Cisco ONS 15454 DWDM Installation and Operations Guide, Release 4.7
Chapter 19, Network Connectivity Reference
Downloads: This chapterpdf (PDF - 412.0KB) The complete bookPDF (PDF - 17.22MB) | Feedback

CTC Connectivity Reference

Table Of Contents

CTC Connectivity Reference

19.1  IP Networking Overview

19.2  IP Addressing Scenarios

19.2.1  Scenario 1: CTC and ONS 15454s on Same Subnet

19.2.2  Scenario 2: CTC and ONS 15454s Connected to a Router

19.2.3  Scenario 3: Using Proxy ARP to Enable an ONS 15454 Gateway

19.2.4  Scenario 4: Default Gateway on CTC Computer

19.2.5  Scenario 5: Using Static Routes to Connect to LANs

19.2.6  Scenario 6: Using OSPF

19.2.7  Scenario 7: Provisioning the ONS 15454 Proxy Server

19.2.8  Scenario 8: Dual GNEs on a Subnet

19.3  Provisionable Patchcords

19.4  Routing Table

19.5  External Firewalls

19.6  Open GNE


CTC Connectivity Reference


This chapter provides eight scenarios showing Cisco ONS 15454s in common IP network configurations. The chapter does not provide a comprehensive explanation of IP networking concepts and procedures. For IP setup instructions, see the "DLP-G56 Provision IP Settings" task.


Note Unless otherwise specified, "ONS 15454" refers to both ANSI and ETSI shelf assemblies.


Chapter topics include:

IP Networking Overview

IP Addressing Scenarios

Provisionable Patchcords

Routing Table

External Firewalls

Open GNE


Note To connect ONS 15454s to an IP network, you must work with a LAN administrator or other individual at your site who has IP networking training and experience.


19.1  IP Networking Overview

ONS 15454s can be connected in many different ways within an IP environment:

They can be connected to LANs through direct connections or a router.

IP subnetting can create ONS 15454 node groups that allow you to provision non-data communication channel (DCC) connected nodes in a network.

Different IP functions and protocols can be used to achieve specific network goals. For example, Proxy Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) enables one LAN-connected ONS 15454 to serve as a gateway for ONS 15454s that are not connected to the LAN.

Static routes can be created to enable connections among multiple Cisco Transport Controller (CTC) sessions with ONS 15454s that reside on the same subnet with multiple CTC sessions.

ONS 15454s can be connected to Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) networks so ONS 15454 network information is automatically communicated across multiple LANs and WANs.

The ONS 15454 proxy server can control the visibility and accessibility between CTC computers and ONS 15454 element nodes.

19.2  IP Addressing Scenarios

ONS 15454 IP addressing generally has eight common scenarios or configurations. Use the scenarios as building blocks for more complex network configurations. Table 19-1 provides a general list of items to check when setting up ONS 15454s in IP networks.

Table 19-1 General ONS 15454 IP Troubleshooting Checklist

Item
What to Check

Link integrity

Verify that link integrity exists between:

CTC computer and network hub/switch

ONS 15454s (backplane [ANSI] or MIC-C/T/P [ETSI] wire-wrap pins or RJ-45 port) and network hub/switch

Router ports and hub/switch ports

ONS 15454 hub/switch ports

If connectivity problems occur, set the hub or switch port that is connected to the ONS 15454 to 10 Mbps half-duplex.

Ping

Ping the node to test connections between computers and ONS 15454s.

IP addresses/subnet masks

Verify that ONS 15454 IP addresses and subnet masks are set up correctly.

Optical connectivity

Verify that ONS 15454 optical trunk ports are in service and that a DCC is enabled on each trunk port.


19.2.1  Scenario 1: CTC and ONS 15454s on Same Subnet

Scenario 1 shows a basic ONS 15454 LAN configuration (Figure 19-1). The ONS 15454s and CTC computer reside on the same subnet. All ONS 15454s connect to LAN A, and all ONS 15454s have DCC connections.

Figure 19-1 Scenario 1: CTC and ONS 15454s on Same Subnet (ANSI and ETSI)

19.2.2  Scenario 2: CTC and ONS 15454s Connected to a Router

In Scenario 2, the CTC computer resides on a subnet (192.168.1.0) and attaches to LAN A (Figure 19-2). The ONS 15454s reside on a different subnet (192.168.2.0) and attach to LAN B. A router connects LAN A to LAN B. The IP address of router interface A is set to LAN A (192.168.1.1), and the IP address of router interface B is set to LAN B (192.168.2.1). The routers each have a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0.

