manage network performance, find and solve network problems, and plan network growth.

The ONS 15327 uses SNMP for asynchronous event notification to a network management system (NMS). ONS 15327 SNMP implementation uses standard Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) management information bases (MIBs) to convey node-level inventory, fault, and performance management information for generic read-only management of DS-1, DS-3, SONET, and Ethernet technologies. SNMP allows a generic SNMP manager such as HP OpenView Network Node Manager (NNM) or Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) NetExpert to be utilized for limited management functions.

The Cisco ONS 15327 supports SNMP Version 1 (SNMPv1) and SNMP Version 2c (SNMPv2c). Both of these versions share many features, but SNMPv2c includes additional protocol operations and 64-bit performance monitoring support. This chapter describes both versions and gives SNMP configuration parameters for the ONS 15327.


Note The CERENT-MSDWDM-MIB.mib and CERENT-FC-MIB.mib in the CiscoV2 directory support 64-bit performance monitoring counters. However, the SNMPv1 MIB in the CiscoV1 directory does not contain 64-bit performance monitoring counters, but supports the lower and higher word values of the corresponding 64-bit counter. The other MIB files in the CiscoV1 and CiscoV2 directories are identical in content and differ only in format.


Figure 6-1 illustrates the basic layout idea of an SNMP-managed network.

Figure 6-1 Basic Network Managed by SNMP

6.2  Basic SNMP Components

In general terms, an SNMP-managed network consists of a management system, agents, and managed devices.

A management system such as HP OpenView executes monitoring applications and controls managed devices. Management systems execute most of the management processes and provide the bulk of memory resources used for network management. A network might be managed by one or more management systems. Figure 6-2 illustrates the relationship between the network manager, SNMP agent, and the managed devices.

Figure 6-2 Example of the Primary SNMP Components

An agent (such as SNMP) residing on each managed device translates local management information data, such as performance information or event and error information caught in software traps, into a readable form for the management system. Figure 6-3 illustrates SNMP agent get-requests that transport data to the network management software.

Figure 6-3 Agent Gathering Data from a MIB and Sending Traps to the Manager

The SNMP agent captures data from management information bases, or MIBs, which are device parameter and network data repositories, or from error or change traps.

A managed element—such as a router, access server, switch, bridge, hub, computer host, or network element (such as an ONS 15327)—is accessed through the SNMP agent. Managed devices collect and store management information, making it available via SNMP to other management systems having the same protocol compatibility.

6.3  SNMP External Interface Requirement

Since all SNMP requests come from a third-party application, the only external interface requirement is that a third-part SNMP client application can upload RFC 3273 SNMP MIB variables in the etherStatsHighCapacityTable, etherHistoryHighCapacityTable, or mediaIndependentTable.

6.4  SNMP Version Support

The ONS 15327 supports SNMPv1 and SNMPv2c traps and get requests. The SNMP MIBs define alarms, traps, and status. Through SNMP, NMS applications can query a management agent for data from functional entities such as Ethernet switches and SONET multiplexers using a supported MIB.


Note ONS 15327 MIB files in the CiscoV1 and CiscoV2 directories are almost identical in content except for the difference in 64-bit performance monitoring features. The CiscoV2 directory contains three MIBs with 64-bit performance monitoring counters: CERENT-MSDWDM-MIB.mib, CERENT-FC-MIB.mib, and CERENT-GENERIC-PM-MIB.mib. The CiscoV1 directory does not contain any 64-bit counters, but it does support the lower and higher word values used in 64-bit counters. The two directories also have somewhat different formats.


6.5  SNMP Message Types

The ONS 15327 SNMP agent communicates with an SNMP management application using SNMP messages. Table 6-1 describes these messages.

Table 6-1 ONS 15327 SNMP Message Types 

Operation
Description

get-request

Retrieves a value from a specific variable.

get-next-request

Retrieves the value following the named variable; this operation is often used to retrieve variables from within a table. With this operation, an SNMP manager does not need to know the exact variable name. The SNMP manager searches sequentially to find the needed variable from within the MIB.

get-response

Replies to a get-request, get-next-request, get-bulk-request, or set-request sent by an NMS.

get-bulk-request

Fills the get-response with up to the max-repetition number of get-next interactions, similar to a get-next-request.

set-request

Provides remote network monitoring (RMON) MIB.

trap

Indicates that an event has occurred. An unsolicited message is sent by an SNMP agent to an SNMP manager.


6.6  SNMP Management Information Bases

Section 6.6.1 lists IETF-standard MIBs that are implemented in the ONS 15327 and shows their compilation order. Section 6.6.2 lists proprietary MIBs for the ONS 15327 and shows their compilation order. Section 6.6.3 contains information about the generic threshold and performance monitoring MIBs that can be used to monitor any network element (NE) contained in the network.

6.6.1  IETF-Standard MIBs for ONS 15454

Table 6-2 lists the IETF-standard MIBs implemented in the ONS 15327 SNMP agents.

First compile the MIBs in the in Table 6-2. Compile the Table 6-3 MIBs next.


Caution If you do not compile MIBs in the correct order, one or more might not compile correctly.

