Cisco ONS 15327 Reference Manual, Release 4.1
Chapter 9, Performance Monitoring
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Performance Monitoring

Table Of Contents

Performance Monitoring

9.1  Threshold Reference

9.2  Intermediate-Path Performance Monitoring Reference

9.3  Pointer Justification Count Reference

9.4  Performance Monitoring for Electrical Cards

9.4.1  XTC DS1 Performance Monitoring Parameters

9.4.2  XTC DS3 Card Performance Monitoring Parameters

9.5  Performance Monitoring for Ethernet Cards

9.5.1  E-Series Ethernet Card Performance Monitoring Parameters

9.5.2  G-Series Ethernet Card Performance Monitoring Parameters

9.6  Performance Monitoring for Optical Cards

9.6.1  OC-3 Card Performance Monitoring Parameters

9.6.2  OC-12 Card Performance Monitoring Parameters

9.6.3  OC-48 Card Performance Monitoring Parameters


Performance Monitoring



Note The terms "Unidirectional Path Switched Ring" and "UPSR" may appear in Cisco literature. These terms do not refer to using Cisco ONS 15xxx products in a unidirectional path switched ring configuration. Rather, these terms, as well as "Path Protected Mesh Network" and "PPMN," refer generally to Cisco's path protection feature, which may be used in any topological network configuration. Cisco does not recommend using its path protection feature in any particular topological network configuration.


Performance monitoring (PM) parameters are used by service providers to gather, store, threshold, and report performance data for early detection of problems. In this chapter, PM parameters and concepts are defined for both electrical cards and optical cards in the Cisco ONS 15327.

For information about enabling and viewing PM parameters, refer to the Cisco ONS 15327 Procedure Guide.

Chapter topics include:

Threshold Reference

Intermediate-Path Performance Monitoring Reference

Pointer Justification Count Reference

Performance Monitoring for Electrical Cards

Performance Monitoring for Ethernet Cards

Performance Monitoring for Optical Cards


Note Additional PM parameter information can also be found under digital transmission surveillance in Telcordia's GR-1230-CORE, GR-820-CORE, and GR-253-CORE documents and in the ANSI document entitled Digital Hierarchy - Layer 1 In-Service Digital Transmission Performance Monitoring.


9.1  Threshold Reference

Thresholds are used to set error levels for each PM parameter. You can program PM parameter threshold ranges from the Provisioning > Line Thresholds tabs on the card view. For procedures on provisioning card thresholds, such as line, path, and SONET thresholds, refer to the Cisco ONS 15327 Procedure Guide.

During the accumulation cycle, if the current value of a PM parameter reaches or exceeds its corresponding threshold value, a threshold crossing alert (TCA) is generated by the node and sent to CTC. TCAs provide early detection of performance degradation. When a threshold is crossed, the node continues to count the errors during a given accumulation period. If 0 is entered as the threshold value, the PM parameter is disabled. Figure 9-1 shows the Provisioning > Line Thresholds tabs for an OC-48 card.

Figure 9-1 Line Thresholds Tab for Setting Threshold Values

Change the threshold if the default value does not satisfy your error monitoring needs. For example, customers with a critical DS1 installed for 911 calls must guarantee the best quality of service on the line; therefore, they lower all thresholds so that the slightest error raises a TCA.

9.2  Intermediate-Path Performance Monitoring Reference

Intermediate-path performance monitoring (IPPM) allows transparent monitoring of a constituent channel of an incoming transmission signal by a node that does not terminate that channel. Many large ONS 15327 networks only use line terminating equipment (LTE) not path terminating equipment (PTE). Table 9-1 shows ONS 15327 cards that are considered LTEs.

Table 9-1 Traffic Cards that Terminate the Line, Called LTEs 

Line Terminating Equipment

XTC-14

XTC-28-3

OC3 IR 1310

OC12 IR 1310

OC12 LR 1550

OC48 IR 1310

OC48 LR 1550

 

Figure 9-2 shows the Provisioning > SONET STS tabs for enabling IPPM on an OC-48 card.

Figure 9-2 SONET STS Tab for Enabling IPPM

Software Release 3.0 and later allows LTE cards to monitor near-end PM parameter data on individual STS payloads by enabling IPPM. After enabling IPPM provisioning on the line card, service providers can monitor large amounts of STS traffic through intermediate nodes, thus making troubleshooting and maintenance activities more efficient.