On the CTC computer, the default gateway is set to router interface A. If the LAN uses DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol), the default gateway and IP address are assigned automatically. In the Figure 19-2 example, a DHCP server is not available.

Figure 19-2 Scenario 2: CTC and ONS 15454s Connected to Router (ANSI and ETSI)

19.2.3  Scenario 3: Using Proxy ARP to Enable an ONS 15454 Gateway

ARP matches higher-level IP addresses to the physical addresses of the destination host. It uses a lookup table (called ARP cache) to perform the translation. When the address is not found in the ARP cache, a broadcast is sent out on the network with a special format called the ARP request. If one of the machines on the network recognizes its own IP address in the request, it sends an ARP reply back to the requesting host. The reply contains the physical hardware address of the receiving host. The requesting host stores this address in its ARP cache so that all subsequent datagrams (packets) to this destination IP address can be translated to a physical address.

Proxy ARP enables one LAN-connected ONS 15454 to respond to the ARP request for ONS 15454s not connected to the LAN. (ONS 15454 proxy ARP requires no user configuration.) For this to occur, the DCC-connected ONS 15454s must reside on the same subnet as the LAN-connected (gateway) ONS 15454. When a LAN device sends an ARP request to an ONS 15454 that is not connected to the LAN, the gateway ONS 15454 (the one connected to the LAN) returns its MAC address to the LAN device. The LAN device then sends the datagram for the remote ONS 15454 to the MAC address of the proxy ONS 15454. The proxy ONS 15454 uses its routing table to forward the datagram to the non-LAN ONS 15454.

Scenario 3 is similar to Scenario 1, but only one ONS 15454 (Node 1) connects to the LAN (Figure 19-3). Two ONS 15454s (Node 2 and Node 3) connect to ONS 15454 Node 1 through the section DCC. Because all three ONS 15454s are on the same subnet, proxy ARP enables ONS 15454 Node 1 to serve as a gateway for ONS 15345 Node 2 and Node 3.


Note This scenario assumes all CTC connections are to Node 1. If you connect a laptop to either ONS 15454 Node 2 or Node 3, network partitioning occurs; neither the laptop or the CTC computer can see all nodes. If you want laptops to connect directly to end network elements, you must create static routes (see Scenario 5) or enable the ONS 15454 proxy server (see Scenario 7).


Be aware that:

GNE and ENE 15454 proxy ARP is disabled.

There is exactly one proxy ARP server on any given Ethernet segment; however, there may be more than one server in an ANSI or ETSI topology.

The proxy ARP server does not perform the proxy ARP function for any node or host that is on the same Ethernet segment.

It is important in Figure 19-3 that the CTC workstation be located within the same subnet and on the same Ethernet segment as the proxy ARP server.

Figure 19-3 Scenario 3: Using Proxy ARP (ANS and ETSII

You can also use proxy ARP to communicate with hosts attached to the craft Ethernet ports of DCC-connected nodes (Figure 19-4). The node with an attached host must have a static route to the host. Static routes are propagated to all DCC peers using OSPF. The existing proxy ARP node is the gateway for additional hosts. Each node examines its routing table for routes to hosts that are not connected to the DCC network but are within the subnet. The existing proxy server replies to ARP requests for these additional hosts with the node MAC address. The existence of the host route in the routing table ensures that the IP packets addressed to the additional hosts are routed properly. Other than establishing a static route between a node and an additional host, no provisioning is necessary. The following restrictions apply:

Only one node acts as the proxy ARP server for any given additional host.

A node cannot be the proxy ARP server for a host connected to its Ethernet port.

In Figure 19-4, Node 1 announces to Node 2 and 3 that it can reach the CTC host. Similarly, Node 3 announces that it can reach the ONS 152xx. The ONS 152xx is shown as an example; any network element can be set up as an additional host.

Figure 19-4 Scenario 3: Using Proxy ARP with Static Routing (ANSI and ETSI)

19.2.4  Scenario 4: Default Gateway on CTC Computer

Scenario 4 is similar to Scenario 3, but Nodes 2 and 3 reside on different subnets, 192.168.2.0 and 192.168.3.0, respectively (Figure 19-5). Node 1 and the CTC computer are on subnet 192.168.1.0. Proxy ARP is not used because the network includes different subnets. For the CTC computer to communicate with Nodes 2 and 3, Node 1 is entered as the default gateway on the CTC computer.