Table 6-2 IETF Standard MIBs Implemented in the ONS 15327 System 

RFC 1 Number
Module Name
Title/Comments

IANAifType-MIB.mib

Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) ifType

1213

RFC1213-MIB-rfc1213.mib

Management Information Base for Network

1907

SNMPV2-MIB-rfc1907.mib

Management of TCP/IP-based Internets: MIB-II
Management Information Base for Version 2 of the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMPv2)

1253

RFC1253-MIB-rfc1253.mib

OSPF Version 2 Management Information Base

1493

BRIDGE-MIB-rfc1493.mib

Definitions of Managed Objects for Bridges
(This defines MIB objects for managing MAC bridges based on the IEEE 802.1D-1990 standard between Local Area Network [LAN] segments.)

2819

RMON-MIB-rfc2819.mib

Remote Network Monitoring Management Information Base

2737

ENTITY-MIB-rfc2737.mib

Entity MIB (Version 2)

2233

IF-MIB-rfc2233.mib

Interfaces Group MIB using SMIv2

2358

EtherLike-MIB-rfc2358.mib

Definitions of Managed Objects for the Ethernet-like Interface Types

2493

PerfHist-TC-MIB-rfc2493.mib

Textual Conventions for MIB Modules Using Performance History Based on 15 Minute Intervals

2495

DS1-MIB-rfc2495.mib

Definitions of Managed Objects for the DS1, E1, DS2 and E2 Interface Types

2496

DS3-MIB-rfc2496.mib

Definitions of Managed Object for the DS3/E3 Interface Type

2558

SONET-MIB-rfc2558.mib

Definitions of Managed Objects for the SONET/SDH Interface Type

2674

P-BRIDGE-MIB-rfc2674.mib Q-BRIDGE-MIB-rfc2674.mib

Definitions of Managed Objects for Bridges with Traffic Classes, Multicast Filtering and Virtual LAN Extensions

3273

HC-RMON-MIB

The MIB module for managing remote monitoring device implementations, augmenting the original RMON MIB as specified in RFC 2819 and RFC 1513 and RMON-2 MIB as specified in RFC 2021

1 RFC = Request for Comment


6.6.2  Proprietary ONS 15327 MIBs

Each ONS 15327 is shipped with a software CD containing applicable proprietary MIBs. Table 6-3 lists the proprietary MIBs for the ONS 15327.

Table 6-3 ONS 15327 Proprietary MIBs

MIB Number
Module Name

1

CERENT-GLOBAL-REGISTRY.mib

2

CERENT-TC.mib

3

CERENT-454.mib (not applicable to ONS 15327)

4

CERENT-GENERIC.mib

5

CISCO-SMI.mib

6

CISCO-VOA-MIB.mib

7

CERENT-MSDWDM-MIB.mib

8

CISCO-OPTICAL-MONITOR-MIB.mib

100

CERENT-FC-MIB.mib



Note If you cannot compile the proprietary MIBs correctly, log into the Technical Support Website at http://www.cisco.com/techsupport or call Cisco TAC (1 800 553-2447).


6.6.3  Generic Threshold and Performance Monitoring MIBs

In Release 6.0, a new MIB called CERENT-GENERIC-PM-MIB allows NMS to use a single, generic MIB for accessing threshold and performance monitoring data of different interface types. The MIB is generic in the sense that it is not tied to any particular kind of interface. The MIB objects can be used to obtain threshold values, current performance monitoring (PM) counts, and historic PM statistics for each kind of monitor and any supported interval at the near end and far end.

Previously existing MIBs in the ONS 15327 system provide some of these counts. For example, SONET interface 15-minute current PM counts and historic PM statistics are available using the SONET-MIB. DS-1 and DS-3 counts and statistics are available through the DS1-MIB and DS-3 MIB respectively. The generic MIB provides these types of information and also fetches threshold values and single-day statistics. In addition, the MIB supports optics and dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) threshold and performance monitoring information.

The CERENT-GENERIC-PM-MIB is organized into three different tables:

cerentGenericPmThresholdTable

cerentGenericPmStatsCurrentTable

cerentGenericPmStatsIntervalTable

The cerentGenericPmThresholdTable is used to obtain the threshold values for the monitor types. It is indexed based on the interface index (cerentGenericPmThresholdIndex), monitor type (cerentGenericPmThresholdMonType), location (cerentGenericPmThresholdLocation), and time period (cerentGenericPmThresholdPeriod). The syntax of cerentGenericPmThresholdMonType is type cerentMonitorType, defined in CERENT-TC.mib. The syntax of cerentGenericPmThresholdLocation is type cerentLocation, defined in CERENT-TC.mib. The syntax of cerentGenericPmThresholdPeriod is type cerentPeriod, defined in CERENT-TC.mib.

Threshold values can be provided in 64-bit and 32-bit formats. (For more information about 64-bit counters, see the "HC-RMON-MIB Support" section.) The 64-bit values in cerentGenericPmThresholdHCValue can be used with agents that support SNMPv2. The two 32-bit values (cerentGenericPmThresholdValue and cerentGenericPmThresholdOverFlowValue) can be used by NMSs that only support SNMPv1. The objects compiled in the cerentGenericPmThresholdTable are shown in Table 6-4.