IPPM occurs only on STS paths which have IPPM enabled, and TCAs are raised only for PM parameters on the selected IPPM paths. The monitored IPPM parameters are STS CV-P, STS ES-P, STS SES-P, STS UAS-P, and STS FC-P.


Note Far-end IPPM is not supported. However, SONET path PM parameters can be monitored by logging into the far-end node directly.


The ONS 15327 performs IPPM by examining the overhead in the monitored path and by reading all of the near-end path PM parameters in the incoming direction of transmission. The IPPM process allows the path signal to pass bidirectionally through the node completely unaltered.

For detailed information about specific PM parameters, locate the card name in the following sections and review the appropriate definition.

9.3  Pointer Justification Count Reference

Pointers are used to compensate for frequency and phase variations. Pointer justification counts indicate timing errors on SONET networks. When a network is out of synch, jitter and wander occurs on the transported signal. Excessive wander can cause terminating equipment to slip. It also causes slips at the SDH and plesiosynchronous digital hierarchy (PDH) boundaries.

Slips cause different effects in service. Voice service has intermittent audible clicks. Compressed voice technology has short transmission errors or dropped calls. Fax machines lose scanned lines or experience dropped calls. Digital video transmission has distorted pictures or frozen frames. Encryption service loses the encryption key causing data to be transmitted again.

Pointers provide a way to align the phase variations in STS and virtual tributary (VT) payloads. The STS payload pointer is located in the H1 and H2 bytes of the line overhead. Clocking differences are measured by the offset in bytes from the pointer to the first byte of the STS synchronous payload envelope (SPE) called the J1 byte. Clocking differences that exceed the normal range of 0 to 782 can cause data loss.

Figure 9-3 shows pointer justification count parameters in the Performance Monitoring window. You can enable positive pointer justification count (PPJC) and negative pointer justification count (NPJC) performance monitoring parameters for LTE cards. See Table 9-1 for a list of Cisco ONS 15327 LTE cards.

Figure 9-3 Viewing Pointer Justification Count Parameters

There are PPJC and NPJC parameters. PPJC is a count of path-detected (PPJC-Pdet) or path-generated (PPJC-Pgen) positive pointer justifications. NPJC is a count of path-detected (NPJC-Pdet) or path-generated (NPJC-Pgen) negative pointer justifications depending on the specific PM parameter.

A consistent pointer justification count indicates clock synchronization problems between nodes. A difference between the counts means the node transmitting the original pointer justification has timing variations with the node detecting and transmitting this count. Positive pointer adjustments occur when the frame rate of the SPE is too slow in relation to the rate of the STS 1.

For pointer justification count definitions, depending on the cards in use, see the "OC-3 Card Performance Monitoring Parameters" section, the "OC-12 Card Performance Monitoring Parameters" section, or the "OC-48 Card Performance Monitoring Parameters" section.

In CTC, the count fields for PPJC and NPJC PM parameters appear white and blank unless they are enabled on the Provisioning > Line tabs. Figure 9-4 shows the PJStsMon# menu on the Provisioning window.

Figure 9-4 Line Tab for Enabling Pointer Justification Count Parameters

9.4  Performance Monitoring for Electrical Cards

The following sections define performance monitoring parameters for the XTC-14 and XTC-28-3 electrical cards.

9.4.1  XTC DS1 Performance Monitoring Parameters

Figure 9-5 shows the signal types that support near-end and far-end PM parameters.

Figure 9-5 Monitored Signal Types for the XTC Card DS-1 Ports

Figure 9-6 shows where overhead bytes detected on the ASICs produce performance monitoring parameters for the XTC card DS-1 ports.


Note The XX in Figure 9-5 represents all PM parameters listed in Figure 9-6 with the given prefix and/or suffix.


Figure 9-6 PM Parameter Read Points on the XTC Card DS-1 Ports

The PM parameters for the XTC card DS-1 ports are described in Table 9-2 through Table 9-8.

Table 9-2 DS-1 Line PM Parameters for the XTC Card DS-1 Ports 

Parameter
Definition
DS1 CV-L

Line Code Violation (CV-L) indicates the number of coding violations occurring on the line. This parameter is a count of bipolar violations (BPVs) and excessive zeros (EXZs) occurring over the accumulation period.