Figure 19-5 Scenario 4: Default Gateway on a CTC Computer (ANSI and ETSI)

19.2.5  Scenario 5: Using Static Routes to Connect to LANs

Static routes are used for two purposes:

To connect ONS 15454s to CTC sessions on one subnet connected by a router to ONS 15454s residing on another subnet. (These static routes are not needed if OSPF is enabled. Scenario 6 shows an OSPF example.)

To enable multiple CTC sessions among ONS 15454s residing on the same subnet.

In Figure 19-6, one CTC residing on subnet 192.168.1.0 connects to a router through interface A (the router is not set up with OSPF). ONS 15454s residing on different subnets are connected through Node 1 to the router through interface B. Because Nodes 2 and 3 are on different subnets, proxy ARP does not enable Node 1 as a gateway. To connect to CTC computers on LAN A, a static route is created on
Node 1.

Figure 19-6 Scenario 5: Static Route With One CTC Computer Used as a Destination (ANSI and ETSI)

The destination and subnet mask entries control access to the ONS 15454s:

If a single CTC computer is connected to a router, enter the complete CTC "host route" IP address as the destination with a subnet mask of 255.255.255.255.

If CTC computers on a subnet are connected to a router, enter the destination subnet (in this example, 192.168.1.0) and a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0.

If all CTC computers are connected to a router, enter a destination of 0.0.0.0 and a subnet mask of 0.0.0.0. Figure 19-7 shows an example.

The IP address of router interface B is entered as the next hop, and the cost (number of hops from source to destination) is 2.

Figure 19-7 Scenario 5: Static Route With Multiple LAN Destinations (ANSI and ETSI)

19.2.6  Scenario 6: Using OSPF

Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a link state Internet routing protocol. Link state protocols use a "hello protocol" to monitor their links with adjacent routers and to test the status of their links to their neighbors. Link state protocols advertise their directly connected networks and their active links. Each link state router captures the link state "advertisements" and puts them together to create a topology of the entire network or area. From this database, the router calculates a routing table by constructing a shortest path tree. Routes are recalculated when topology changes occur.

ONS 15454s use the OSPF protocol in internal ONS 15454 networks for node discovery, circuit routing, and node management. You can enable OSPF on the ONS 15454s so that the ONS 15454 topology is sent to OSPF routers on a LAN. Advertising the ONS 15454 network topology to LAN routers eliminates the need to manually enter static routes for ONS 15454 subnetworks. Figure 19-8 shows a network enabled for OSPF. Figure 19-9 shows the same network without OSPF. Static routes must be manually added to the router for CTC computers on LAN A to communicate with Nodes 2 and 3 because these nodes reside on different subnets.

OSPF divides networks into smaller regions, called areas. An area is a collection of networked end systems, routers, and transmission facilities organized by traffic patterns. Each OSPF area has a unique ID number, known as the area ID. Every OSPF network has one backbone area called "area 0." All other OSPF areas must connect to area 0.

When you enable an ONS 15454 OSPF topology for advertising to an OSPF network, you must assign an OSPF area ID in decimal format to the ONS 15454 network. An area ID is a "dotted quad" value that appears similar to an IP address. Coordinate the area ID number assignment with your LAN administrator. All DCC-connected ONS 15454s should be assigned the same OSPF area ID.


Note It is recommended that the number of 15454s in an OSPF area be limited, because this allows faster loading into a CTC an is less likely to incur any problems.


Figure 19-8 Scenario 6: OSPF Enabled (ANSI and ETSI)

Figure 19-9 Scenario 6: OSPF Not Enabled (ANSI and ETSI)

19.2.7  Scenario 7: Provisioning the ONS 15454 Proxy Server

The ONS 15454 proxy server is a set of functions that allows you to network ONS 15454s in environments where visibility and accessibility between ONS 15454s and CTC computers must be restricted. For example, you can set up a network so that field technicians and network operating center (NOC) personnel can both access the same ONS 15454s while preventing the field technicians from accessing the NOC LAN. To do this, one ONS 15454 is provisioned as a GNE and the other ONS 15454s are provisioned as end network elements (ENEs). The GNE ONS 15454 tunnels connections between CTC computers and ENE ONS 15454s, providing management capability while preventing access for non-ONS 15454 management purposes.