Table 6-4 cerentGenericPmThresholdTable

Index Objects
Information Objects

cerentGenericPmThresholdIndex

cerentGenericPmThresholdValue

cerentGenericPmThresholdMonType

cerentGenericPmThresholdOverFlowValue

cerentGenericPmThresholdLocation

cerentGenericPmThresholdHCValue

cerentGenericPmThresholdPeriod


The second table within the MIB, cerentGenericPmStatsCurrentTable, compiles the current performance monitoring (PM) values for the monitor types. The table is indexed based on interface index (cerentGenericPmStatsCurrentIndex), monitor type (cerentGenericPmStatsCurrentMonType), location (cerentGenericPmStatsCurrentLocation) and time period (cerentGenericPmStatsCurrentPeriod). The syntax of cerentGenericPmStatsCurrentIndex is type cerentLocation, defined in CERENT-TC.mib. The syntax of cerentGenericPmStatsCurrentMonType is type cerentMonitor, defined in CERENT-TC.mib. The syntax of cerentGenericPmStatsCurrentPeriod is type cerentPeriod, defined in CERENT-TC.mib.

The cerentGenericPmStatsCurrentTable validates the current PM value using the cerentGenericPmStatsCurrentValid object and registers the number of valid intervals with historical PM statistics in the cerentGenericPmStatsCurrentValidIntervals object.

PM values are provided in 64-bit and 32-bit formats. The 64-bit values in cerentGenericPmStatsCurrentHCValue can be used with agents that support SNMPv2. The two 32-bit values (cerentGenericPmStatsCurrentValue and cerentGenericPmStatsCurrentOverFlowValue) can be used by NMS that only support SNMPv1. The cerentGenericPmStatsCurrentTable is shown in Table 6-5.

Table 6-5 cerentGenericPmStatsCurrentTable

Index Objects
Informational Objects

cerentGenericPmStatsCurrentIndex

cerentGenericPmStatsCurrentValue

cerentGenericPmStatsCurrentMonType

cerentGenericPmStatsCurrentOverFlowValue

cerentGenericPmStatsCurrentLocation

cerentGenericPmStatsCurrentHCValue

cerentGenericPmStatsCurrentPeriod

cerentGenericPmStatsCurrentValidData

cerentGenericPmStatsCurrentValidIntervals


The third table in the MIB, cerentGenericPmStatsIntervalTable, obtains historic PM values for the monitor types. This table is indexed based on the interface index, monitor type, location, time period, and interval number. It validates the current PM value in the cerentGenericPmStatsIntervalValid object.

This table is indexed based on interface index (cerentGenericPmStatsIntervalIndex), monitor type (cerentGenericPMStatsIntervalMonType), location (cerentGenericPmStatsIntervalLocation), and period (cerentGenericPmStatsIntervalPeriod). The syntax of cerentGenericPmStatsIntervalIndex is type cerentLocation, defined in CERENT-TC.mib. The syntax of cerentGenericPmStatsIntervalMonType is type cerentMonitor, defined in CERENT-TC.mib. The syntax of cerentGernicPmStatsIntervalPeriod is type cerentPeriod, defined in CERENT-TC.mib.

The table provides historic PM values in 64-bit and 32-bit formats. The 64-bit values contained in the cerentGenericPmStatsIntervalHCValue table can be used with SNMPv2 agents. The two 32-bit values (cerentGenericPmStatsIntervalValue and cerentGenericPmStatsIntervalOverFlowValue) can be used by SNMPv1 NMS. The cerentGenericPmStatsIntervalTable is shown in Table 6-6.

Table 6-6 cerentGenericPmStatsIntervalTable

Index Objects
Informational Objects

cerentGenericPmStatsIntervalIndex

cerentGenericPmStatsIntervalValue

cerentGenericPmStatsIntervalMonType

cerentGenericPmStatsIntervalOverFlowValue

cerentGenericPmStatsIntervalLocation

cerentGenericPmStatsIntervalHCValue

cerentGenericPmStatsIntervalPeriod

cerentGenericPmStatsIntervalValidData

cerentGenericPmStatsIntervalNumber


6.7  SNMP Trap Content

The ONS 15327 generates all alarms and events, such as raises and clears, as SNMP traps. These contain the following information:

Object IDs that uniquely identify each event with information about the generating entity (the slot or port; synchronous transport signal [STS] and Virtual Tributary [VT]; bidirectional line switched ring [BLSR], Spanning Tree Protocol [STP], etc.).

Severity and service effect of the alarm (Critical, Major, Minor, or event; Service-affecting or Non-service Affecting).

Date and time stamp showing when the alarm occurred.

6.7.1  Generic and IETF Traps

The ONS 15327 supports the generic IETF traps listed in Table 6-7.

Table 6-7 ONS 15327 Traps 

Trap
From RFC No. MIB
Description

coldStart

RFC1907-MIB

Agent up, cold start.

warmStart

RFC1907-MIB

Agent up, warm start.

authenticationFailure

RFC1907-MIB

Community string does not match.

newRoot

RFC1493/

BRIDGE-MIB

Sending agent is the new root of the spanning tree.

topologyChange

RFC1493/
BRIDGE-MIB

A port in a bridge has changed from Learning to Forwarding or Forwarding to Blocking.

entConfigChange

RFC2737/
ENTITY-MIB

The entLastChangeTime value has changed.

dsx1LineStatusChange

RFC2495/
DS1-MIB

The value of an instance of dsx1LineStatus has changed. The trap can be used by an NMS to trigger polls. When the line status change results from a higher-level line status change (for example, a DS-3), no traps for the DS-1 are sent.

dsx3LineStatusChange

RFC2496/
DS3-MIB

The value of an instance of dsx3LineStatus has changed. This trap can be used by an NMS to trigger polls. When the line status change results in a lower-level line status change (for example, a DS-1), no traps for the lower-level are sent.

risingAlarm

RFC2819/
RMON-MIB

The SNMP trap that is generated when an alarm entry crosses the rising threshold and the entry generates an event that is configured for sending SNMP traps.

fallingAlarm

RFC2819/
RMON-MIB

The SNMP trap that is generated when an alarm entry crosses the falling threshold and the entry generates an event that is configured for sending SNMP traps.