DS1 ES-L

Line Errored Seconds (ES-L) is a count of the seconds containing one or more anomalies (BPV + EXZ) and/or defects (loss of signal) on the line.

DS1 SES-L

Line Severely Errored Seconds (SES-L) is a count of the seconds containing more than a particular quantity of anomalies (BPV + EXZ > 1544) and/or defects on the line.

DS1 LOSS-L

Line Loss of Signal Seconds (LOSS-L) is a count of one-second intervals containing one or more LOS defects.



Note Under the Provisioning > Threshold tab, the XTC cards have user-defined thresholds for the DS-1 receive (Rx) path PM parameters. In the Threshold tab they are displayed as Code Violation (CV), Errored Seconds (ES), Severely Errored Seconds (SES), Unavailable Seconds (UAS), Alarm Indication Signal (AIS), and Seconds Frame/Alarm Indication Signal (SAS) without the Rx prefix.


Table 9-3 DS-1 Receive Path PM Parameters for the XTC Card DS-1 Ports 

Parameter
Definition
DS1 Rx AISS-P

Receive Path Alarm Indication Signal (Rx AISS-P) means that an alarm indication signal occurred on the receive end of the path. This parameter is a count of seconds containing one or more Alarm Indication Signal (AIS) defects.

DS1 Rx CV-P

Receive Path Code Violation (Rx CV-P) means that a coding violation occurred on the receive end of the path. For DS-1 ESF paths, this parameter is a count of detected CRC-6 errors. For the DS-1 SF paths, the Rx CV-P parameter is a count of detected frame-bit errors (FE).

DS1 Rx ES-P

Receive Path Errored Seconds (Rx ES-P) is a count of the seconds containing one or more anomalies and/or defects for paths on the receive end of the signal. For DS1-ESF paths, this parameter is a count of one-second intervals containing one or more CRC-6 errors, or one or more CS events, or one or more Severely Errored Frame (SEF) or AIS defects. For DS1-SF paths, the Rx ES-P parameter is a count of one-second intervals containing one or more FE events, or one or more CS events, or one or more SEF or AIS defects.

DS1 Rx SAS-P

Receive Path Severely Errored Seconds Frame/Alarm Indication Signal (Rx SAS-P) is a count of one-second intervals containing one or more SEFs or one or more AIS defects on the receive end of the signal.

DS1 Rx SES-P

Receive Path Severely Errored Seconds (Rx SES-P) is a count of the seconds containing more than a particular quantity of anomalies and/or defects for paths on the receive end of the signal. For the DS1-ESF paths, this parameter is a count of seconds when 320 or more CRC-6 errors or one or more SEF or AIS defects occurred. For DS1-SF paths, a SES is a second containing either the occurrence of four FEs or one or more SEF or AIS defects.

DS1 Rx UAS-P

Receive Path Unavailable Seconds (Rx UAS-P) is a count of one-second intervals when the DS-1 path is unavailable on the receive end of the signal. The DS-1 path is unavailable at the onset of 10 consecutive seconds that qualify as SESs, and continues to be unavailable until the onset of 10 consecutive seconds that do not qualify as SES-Ps. The ten seconds with no SES-Ps are excluded from unavailable time.



Note Under the Performance tab, the displayed DS1 Tx path PM parameter values are based on calculations performed by the card and therefore have no user-defined thresholds. The tab is labeled Elect[rical] Path Threshold.


Table 9-4 DS-1 Transmit Path PM Parameters for the XTC Card DS-1 Ports 

Parameter
Definition
DS1 Tx AIS-P

Transmit Path Alarm Indication Signal (Tx AIS-P) means that an alarm indication signal occurred on the transmit end of the path. This parameter is a count of seconds containing one or more AIS defects.

DS1 Tx CV-P

Transmit Path Code Violation (Tx CV-P) means that a coding violation occurred on the transmit end of the path. For DS-1 ESF paths, this parameter is a count of detected CRC-6 errors. For the DS-1 SF paths, the Tx CV-P parameter is a count of detected FEs.