The ONS 15454 gateway setting performs the following tasks:

Isolates DCC IP traffic from Ethernet (craft port) traffic and accepts packets based on filtering rules. The filtering rules (see Table 19-3 and Table 19-4) depend on whether the packet arrives at the ONS 15454 DCC or TCC2 Ethernet interface.

Processes Simple Network Time Protocol (SNTP) and Network Time Protocol (NTP) requests. ONS 15454 ENEs can derive time-of-day from an SNTP/NTP LAN server through the GNE ONS 15454.

Processes Simple Network Management Protocol version 1 (SNMPv1) traps. The GNE ONS 15454 receives SNMPv1 traps from the ENE ONS 15454s and forwards or relays the traps to SNMPv1 trap destinations or ONS 15454 SNMP relay nodes.

The ONS 15454 proxy server is provisioned using the Enable proxy server on port check box on the Provisioning > Network > General tab (see Figure 19-10 and Figure 19-11). If checked, the ONS 15454 serves as a proxy for connections between CTC clients and ONS 15454s that are DCC-connected to the proxy ONS 15454. The CTC client establishes connections to DCC-connected nodes through the proxy node. The CTC client can connect to nodes that it cannot directly reach from the host on which it runs. If not selected, the node does not proxy for any CTC clients, although any established proxy connections continue until the CTC client exits. In addition, you can set the proxy server as an ENE or a GNE:

End Network Element (ENE)—If set as an ENE, the ONS 15454 neither installs nor advertises default or static routes that go through its Ethernet port. However, an ENE does install and advertise routes that go through the DCC. CTC computers can communicate with the ONS 15454 using the TCC2 craft port, but they cannot communicate directly with any other DCC-connected ONS 15454.

In addition, firewall is enabled, which means that the node prevents IP traffic from being routed between the DCC and the LAN port. The ONS 15454 can communicate with machines connected to the LAN port or connected through the DCC. However, the DCC-connected machines cannot communicate with the LAN-connected machines, and the LAN-connected machines cannot communicate with the DCC-connected machines. A CTC client using the LAN to connect to the firewall-enabled node can use the proxy capability to manage the DCC-connected nodes that would otherwise be unreachable. A CTC client connected to a DCC-connected node can only manage other DCC-connected nodes and the firewall itself.

Gateway Network Element (GNE)—If set as a GNE, the CTC computer is visible to other DCC-connected nodes and firewall is enabled.

Proxy-only—If Proxy-only is selected, firewall is not enabled. CTC can communicate with any other DCC-connected ONS 15454s.


Note If you launch CTC against a node through a Network Address Translation (NAT) or Port Address Translation (PAT) router and that node does not have proxy enabled, your CTC session starts and initially appears to be fine. However CTC never receives alarm updates and disconnects and reconnects every two minutes. If the proxy is accidentally disabled, it is still possible to enable the proxy during a reconnect cycle and recover your ability to manage the node, even through a NAT/PAT firewall.


Figure 19-10 Proxy Server Gateway Settings (ANSI only)

Figure 19-11 Proxy Server Gateway Settings (ETSI only)

Figure 19-12 shows an ONS 15454 proxy server implementation. A GNE ONS 15454 is connected to a central office LAN and to ENE ONS 15454s. The central office LAN is connected to a NOC LAN, which has CTC computers. The NOC CTC computer and craft technicians must both be able to access the ONS 15454 ENEs. However, the craft technicians must be prevented from accessing or seeing the NOC or central office LANs.

In the example, the ONS 15454 GNE is assigned an IP address within the central office LAN and is physically connected to the LAN through its LAN port. ONS 15454 ENEs are assigned IP addresses that are outside the central office LAN and given private network IP addresses. If the ONS 15454 ENEs are collocated, the craft LAN ports could be connected to a hub. However, the hub should have no other network connections.

Figure 19-12 ONS 15454 Proxy Server with GNE and ENEs on the Same Subnet (ANSI and ETSI)

Table 19-2 shows recommended settings for ONS 15454 GNEs and ENEs in the configuration shown in Figure 19-12.

Table 19-2 ONS 15454 Gateway and End NE Settings

Setting
ONS 15454 Gateway NE
ONS 15454 End NE

OSPF

Off

Off

SNTP server (if used)

SNTP server IP address

Set to ONS 15454 GNE IP address

SNMP (if used)

SNMPv1 trap destinations

Set SNMPv1 trap destinations to ONS 15454 GNE, port 391


Figure 19-13 shows the same proxy server implementation with ONS 15454 ENEs on different subnets. Figure 19-14 shows the implementation with ONS 15454 ENEs in multiple rings. In each example, ONS 15454 GNEs and ENEs are provisioned with the settings shown in Table 19-2.