6.7.2  Variable Trap Bindings

Each SNMP trap contains variable bindings that are used to create the MIB tables. Variable bindings for the ONS 15327 are listed in Table 6-8. For each group (such as Group A), all traps within the group are associated with all of its variable bindings.

Table 6-8 ONS 15327 SNMPv2 Trap Variable Bindings 

Group
Trap Name(s) Associated with
(Variable Binding Number)
SNMPv2 Variable Bindings
Description

A

dsx1LineStatusChange (from RFC 2495)

(1)

dsx1LineStatus

This variable indicates the line status of the interface. It contains loopback, failure, received alarm and transmitted alarm information.

(2)

dsx1LineStatusLastChange

The value of MIB II's sysUpTime object at the time this DS1 entered its current line status state. If the current state was entered prior to the last proxy-agent re-initialization, the value of this object is zero.

(3)

cerentGenericNodeTime

The time that an event occurred.

(4)

cerentGenericAlarmState

The alarm severity and service-affecting status. Severities are Minor, Major, and Critical. Service-affecting statuses are Service-Affecting and Non-Service Affecting.

(5)

snmpTrapAddress

The address of the SNMP trap.

B

dsx3LineStatusChange (from RFC 2496)

(1)

dsx3LineStatus

This variable indicates the line status of the interface. It contains loopback state information and failure state information.

(2)

dsx3LineStatusLastChange

The value of MIB II's sysUpTime object at the time this DS3/E3 entered its current line status state. If the current state was entered prior to the last re-initialization of the proxy-agent, then the value is zero.

(3)

cerentGenericNodeTime

The time that an event occurred.

(4)

cerentGenericAlarmState

The alarm severity and service-affecting status. Severities are Minor, Major, and Critical. Service-affecting statuses are Service-Affecting and Non-Service Affecting.

(5)

snmpTrapAddress

The address of the SNMP trap.

C

coldStart (from RFC 1907)

(1)

cerentGenericNodeTime

The time that an event occurred.

warmStart (from RFC 1907)

(2)

cerentGenericAlarmState

The alarm severity and service-affecting status. Severities are Minor, Major, and Critical. Service-affecting statuses are Service-Affecting and Non-Service Affecting.

newRoot (from RFC)

(3)

snmpTrapAddress

The address of the SNMP trap.

topologyChange (from RFC)

 

entConfigChange (from RFC 2737)

 

authenticationFailure (from RFC 1907)

 

D1

risingAlarm (from RFC 2819)

(1)

alarmIndex

This variable uniquely identifies each entry in the alarm table. When an alarm in the table clears, the alarm indexes change for each alarm listed.

(2)

alarmVariable

The object identifier of the variable being sampled.

(3)

alarmSampleType

The method of sampling the selected variable and calculating the value to be compared against the thresholds.

(4)

alarmValue

The value of the statistic during the last sampling period.

(5)

alarmRisingThreshold

When the current sampled value is greater than or equal to this threshold, and the value at the last sampling interval was less than this threshold, a single event is generated. A single event is also generated if the first sample after this entry is greater than or equal to this threshold.

(6)

cerentGenericNodeTime

The time that an event occurred.

(7)

cerentGenericAlarmState

The alarm severity and service-affecting status. Severities are Minor, Major, and Critical. Service-affecting statuses are Service-Affecting and Non-Service Affecting.

(8)

snmpTrapAddress

The address of the SNMP trap.

D2

fallingAlarm (from RFC 2819)

(1)

alarmIndex

This variable uniquely identifies each entry in the alarm table. When an alarm in the table clears, the alarm indexes change for each alarm listed.

(2)

alarmVariable

The object identifier of the variable being sampled.

(3)

alarmSampleType

The method of sampling the selected variable and calculating the value to be compared against the thresholds.

(4)

alarmValue

The value of the statistic during the last sampling period.

(5)

alarmFallingThreshold

When the current sampled value is less than or equal to this threshold, and the value at the last sampling interval was greater than this threshold, a single event is generated. A single event is also generated if the first sample after this entry is less than or equal to this threshold.

(6)

cerentGenericNodeTime

The time that an event occurred.

(7)

cerentGenericAlarmState

The alarm severity and service-affecting status. Severities are Minor, Major, and Critical. Service-affecting statuses are Service-Affecting and Non-Service Affecting.

(8)

snmpTrapAddress

The address of the SNMP trap.

E

failureDetectedExternalToTheNE (from CERENT-454-mib)

(1)

cerentGenericNodeTime

The time that an event occurred.