DS1 Tx ES-P

Transmit Path Errored Seconds (Tx ES-P) is a count of the seconds containing one or more anomalies and/or defects for paths on the transmit end of the signal. For DS-1 ESF paths, this parameter is a count of one-second intervals containing one or more CRC-6 errors, or one or more CS events, or one or more SEF or AIS defects. For DS-1 SF paths, the Tx ES-P parameter is a count of one-second intervals containing one or more FE events, or one or more CS events, or one or more SEF or AIS defects.

DS1 Tx SAS-P

Transmit Path Severely Errored Seconds Frame/Alarm Indication Signal (Tx SAS-P) is a count of one-second intervals containing one or more SEFs or one or more AIS defects on the transmit end of the signal.

DS1 Tx SES-P

Transmit Path Severely Errored Seconds (Tx SES-P) is a count of the seconds containing more than a particular quantity of anomalies and/or defects for paths on the transmit end of the signal. For the DS-1 ESF paths, this parameter is a count of seconds when 320 or more CRC-6 errors or one or more SEF or AIS defects occurred. For DS-1 SF paths, a SES is a second containing either the occurrence of four FEs or one or more SEF or AIS defects.

DS1 Tx UAS-P

Transmit Path Unavailable Seconds (Tx UAS-P) is a count of one-second intervals when the DS-1 path is unavailable on the transmit end of the signal. The DS-1 path is unavailable at the onset of 10 consecutive seconds that qualify as SESs, and continues to be unavailable until the onset of 10 consecutive seconds that do not qualify as SESs. The ten seconds with no SESs are excluded from unavailable time.


Table 9-5 VT Path PM Parameters for the XTC Card DS-1 Ports 

Parameter
Definition
CV-V

Code Violation VT Layer (CV-V) is a count of the bit interleaved parity (BIP) errors detected at the VT path layer. Up to two BIP errors can be detected per VT superframe, with each error incrementing the current CV-V second register.

ES-V

Errored Seconds VT Layer (ES-V) is a count of the seconds when at least one VT Path BIP error was detected. An Alarm Indication Signal VT Layer (AIS-V) defect (a lower-layer, traffic-related, near-end defect) or a Loss of Pointer VT Layer (LOP-V) defect can also cause an ES-V.

SES-V

Severely Errored Seconds VT Layer (SES-V) is a count of seconds when K (600) or more VT Path BIP errors were detected. SES-V can also be caused by an Alarm Indication Signal VT Layer (AIS-V) defect (a lower-layer, traffic-related, near-end defect) or a Loss of Pointer VT layer (LOP-V) defect.

UAS-V

Unavailable Second VT Layer (UAS-V) is a count of the seconds when the VT path is considered unavailable. A VT path becomes unavailable at the onset of ten consecutive seconds that qualify as SES-Vs, and continues to be unavailable until the onset of ten consecutive seconds occur that do not qualify as SES-Vs.


Table 9-6 Far-End VT Path PM Parameters for the XTC Card DS-1 Ports 

Parameter
Definition
CV-VFE

Far-End VT Path Coding Violations (CV-VFE) is a count of the number of BIP errors detected by the far-end VT path terminating equipment (PTE) and reported back to the near-end VT PTE using the VT layer remote error indication (REI-V) in the VT path overhead. Only one BIP error can be indicated per VT superframe using the REI-V bit. The current CV-VFE second register is incremented for each BIP error indicated by the incoming REI-V.

ES-VFE

Far-End VT Path Errored Seconds (ES-VFE) is a count of the seconds when at least one VT path BIP error was reported by the far-end VT PTE, or a one-bit VT layer remote defect indication (RDI-V) defect is present.

SES-VFE

Far-End VT Path Severely Errored Seconds (SES-VFE) is a count of the seconds when K (600) or more VT path BIP errors were reported by the far-end VT PTE or a one-bit RDI-V defect was present.

UAS-VFE

Far-End VT Path Unavailable Seconds (UAS-VFE) is a count of the seconds when the VT path is unavailable at the far-end. A VT path is considered unavailable at the onset of ten consecutive seconds that qualify as SES-VFEs, and continues to be considered unavailable until the onset of 10 consecutive seconds that do not qualify as SES-VFEs.


Table 9-7 Near-End SONET Path PM Parameters for the XTC Card DS-1 Ports 

Parameter
Definition
STS CV-P

Near-End STS Path Coding Violations (STS CV-P) is a count of BIP errors detected at the STS path layer (that is, using the B3 byte). Up to eight BIP errors can be detected per frame, with each error incrementing the current CV-P second register.