Figure 19-13 Scenario 7: ONS 15454 Proxy Server with GNE and ENEs on Different Subnets (ANSI and ETSI)

Figure 19-14 Scenario 7: ONS 15454 Proxy Server With ENEs on Multiple Rings (ANSI and ETSI)

Table 19-3 shows the rules the ONS 15454 follows to filter packets for the firewall when nodes are configured as ENEs and GNEs. If the packet is addressed to the ONS 15454, additional rules, shown in Table 19-4, are applied. Rejected packets are silently discarded.

Table 19-3 Proxy Server Firewall Filtering Rules

Packets Arriving At:
Are Accepted if the Destination IP Address is:

TCC2 Ethernet interface

The ONS 15454 itself

The ONS 15454's subnet broadcast address

Within the 224.0.0.0/8 network (reserved network used for standard multicast messages)

Subnet mask = 255.255.255.255

DCC interface

The ONS 15454 itself

Any destination connected through another DCC interface

Within the 224.0.0.0/8 network


Table 19-4 Proxy Server Firewall Filtering Rules When Packet Addressed to ONS 15454

Packets Arriving At
Rejects

TCC2 Ethernet interface

UDP1 packets addressed to the SNMP trap relay port (391)

DCC interface

TCP2 packets addressed to the proxy server port (1080)

1 UDP = User Datagram Protocol

2 TCP = Transmission Control Protocol


If you implement the proxy server, note that all DCC-connected ONS 15454s on the same Ethernet segment must have the same gateway setting. Mixed values produce unpredictable results, and might leave some nodes unreachable through the shared Ethernet segment.

If nodes become unreachable, correct the setting by performing one of the following:

Disconnect the craft computer from the unreachable ONS 15454. Connect to the ONS 15454 through another network ONS 15454 that has a DCC connection to the unreachable ONS 15454.

Disconnect all DCCs to the node by disabling them on neighboring nodes. Connect a CTC computer directly to the ONS 15454 and change its provisioning.

19.2.8  Scenario 8: Dual GNEs on a Subnet

The ONS 15454 provides GNE load balancing, which allows CTC to reach ENEs over multiple GNEs without the ENEs being advertised over OSPF. This feature allows a network to quickly recover from the loss of GNE, even if the GNE is on a different subnet. If a GNE fails, all connections through that GNE fail. CTC disconnects from the failed GNE and from all ENEs for which the GNE was a proxy, and then reconnects through the remaining GNEs. GNE load balancing reduces the dependency on the launch GNE and DCC bandwidth, both of which enhance CTC performance. Figure 19-15 shows a network with dual GNEs on the same subnet. Figure 19-16 shows a network with dual GNEs on different subnets.


Note Dual GNEs do not need special provisioning


Figure 19-15 Scenario 8: Dual GNEs on the Same Subnet (ANSI and ETSI)

Figure 19-16 Scenario 8: Dual GNEs on Different Subnets (ANSI and ETSI)

19.3  Provisionable Patchcords

A provisionable patchcord is a user-provisioned link that is advertised by OSPF throughout the network. Provisionable patchcords, also called virtual links, are needed in the following situations:

An optical port is connected to a transponder or muxponder client port provisioned in transparent mode.

An optical ITU port is connected to a DWDM optical channel card.

Two transponder or muxponder trunk ports are connected to a DWDM optical channel card and the generic control channel (GCC) is carried transparently through the ring.

Transponder or muxponder client and trunk ports are in a regenerator group, the cards are in transparent mode, and DCC/GCC termination is not available.

Provisionable patchcords are required on both ends of a physical link. The provisioning at each end includes a local patchcord ID, slot/port information, remote IP address, and remote patchcord ID. Patchcords appear as dashed lines in CTC network view.

Table 19-5 lists the supported card combinations for client and trunk ports in a provisionable patchcord.