(2)

cerentGenericAlarmState

The alarm severity and service-affecting status. Severities are Minor, Major, and Critical. Service-affecting statuses are Service-Affecting and Non-Service Affecting.

(3)

cerentGenericAlarmObjectType

The entity that raised the alarm. The NMS should use this value to decide which table to poll for further information about the alarm.

E (cont.)

 

(4)

cerentGenericAlarmObjectIndex

Every alarm is raised by an object entry in a specific table. This variable is the index of objects in each table; if the alarm is interface-related, this is the index of the interface in the interface table.

(5)

cerentGenericAlarmSlotNumber

The slot of the object that raised the alarm. If a slot is not relevant to the alarm, the slot number is zero.

(6)

cerentGenericAlarmPortNumber

The port of the object that raised the alarm. If a port is not relevant to the alarm, the port number is zero.

(7)

cerentGenericAlarmLineNumber

The object line that raised the alarm. If a line is not relevant to the alarm, the line number is zero.

(8)

cerentGenericAlarmObjectName

The Transaction Language One (TL1)-style user-visible name that uniquely identifies an object in the system.

(9)

cerentGenericAlarmAdditionalInfo

Additional information for the alarm object. In the current version of the MIB, this object contains provisioned description for alarms that are external to the NE. If there is no additional information, the value is zero.

(10)

snmpTrapAddress

The address of the SNMP trap.

F

performanceMonitorThresholdCrossingAlert (from CERENT-454-mib)

(1)

cerentGenericNodeTime

The time that an event occurred.

(2)

cerentGenericAlarmState

The alarm severity and service-affecting status. Severities are Minor, Major, and Critical. Service-affecting statuses are Service-Affecting and Non-Service Affecting.

(3)

cerentGenericAlarmObjectType

The entity that raised the alarm. The NMS should use this value to decide which table to poll for further information about the alarm.

(4)

cerentGenericAlarmObjectIndex

Every alarm is raised by an object entry in a specific table. This variable is the index of objects in each table; if the alarm is interface-related, this is the index of the interface in the interface table.

F (cont.)

 

(5)

cerentGenericAlarmSlotNumber

The slot of the object that raised the alarm. If a slot is not relevant to the alarm, the slot number is zero.

(6)

cerentGenericAlarmPortNumber

The port of the object that raised the alarm. If a port is not relevant to the alarm, the port number is zero.

(7)

cerentGenericAlarmLineNumber

The object line that raised the alarm. If a line is not relevant to the alarm, the line number is zero.

(8)

cerentGenericAlarmObjectName

The TL1-style user-visible name that uniquely identifies an object in the system.

(9)

cerentGenericThresholdMonitorType

This object indicates the type of metric being monitored.

(10)

cerentGenericThresholdLocation

Indicates whether the event occurred at the near- or far end.

(11)

cerentGenericThresholdPeriod

Indicates the sampling interval period.

(12)

cerentGenericThresholdSetValue

The value of this object is the threshold provisioned by the NMS.

(13)

cerentGenericThresholdCurrentValue

(14)

cerentGenericThresholdDetectType

(15)

snmpTrapAddress

The address of the SNMP trap.

G

All other traps (from CERENT-454-MIB) not listed above

(1)

cerentGenericNodeTime

The time that an event occurred.

(2)

cerentGenericAlarmState

The alarm severity and service-affecting status. Severities are Minor, Major, and Critical. Service-affecting statuses are Service-Affecting and Non-Service Affecting.

(3)

cerentGenericAlarmObjectType

The entity that raised the alarm. The NMS should use this value to decide which table to poll for further information about the alarm.

(4)

cerentGenericAlarmObjectIndex

Every alarm is raised by an object entry in a specific table. This variable is the index of objects in each table; if the alarm is interface-related, this is the index of the interface in the interface table.

G (cont.)

 

(5)

cerentGenericAalrmSlotNumber

The slot of the object that raised the alarm. If a slot is not relevant to the alarm, the slot number is zero.

(6)

cerentGenericAlarmPortNumber

The port of the object that raised the alarm. If a port is not relevant to the alarm, the port number is zero.

(7)

cerentGenericAlarmLineNumber

The object line that raised the alarm. If a line is not relevant to the alarm, the line number is zero.

(8)

cerentGenericAlarmObjectName

The TL1-style user-visible name that uniquely identifies an object in the system.

(9)

snmpTrapAddress

The address of the SNMP trap.


6.8  SNMP Community Names

Community names are used to group SNMP trap destinations. All trap destinations can be provisioned as part of SNMP communities in Cisco Transport Controller (CTC). When community names are assigned to traps, the ONS 15327 treats the request as valid if the community name matches one that is provisioned in CTC. In this case, all agent-managed MIB variables are accessible to that request. If the community name does not match the provisioned list, SNMP drops the request.

6.9  Proxy Over Firewalls

SNMP and NMS applications have traditionally been unable to cross firewalls used for isolating security risks inside or from outside networks. Release 6.0 CTC enables network operations centers (NOCs) to access performance monitoring data such as remote monitoring (RMON) statistics or autonomous messages across firewalls by using an SMP proxy element installed on a firewall.

The application-level proxy transports SNMP protocol data units (PDU) between the NMS and NEs, allowing requests and responses between the NMS and NEs and forwarding NE autonomous messages to the NMS. The proxy agent requires little provisioning at the NOC and no additional provisioning at the NEs.