STS ES-P

Near-End STS Path Errored Seconds (STS ES-P) is a count of the seconds when at least one STS path BIP error was detected. An path-layer alarm indicator signal (AIS-P) defect (a lower-layer, traffic-related, near-end defect) or a path-layer loss of pointer (LOP-P) defect can also cause an STS ES-P.

STS FC-P

Near-End STS Path Failure Counts (STS FC-P) is a count of the number of near-end STS path failure events. A failure event begins when an AIS-P failure, an LOP-P failure, a path-layer unequipped (UNEQ-P), or a path-layer trace identifier mismatch (TIM-P) failure is declared. A failure event also begins if the STS PTE that is monitoring the path supports RDI-P for that path. The failure event ends when these failures are cleared.

STS SES-P

Near-End STS Path Severely Errored Seconds (STS SES-P) is a count of the seconds when K (2400) or more STS path BIP errors were detected. An AIS-P defect (a lower-layer, traffic-related, near-end defect) or an LOP-P defect can also cause an STS SES-P.

STS UAS-P

Near-End STS Path Unavailable Seconds (UAS-P) is a count of the one-second intervals when the STS path is unavailable. An STS path is unavailable at the onset of ten consecutive seconds that qualify as SES-Ps, and continues to be unavailable until the onset of ten consecutive seconds that do not qualify as SES-Ps. The ten seconds with no SES-Ps are excluded from unavailable time.


Table 9-8 Far-End SONET Path PM Parameters for the XTC Card DS-1 Ports 

Parameter
Definition
STS CV-PFE

Far-End STS Path Coding Violations (STS CV-PFE) is a count of BIP errors detected at the STS path layer (that is, using the B3 byte). Up to eight BIP errors can be detected per frame, with each error incrementing the current CV-P second register.

STS ES-PFE

Far-End STS Path Errored Seconds (STS ES-PFE) is a count of the seconds when at least one STS path BIP error was detected. An AIS-P defect (a lower-layer, traffic-related, far-end defect) or an LOP-P defect can also cause an STS ES-PFE.

STS FC-PFE

Far-End STS Path Failure Counts (STS FC-PFE) is a count of the number of far-end STS path failure events. A failure event begins when an AIS-P failure, an LOP-P failure, a UNEQ-P, or a TIM-P failure is declared. A failure event also begins if the STS PTE that is monitoring the path supports RDI-P for that path. The failure event ends when these failures are cleared.

STS SES-PFE

Far-End STS Path Severely Errored Seconds (STS SES-PFE) is a count of the seconds when K (2400) or more STS path BIP errors were detected. An AIS-P defect (a lower-layer, traffic-related, far-end defect) or an LOP-P defect can also cause an STS SES-PFE.

STS UAS-PFE

Far-End STS Path Unavailable Seconds (UAS-PFE) is a count of the one-second intervals when the STS path is unavailable. An STS path is unavailable at the onset of ten consecutive seconds that qualify as SES-Ps, and continues to be unavailable until the onset of ten consecutive seconds that do not qualify as SES-PFEs. The ten seconds with no SES-PFEs are excluded from unavailable time.


9.4.2  XTC DS3 Card Performance Monitoring Parameters

Figure 9-7 shows the signal types that support near-end and far-end PM parameters.

Figure 9-7 Monitored Signal Types for the XTC Card DS-3 Ports

Figure 9-8 shows where overhead bytes detected on the ASICs produce performance monitoring parameters for the XTC card DS-3 ports.


Note The XX in Figure 9-7 represents all PM parameters listed in Figure 9-8 with the given prefix and/or suffix.


Figure 9-8 PM Parameter Read Points on the XTC Card DS-3 Ports

The PM parameters for the XTC card DS-3 ports are described in Table 9-9 through Table 9-11.

Table 9-9 Near-End DS3 Line PM Parameters for the XTC Card DS-3 Ports 

Parameter
Definition
DS3 CV-L

CV-L indicates the number of coding violations occurring on the line. This parameter is a count of BPVs and EXZs occurring over the accumulation period.

DS3 ES-L

ESL is a count of the seconds containing one or more anomalies (BPV + EXZ) and/or defects (loss of signal) on the line.