Table 19-5 Cisco ONS 15454 Client/Trunk Card Combinations for Provisionable Patchcords

Trunk Cards
Client Cards
MXP_2.5G_10G/
TXP_MR_10G
TXP_MR_2.5G/
TXPP_MR_2.5G
MXP_2.5G_10E/
TXP_MR_10E
32MUX-O
32DMX-O
32WSS/
32DMX
AD-xC-xx.x
4MD-xx.x
MXP_2.5G_10G/
TXP_MR_10G

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

TXP_MR_2.5G/
TXPP_MR_2.5G

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

MXP_2.5G_10E/
TXP_MR_10E

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

MXP_MR_2.5G/
MXPP_MR_2.5G

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

OC-192

Yes

Yes

OC-48

Yes

Yes

Yes

OC-192 ITU

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

OC-48 ITU

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes



Note If the OCSM card is installed in Slot 8, provisionable patchcords from OC-N ports to the following cards are not supported on the same node: MXP_2.5G_10G, TXP_MR_10G, TXP_MR_2.5G, TXPP_MR_2.5G, MXP_2.5G_10E, TXP_MR_10E, 32MUX-O, 32DMX-O, 32WSS, or 32DMX.


Table 19-6 lists the supported card combinations for client-to-client ports in a patchcord.

Table 19-6 Cisco ONS 15454 Client/Client Card Combinations for Provisionable Patchcords

Client Cards
MXP_2.5G_10G/
TXP_MR_10G
TXP_MR_2.5G/
TXPP_MR_2.5G
MXP_2.5G_10E/
TXP_MR_10E
MXP_2.5G_10G/TXP_MR_10G

Yes

Yes

TXP_MR_2.5G/TXPP_MR_2.5G

Yes

MXP_2.5G_10E/TXP_MR_10E

Yes

Yes


Table 19-7 lists the supported card combinations for trunk-to-trunk ports in a patchcord.

Table 19-7 Cisco ONS 15454 Trunk/Trunk Card Combinations for Provisionable Patchcords

Trunk Cards
MXP_2.5G_10G/
TXP_MR_10G
TXP_MR_2.5G/
TXPP_MR_2.5G
MXP_2.5G_10E/
TXP_MR_10E
MXP_2.5G_10G/TXP_MR_10G

Yes

Yes

TXP_MR_2.5G/TXPP_MR_2.5G

Yes

MXP_2.5G_10E/TXP_MR_10E

Yes

Yes


Optical ports have the following requirements when used in a provisionable patchcord:

An optical port connected to transponder/muxponder port or add/drop multiplexer or multiplexer/demultiplexer port requires section DCC/line DCC (SDCC/LDCC) termination.

If the optical port is the protection port in a 1+1 group, the working port must have SDCC/LDCC termination provisioned.

If the remote end of a patchcord is Y-cable protected or is an add/drop multiplexer or multiplexer/demultiplexer port, an optical port requires two patchcords.

Transponder and muxponder ports have the following requirements when used in a provisionable patchcord:

Two patchcords are required when a transponder/muxponder port is connected to an add/drop multiplexer or multiplexer/demultiplexer port. CTC automatically prompts the user to set up the second patchcord.

If a patchcord is on a client port in a regenerator group, the other end of the patchcord must be on the same node and on a port within the same regenerator group.

A patchcord is allowed on a client port only if the card is in transparent mode.

DWDM cards support provisionable patchcords only on optical channel ports. Each DWDM optical channel port can have only one provisionable patchcord.

19.4  Routing Table

ONS 15454 routing information is displayed on the Maintenance > Routing Table tabs. The routing table provides the following information:

Destination—Displays the IP address of the destination network or host.

Mask—Displays the subnet mask used to reach the destination host or network.

Gateway—Displays the IP address of the gateway used to reach the destination network or host.

Usage—Shows the number of times the listed route has been used.

Interface—Shows the ONS 15454 interface used to access the destination. Values are:

motfcc0—The ONS 15454 Ethernet interface, that is, the RJ-45 jack on the TCC2 and, for ANSI shelves, the LAN 1 pins on the backplane or, for ETSI shelves, the LAN connection on the MIC-C/T/P.

pdcc0—An SDCC interface, that is, an OC-N trunk card identified as the SDCC termination.

lo0—A loopback interface.

Table 19-8 shows sample routing entries for an ONS 15454.