The firewall proxy is intended for use in a gateway network element (GNE-end network element (ENE) topology with many NEs through a single NE gateway. Up to 64 SNMP requests (such as get, getnext, or getbulk) are supported at any time behind single or multiple firewalls. The proxy interoperates with common NMS such as HP OpenView.

For security reasons, the SNMP proxy feature must be enabled at all receiving and transmitting NEs to function. For instructions to do this, refer to the Cisco ONS 15327 Procedure Guide. The feature does not interoperate with earlier ONS 15327 releases.

6.10  Remote Monitoring

The ONS 15327 incorporates RMON to allow network operators to monitor Ethernet card performance and events. The RMON thresholds are user-provisionable in CTC. Refer to the Cisco ONS 15327 Procedure Guide for instructions. Note that otherwise, RMON operation is invisible to the typical CTC user.

ONS 15327 system RMON is based on the IETF-standard MIB RFC 2819 and includes the following five groups from the standard MIB: Ethernet Statistics, History Control, Ethernet History, Alarm, and Event.

6.10.1  64-Bit RMON Monitoring over DCC

The ONS 15327 DCC is implemented over the IP protocol, which is not compatible with Ethernet. The system builds Ethernet equipment History and Statistics tables using high-level data link control (HDLC) statistics that are gathered over the DCC (running point-to-point protocol, or PPP). This release adds RMON data communication channel (DCC) monitoring (for both IP and Ethernet) to monitor the health of remote DCC connections.

In, R6.0, the implementation contains two MIBS for DCC interfaces. They are:

cMediaIndependentTable—standard, RFC3273; the proprietary extension of the HC-RMON MIB used for reporting statistics

cMediaIndependentHistoryTable—proprietary MIB used to support history

6.10.1.1  Row Creation in MediaIndependentTable

The SetRequest PDU for creating a row in the mediaIndependentTable should contain all the values required to activate a row in a single set operation along with an assignment of the status variable to createRequest (2). The SetRequest PDU for entry creation must have all the object IDs (OIDs) carrying an instance value of 0. That is, all the OIDs should be of the type OID.0.

In order to create a row, the SetRequest PDU should contain the following:

mediaIndependentDataSource and its desired value

mediaIndependentOwner and its desired value1

mediaIndependentStatus with a value of createRequest (2)

The mediaIndependentTable creates a row if the SetRequest PDU is valid according to the above conditions. When the row is created, the SNMP agent decides the value of mediaIndependentIndex. This value is not sequentially allotted or contiguously numbered. It changes when an Ethernet interface is added or deleted. The newly created row will have mediaIndependentTable value of valid (1).

If the row already exists, or if the SetRequest PDU values are insufficient or do not make sense, the SNMP agent returns an error code.


Note mediaIndependentTable entries are not preserved if the SNMP agent is restarted.


The mediaIndependentTable deletes a row if the SetRequest PDU contains a mediaIndependentStatus with a value of invalid (4). The varbind's OID instance value identifies the row for deletion. You can recreate a deleted row in the table if desired.

6.10.1.2  Row Creation in cMediaIndependentHistoryControlTable

SNMP row creation and deletion for the cMediaIndependentHistoryControlTable follows the same processes as for the MediaIndependentTable; only the variables differ.

In order to create a row, the SetRequest PDU should contain the following:

cMediaIndependentHistoryControlDataSource and its desired value

cMediaIndependentHistoryControlOwner and its desired value

cMediaIndependentHistoryControlStatus with a value of createRequest (2)

6.10.2  HC-RMON-MIB Support

For the ONS 15327, the implementation of the high-capacity remote monitoring information base (HC-RMON-MIB, or RFC 3273) enables 64-bit support of existing RMON tables. This support is provided with the etherStatsHighCapacityTable and the etherHistoryHighCapacityTable. An additional table, the mediaIndependentTable, and an additional object, hcRMONCapabilities, are also added for this support. All of these elements are accessible by any third-party SNMP client having RFC 3273 support.

6.10.3  Ethernet Statistics RMON Group

The Ethernet Statistics group contains the basic statistics monitored for each subnetwork in a single table called the etherStatsTable.

6.10.3.1  Row Creation in etherStatsTable

The SetRequest PDU for creating a row in this table should contain all the values needed to activate a row in a single set operation, and an assigned status variable to createRequest. The SetRequest PDU object ID (OID) entries must all carry an instance value, or type OID, of 0.

In order to create a row, the SetRequest PDU should contain the following:

The etherStatsDataSource and its desired value

The etherStatsOwner and its desired value (size of this value is limited to 32 characters)

The etherStatsStatus with a value of createRequest (2)

The etherStatsTable creates a row if the SetRequest PDU is valid according to the above conditions. When the row is created, the SNMP agent decides the value of etherStatsIndex. This value is not sequentially allotted or contiguously numbered. It changes when an Ethernet interface is added or deleted. The newly created row will have etherStatsStatus value of valid (1).

If the etherStatsTable row already exists, or if the SetRequest PDU values are insufficient or do not make sense, the SNMP agent returns an error code.


Note EtherStatsTable entries are not preserved if the SNMP agent is restarted.