DS3 SES-L

SES-L is a count of the seconds containing more than a particular quantity of anomalies (BPV + EXZ > 44) and/or defects on the line.

DS3 LOSS-L

LOSS-L is a count of one-second intervals containing one or more LOS defects.


Table 9-10 Near-End SONET Path PM Parameters for the XTC Card DS-3 Ports 

Parameter
Definition
STS CV-P

STS CV-P is a count of BIP errors detected at the STS path layer (that is, using the B3 byte). Up to eight BIP errors can be detected per frame; each error increments the current CV-P second register.

STS ES-P

STS ES-P is a count of the seconds when at least one STS path BIP error was detected. An AIS-P defect (or a lower-layer, traffic-related, near-end defect) or an LOP-P defect can also cause an STS ES-P.

STS FC-P

STS FC-P is a count of the number of near-end STS path failure events. A failure event begins when an AIS-P failure, an LOP-P failure, a UNEQ-P, or a TIM-P failure is declared. A failure event also begins if the STS PTE that is monitoring the path supports RDI-P for that path. The failure event ends when these failures are cleared.

STS SES-P

STS SES-P is a count of the seconds when K (2400) or more STS path BIP errors were detected. An AIS-P defect (a lower-layer, traffic-related, near-end defect) or an LOP-P defect can also cause an STS SES-P.

STS UAS-P

STS UAS-P is a count of the one-second intervals when the STS path is unavailable. An STS path is unavailable at the onset of ten consecutive seconds that qualify as SES-Ps, and continues to be unavailable until the onset of ten consecutive seconds that do not qualify as SES-Ps. The ten seconds with no SES-Ps are excluded from unavailable time.


Table 9-11 Far-End SONET Path PM Parameters for the XTC Card DS-3 Ports 

Parameter
Definition
STS CV-PFE

STS CV-PFE is a count of BIP errors detected at the STS path layer (that is, using the B3 byte). Up to eight BIP errors can be detected per frame; each error increments the current CV-P second register.

STS ES-PFE

STS ES-PFE is a count of the seconds when at least one STS path BIP error was detected. An AIS-P defect (a lower-layer, traffic-related, far-end defect) or an LOP-P defect can also cause an STS ES-PFE.

STS FC-PFE

STS FC-PFE is a count of the number of far-end STS path failure events. A failure event begins when an AIS-P failure, an LOP-P failure, a UNEQ-P, or a TIM-P failure is declared. A failure event also begins if the STS PTE that is monitoring the path supports RDI-P for that path. The failure event ends when these failures are cleared.

STS SES-PFE

STS SES-PFE is a count of the seconds when K (2400) or more STS path BIP errors were detected. An AIS-P defect (a lower-layer, traffic-related, far-end defect) or an LOP-P defect can also cause an STS SES-PFE.

STS UAS-PFE

STS UAS-PFE is a count of the one-second intervals when the STS path is unavailable. An STS path is unavailable at the onset of ten consecutive seconds that qualify as SES-Ps, and continues to be unavailable until the onset of ten consecutive seconds that do not qualify as SES-PFEs. The ten seconds with no SES-PFEs are excluded from unavailable time.


9.5  Performance Monitoring for Ethernet Cards

The following sections define performance monitoring parameters and definitions for the E-Series and G-Series Ethernet cards.

9.5.1  E-Series Ethernet Card Performance Monitoring Parameters

CTC provides Ethernet performance information, including line-level parameters, port bandwidth consumption, and historical Ethernet statistics. The E-Series Ethernet performance information is divided into the Statistics, Utilization, and History tabbed windows within the card view Performance tab window.

9.5.1.1  E-Series Ethernet Statistics Window

The Ethernet Statistics window lists Ethernet parameters at the line level. The Statistics window provides buttons to change the statistical values shown. The Baseline button resets the displayed statistics values to zero. The Refresh button manually refreshes statistics. Auto-Refresh sets a time interval at which automatic refresh will occur.

Table 9-12 defines the E-Series Ethernet card statistics parameters.