Table 19-8 Sample Routing Table Entries 

Entry
Destination
Mask
Gateway
Usage
Interface

1

0.0.0.0

0.0.0.0

172.20.214.1

265103

motfcc0

2

172.20.214.0

255.255.255.0

172.20.214.92

0

motfcc0

3

172.20.214.92

255.255.255.255

127.0.0.1

54

lo0

4

172.20.214.93

255.255.255.255

0.0.0.0

16853

pdcc0

5

172.20.214.94

255.255.255.255

172.20.214.93

16853

pdcc0


Entry 1 shows the following:

Destination (0.0.0.0) is the default route entry. All undefined destination network or host entries on this routing table are mapped to the default route entry.

Mask (0.0.0.0) is always 0 for the default route.

Gateway (172.20.214.1) is the default gateway address. All outbound traffic that cannot be found in this routing table or is not on the node's local subnet is sent to this gateway.

Interface (motfcc0) indicates that the ONS 15454 Ethernet interface is used to reach the gateway.

Entry 2 shows the following:

Destination (172.20.214.0) is the destination network IP address.

Mask (255.255.255.0) is a 24-bit mask, meaning all addresses within the 172.20.214.0 subnet can be a destination.

Gateway (172.20.214.92) is the gateway address. All outbound traffic belonging to this network is sent to this gateway.

Interface (motfcc0) indicates that the ONS 15454 Ethernet interface is used to reach the gateway.

Entry 3 shows the following:

Destination (172.20.214.92) is the destination host IP address.

Mask (255.255.255.255) is a 32 bit mask, meaning only the 172.20.214.92 address is a destination.

Gateway (127.0.0.1) is a loopback address. The host directs network traffic to itself using this address.

Interface (lo0) indicates that the local loopback interface is used to reach the gateway.

Entry 4 shows the following:

Destination (172.20.214.93) is the destination host IP address.

Mask (255.255.255.255) is a 32 bit mask, meaning only the 172.20.214.93 address is a destination.

Gateway (0.0.0.0) means the destination host is directly attached to the node.

Interface (pdcc0) indicates that a DCC interface is used to reach the destination host.

Entry 5 shows a DCC-connected node that is accessible through a node that is not directly connected:

Destination (172.20.214.94) is the destination host IP address.

Mask (255.255.255.255) is a 32-bit mask, meaning only the 172.20.214.94 address is a destination.

Gateway (172.20.214.93) indicates that the destination host is accessed through a node with IP address 172.20.214.93.

Interface (pdcc0) indicates that a DCC interface is used to reach the gateway.

19.5  External Firewalls

This section provides sample access control lists for external firewalls. Table 19-9 lists the ports that are used by the TCC2.

Table 19-9 Ports Used by the TCC2 

Port
Function

0

Reserved

21

FTP control

23

Telnet

80

HTTP

111

rpc (not used; but port is in use)

513

rlogin (not used; but port is in use)

>1023

Default CTC listener ports

1080

Proxy server

2001-2017

Input/Output (I/O) card Telnet

2018

Reserved

2361

TL1

3082

TL1

3083

TL1

5001

BLSR server port (ANSI)
MS-SPRing server port (ETSI)

5002

BLSR client port (ANSI)
MS-SPRing client port (ANSI)

7200

SNMP input port

9100

EQM port

9101

EQM port 2

9401

TCC boot port

10240-12288

Proxy client

57790

Default TCC listener port


The following access control list (ACL) example shows a firewall configuration when the proxy server gateway setting is not enabled. In the example, the CTC workstation's address is 192.168.10.10. and the ONS 15454 address is 10.10.10.100. The firewall is attached to the GNE, so inbound is CTC to the GNE and outbound is from the GNE to CTC. The CTC Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Standard constant is 683 and the TCC CORBA Default is TCC Fixed (57790).

access-list 100 remark *** Inbound ACL, CTC -> NE *** 
access-list 100 remark 
access-list 100 permit tcp host 192.168.10.10 host 10.10.10.100 eq www 
access-list 100 remark *** allows initial contact with ONS 15454 using http (port 80) *** 
access-list 100 remark 
access-list 100 permit tcp host 192.168.10.10 host 10.10.10.100 eq 57790 
access-list 100 remark *** allows CTC communication with ONS 15454 GNE (port 57790) *** 
access-list 100 remark 
access-list 100 permit tcp host 192.168.10.10 host 10.10.10.100 established 
access-list 100 remark *** allows ACKs back from CTC to ONS 15454 GNE *** 

access-list 101 remark *** Outbound ACL, NE -> CTC *** 
access-list 101 remark 
access-list 101 permit tcp host 10.10.10.100 host 192.168.10.10 eq 683 
access-list 101 remark *** allows alarms etc., from the 15454 (random port) to the CTC 
workstation (port 683) *** 
access-list 100 remark 
access-list 101 permit tcp host 10.10.10.100 host 192.168.10.10 established 
access-list 101 remark *** allows ACKs from the 15454 GNE to CTC *** 