6.10.3.2  Get Requests and GetNext Requests

Get requests and getNext requests for the etherStatsMulticastPkts and etherStatsBroadcastPkts columns return a value of zero because the variables are not supported by ONS 15327 Ethernet cards.

6.10.3.3  Row Deletion in etherStatsTable

To delete a row in the etherStatsTable, the SetRequest PDU should contain an etherStatsStatus "invalid" value (4). The OID marks the row for deletion. If required, a deleted row can be recreated.

6.10.3.4  64-Bit etherStatsHighCapacity Table

The Ethernet statistics group contains 64-bit statistics in the etherStatsHighCapacityTable, which provides 64-bit RMON support for the HC-RMON-MIB. The etherStatsHighCapacityTable is an extension of the etherStatsTable that adds 16 new columns for performance monitoring data in 64-bit format. There is a one-to-one relationship between the etherStatsTable and etherStatsHighCapacityTable when rows are created or deleted in either table.

6.10.4  History Control RMON Group

The History Control group defines sampling functions for one or more monitor interfaces in the historyControlTable. The values in this table, as specified in RFC 2819, are derived from the historyControlTable and etherHistoryTable.

6.10.4.1  History Control Table

The RMON is sampled at one of four possible intervals. Each interval, or period, contains specific history values (also called buckets). Table 6-9 lists the four sampling periods and corresponding buckets.

The historyControlTable maximum row size is determined by multiplying the number of ports on a card by the number of sampling periods. For example, an ONS 15454 E100 card contains 24 ports, which multiplied by periods allows 96 rows in the table. An E1000 card contains 14 ports, which multiplied by four periods allows 56 table rows.

Table 6-9 RMON History Control Periods and History Categories

Sampling Periods
(historyControlValue Variable)
Total Values, or Buckets
(historyControl Variable)

15 minutes

32

24 hours

7

1 minute

60

60 minutes

24


6.10.4.2  Row Creation in historyControlTable

The SetRequest PDU must be able to activate a historyControlTable row in one single-set operation. In order to do this, the PDU must contain all needed values and have a status variable value of 2 (createRequest). All OIDs in the SetRequest PDU should be type OID.0 type for entry creation.

To create a creation SetRequest PDU for the historyControlTable, the following values are required:

The historyControlDataSource and its desired value

The historyControlBucketsRequested and it desired value

The historyControlInterval and its desired value

The historyControlOwner and its desired value

The historyControlStatus with a value of createRequest (2)

The historyControlBucketsRequested OID value is ignored because the number of buckets allowed for each sampling period, based upon the historyControlInterval value, is already fixed as listed in Table 6-9.

The historyControlInterval value cannot be changed from the four allowed choices. If you use another value, the SNMP agent selects the closest smaller time period from the set buckets. For example, if the set request specifies a 25-minute interval, this falls between the 15-minute (32 bucket) variable and the 60-minute (24 bucket) variable. The SNMP agent automatically selects the lower, closer value, which is 15 minutes, so it allows 32 buckets.

If the SetRequest PDU is valid, a historyControlTable row is created. If the row already exists, or if the SetRequest PDU values do not make sense or are insufficient, the SNMP agent does not create the row and returns an error code.

6.10.4.3  Get Requests and GetNext Requests

These PDUs are not restricted.

6.10.4.4  Row Deletion in historyControl Table

To delete a row from the table, the SetRequest PDU should contain a historyControlStatus value of 4 (invalid). A deleted row can be recreated.

6.10.5  Ethernet History RMON Group

The ONS 15327 implements the etherHistoryTable as defined in RFC 2819. The group is created within the bounds of the historyControlTable and does not deviate from the RFC in its design.

6.10.5.1  64-Bit etherHistoryHighCapacityTable

64-bit Ethernet history for the HC-RMON-MIB is implemented in the etherHistoryHighCapacityTable, which is an extension of the etherHistoryTable. The etherHistoryHighCapacityTable adds four columns for 64-bit performance monitoring data. These two tables have a one-to-one relationship. Adding or deleting a row in one table will effect the same change in the other.

6.10.6  Alarm RMON Group

The Alarm group consists of the alarmTable, which periodically compares sampled values with configured thresholds and raises an event if a threshold is crossed. This group requires the implementation of the event group, which follows this section.

6.10.6.1  Alarm Table

The NMS uses the alarmTable to determine and provision network performance alarmable thresholds.

6.10.6.2  Row Creation in alarmTable

To create a row in the alarmTable, the SetRequest PDU must be able to create the row in one single-set operation. All OIDs in the SetRequest PDU should be type OID.0 type for entry creation. The table has a maximum number of 256 rows.

To create a creation SetRequest PDU for the alarmTable, the following values are required:

The alarmInterval and its desired value

The alarmVariable and its desired value

The alarmSampleType and its desired value

The alarmStartupAlarm and its desired value

The alarmOwner and its desired value

The alarmStatus with a value of createRequest (2)

If the SetRequest PDU is valid, a historyControlTable row is created. If the row already exists, or if the SetRequest PDU values do not make sense or are insufficient, the SNMP agent does not create the row and returns an error code.

In addition to the required values, the following restrictions must be met in the SetRequest PDU:

The alarmOwner is a string of length 32 characters.

The alarmRisingEventIndex always takes value 1.

The alarmFallingEventIndex always takes value 2.

The alarmStatus has only two values supported in SETs: createRequest (2) and invalid (4).

The AlarmVariable is of the type OID.ifIndex, where ifIndex gives the interface this alarm is created on and OID is one of the OIDs supported in Table 6-10.

Table 6-10 OIDs Supported in the AlarmTable 

No.
Column Name
OID
Status

1

ifInOctets

{1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.10}

2

IfInUcastPkts

{1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.11}

3

ifInMulticastPkts

{1.3.6.1.2.1.31.1.1.1.2}

Unsupported in E100/E1000

4

ifInBroadcastPkts

{1.3.6.1.2.1.31.1.1.1.3}

Unsupported in E100/E1000

5

ifInDiscards

{1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.13}

Unsupported in E100/E1000

6

ifInErrors

{1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.14}

7

ifOutOctets

{1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.16}

8

ifOutUcastPkts

{1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.17}

9

ifOutMulticastPkts

{1.3.6.1.2.1.31.1.1.1.4}

Unsupported in E100/E1000

10

ifOutBroadcastPkts

{1.3.6.1.2.1.31.1.1.1.5}

Unsupported in E100/E1000

11

ifOutDiscards

{1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.19}

Unsupported in E100/E1000

12

Dot3StatsAlignmentErrors

{1.3.6.1.2.1.10.7.2.1.2}

13

Dot3StatsFCSErrors

{1.3.6.1.2.1.10.7.2.1.3}

14

Dot3StatsSingleCollisionFrames

{1.3.6.1.2.1.10.7.2.1.4}

15

Dot3StatsMultipleCollisionFrames

{1.3.6.1.2.1.10.7.2.1.5}

16

Dot3StatsDeferredTransmissions

{1.3.6.1.2.1.10.7.2.1.7}

17

Dot3StatsLateCollisions

{1.3.6.1.2.1.10.7.2.1.8}

18

Dot3StatsExcessiveCollisions

{13.6.1.2.1.10.7.2.1.9}

19

Dot3StatsFrameTooLong

{1.3.6.1.2.1.10.7.2.1.13}

20

Dot3StatsCarrierSenseErrors

{1.3.6.1.2.1.10.7.2.1.11}

Unsupported in E100/E1000

21

Dot3StatsSQETestErrors

{1.3.6.1.2.1.10.7.2.1.6}

Unsupported in E100/E1000

22

etherStatsUndersizePkts

{1.3.6.1.2.1.16.1.1.1.9}

23

etherStatsFragments

{1.3.6.1.2.1.16.1.1.1.11}

24

etherStatsPkts64Octets

{1.3.6.1.2.1.16.1.1.1.14}

25

etherStatsPkts65to127Octets

{1.3.6.1.2.1.16.1.1.1.15}

26

etherStatsPkts128to255Octets

{1.3.6.1.2.1.16.1.1.1.16}

27

etherStatsPkts256to511Octets

{1.3.6.1.2.1.16.1.1.1.17}

28

etherStatsPkts512to1023Octets

{1.3.6.1.2.1.16.1.1.1.18}

29

etherStatsPkts1024to1518Octets

{1.3.6.1.2.1.16.1.1.1.19}

30

EtherStatsBroadcastPkts

{1.3.6.1.2.1.16.1.1.1.6}

31

EtherStatsMulticastPkts

{1.3.6.1.2.1.16.1.1.1.7}

32

EtherStatsOversizePkts

{1.3.6.1.2.1.16.1.1.1.10}

33

EtherStatsJabbers

{1.3.6.1.2.1.16.1.1.1.12}

34

EtherStatsOctets

{1.3.6.1.2.1.16.1.1.1.4}

35

EtherStatsCollisions

{1.3.6.1.2.1.16.1.1.1.13}

36

EtherStatsCollisions

{1.3.6.1.2.1.16.1.1.1.8}

37

EtherStatsDropEvents

{1.3.6.1.2.1.16.1.1.1.3}

Unsupported in E100/E1000 and G1000


6.10.6.3  Get Requests and GetNext Requests

These PDUs are not restricted.

6.10.6.4  Row Deletion in alarmTable

To delete a row from the table, the SetRequest PDU should contain an alarmStatus value of 4 (invalid). A deleted row can be recreated. Entries in this table are preserved if the SNMP agent is restarted.

6.10.7  Event RMON Group

The Event group controls event generation and notification. It consists of two tables: the eventTable, which is a read-only list of events to be generated, and the logTable, which is a writable set of data describing a logged event. The ONS 15327 implements the logTable as specified in RFC 2819.

6.10.7.1  Event Table

The eventTable is read-only and unprovisionable. The table contains one row for rising alarms and another for falling ones. This table has the following restrictions:

The eventType is always log-and-trap (4).

The eventCommunity value is always a zero-length string, indicating that this event causes the trap to be despatched to all provisioned destinations.

The eventOwner column value is always "monitor."

The eventStatus column value is always valid (1).

6.10.7.2  Log Table

The logTable is implemented exactly as specified in RFC 2819. The logTable is based upon data that is locally cached in a controller card. If there is a controller card protection switch, the existing logTable is cleared and a new one is started on the newly active controller card. The table contains as many rows as provided by the alarm controller.

1 The size of mediaIndependentOwner is limited to 32 characters.