The following ACL example shows a firewall configuration when the proxy server gateway setting is enabled. As with the first example, the CTC workstation address is 192.168.10.10 and the ONS 15454 address is 10.10.10.100. The firewall is attached to the GNE, so inbound is CTC to the GNE and outbound is from the GNE to CTC. CTC CORBA Standard constant is 683 and TCC CORBA Default is TCC Fixed (57790).

access-list 100 remark *** Inbound ACL, CTC -> NE *** 
access-list 100 remark 
access-list 100 permit tcp host 192.168.10.10 host 10.10.10.100 eq www 
access-list 100 remark *** allows initial contact with the 15454 using http (port 80) *** 
access-list 100 remark 
access-list 100 permit tcp host 192.168.10.10 host 10.10.10.100 eq 1080
access-list 100 remark *** allows CTC communication with the 15454 GNE (port 1080) *** 
access-list 100 remark 

access-list 101 remark *** Outbound ACL, NE -> CTC *** 
access-list 101 remark 
access-list 101 permit tcp host 10.10.10.100 host 192.168.10.10 established 
access-list 101 remark *** allows ACKs from the 15454 GNE to CTC *** 

19.6  Open GNE

The ONS 15454 can communicate with non-ONS nodes that do not support Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) vendor extensions or OSPF type 10 opaque link-state advertisements (LSA), both of which are necessary for automatic node and link discovery. An open GNE configuration allows a GCC-based network to function as an IP network for non-ONS nodes.

To configure an open GNE network, you can provision GCC terminations to include a far-end, non-ONS node using either the default IP address of 0.0.0.0 or a specified IP address. You provision a far-end, non-ONS node by checking the "Far End is Foreign" check box during GCC creation. The default 0.0.0.0 IP address allows the far-end, non-ONS node to identify itself with any IP address; if you set an IP address other than 0.0.0.0, a link is established only if the far-end node identifies itself with that IP address, providing an extra level of security.

By default, the proxy server only allows connections to discovered ONS peers and the firewall blocks all IP traffic between the GCC network and LAN. You can, however, provision proxy tunnels to allow up to 12 additional destinations for SOCKS version 5 connections to non-ONS nodes. You can also provision firewall tunnels to allow up to 12 additional destinations for direct IP connectivity between the GCC network and LAN. Proxy and firewall tunnels include both a source and destination subnet. The connection must originate within the source subnet and terminate within the destination subnet before either the SOCKS connection or IP packet flow is allowed. A proxy connection is allowed if the CTC client is in a source subnet and the requested destination is in the destination subnet. Firewall tunnels allow IP traffic to route between the node Ethernet and pdcc interfaces. A inbound Ethernet packet is allowed through the firewall if its source address matches a tunnel source and its destination matches a tunnel destination. An inbound pdcc packet is allowed through the firewall if its source address matches a tunnel destination and its destination address matches a tunnel source. Tunnels only affect TCP and UDP packets.

To set up proxy and firewall subnets in CTC, see the "DLP-G97 Provision a Proxy Tunnel" task and the "DLP-G98 Provision a Firewall Tunnel" task. The availability of proxy and/or firewall tunnels depends on the network access settings of the node:

If the node is configured with the proxy server enabled in GNE or ENE mode, you must set up a proxy tunnel and/or a firewall tunnel.

If the node is configured with the proxy server enabled in proxy-only mode, you can set up proxy tunnels. Firewall tunnels are not allowed.

If the node is configured with the proxy server disabled, neither proxy tunnels or firewall tunnels are allowed.

Figure 19-17 shows an example of a foreign node connected to the GCC network. Proxy and firewall tunnels are useful in this example because the GNE would otherwise block IP access between the PC and the foreign node.

Figure 19-17 Proxy and Firewall Tunnels for Foreign Terminations

Figure 19-18 shows a remote node connected to an ENE Ethernet port. Proxy and firewall tunnels are useful in this example because the GNE would otherwise block IP access between the PC and foreign node. This configuration also requires a firewall tunnel on the ENE.

Figure 19-18 Foreign Node Connection to an ENE Ethernet Port