Table 9-12 E-Series Ethernet Statistics Parameters 

Parameter
Meaning
Link Status

Indicates whether or not link integrity is present; up means present and down means not present

Rx Packets

Number of packets received since the last counter reset

Rx Bytes

Number of bytes received since the last counter reset

Tx Packets

Number of packets transmitted since the last counter reset

Tx Bytes

Number of bytes transmitted since the last counter reset

Rx Total Errors

Total number of receive errors

Rx FCS

Number of packets with a frame check sequence (FCS) error; FCS errors indicate frame corruption during transmission

Rx Alignment

Number of packets with alignment errors; alignment errors are received incomplete frames

Rx Runts

Number of packets received that are less than 64 bytes in length

Rx Giants

Number of packets received that are greater than 1518 bytes in length for untagged interfaces and greater than 1522 bytes for tagged interfaces

Tx Collisions

Number of transmit packets that are collisions. The port and the attached device transmitting at the same time caused collisions

Tx Late Collisions

Number of frames that were not transmitted because they encountered a collision outside of the normal collision window. Normally, late collision events should occur only rarely, if at all

Tx Excessive Collisions

Number of consecutive collisions

Tx Deferred

Number of packets deferred


9.5.1.2  E-Series Ethernet Utilization Window

The Utilization window shows the percentage of Tx and Rx line bandwidth used by the Ethernet ports during consecutive time segments. The Mode field displays the real-time mode status, such as 100 Full, which is the mode setting configured on the E-Series port. However, if the E-Series port is set to autonegotiate the mode (Auto), this field shows the result of the link negotiation between the E-Series and the peer Ethernet device attached directly to the E-Series port.

The Utilization window provides an Interval menu, that enables you to set time intervals of 1 minute, 15 minutes, 1 hour, and 1 day. Line utilization is calculated with the following formulas:

Rx = (inOctets + inPkts * 20) * 8 / 100 % interval * maxBaseRate

Tx = (outOctets + outPkts * 20) * 8 / 100 % interval * maxBaseRate

The interval is defined in seconds. The maxBaseRate is defined by raw bits/second in one direction for the Ethernet port (that is, 1 Gbps). Table 9-13 shows the maxBaseRates for E-Series Ethernet cards.

Table 9-13 maxBaseRate for STS Circuits 

STS
maxBaseRate

STS-1

51840000

STS-3c

155000000

STS-6c

311000000

STS-12c

622000000



Note Line utilization numbers express the average of ingress and egress traffic as a percentage of capacity.



Note The E-Series Ethernet card is a Layer 2 device or switch and supports Trunk Utilization statistics. The trunk utilization statistics are similar to the line utilization statistics, but show the percentage of circuit bandwidth used rather than the percentage of line bandwidth used. The trunk utilization statistics are accessed via the card view Maintenance tab.


9.5.1.3  E-Series Ethernet History Window

The Ethernet History window lists past Ethernet statistics for the previous time intervals. Depending on the selected time interval, the History window will display the statistics for each port for the number of previous time intervals as shown in Table 9-14. The listed parameters are defined in Table 9-12.

Table 9-14 Ethernet History Statistics per Time Interval

Time Interval
Number of Intervals Displayed

1 minute

60 previous time intervals

15 minutes

32 previous time intervals

1 hour

24 previous time intervals

1 day (24-hours)

7 previous time intervals


9.5.2  G-Series Ethernet Card Performance Monitoring Parameters

CTC provides Ethernet performance information, including line-level parameters, port bandwidth consumption, and historical Ethernet statistics. The G-Series Ethernet performance information is divided into the Statistics, Utilization, and History tabbed windows within the card view Performance tab window.

9.5.2.1  G-Series Ethernet Statistics Window

The Ethernet Statistics window lists Ethernet parameters at the line level. The Statistics window provides buttons to change the statistical values shown. The Baseline button resets the displayed statistics values to zero. The Refresh button manually refreshes statistics. Auto-Refresh sets a time interval at which automatic refresh will occur. The G-Series Statistics window also has a Clear button. The Clear button sets the values on the card to zero, but does not reset the G-Series card.

In R 4.1.x, G-Series Ethernet performance-monitoring counts behave somewhat differently from the E-Series statistical count. During each automatic cycle, whether auto-refreshed or manually refreshed (using the Refresh button), statistics are added cumulatively and are not immediately adjusted to equal total received packets until testing ends. To see the final PM count totals, allow a few moments for the PM window statistics to finish testing and update fully. PM counts are also listed in the G-Series Ethernet card Performance > History window.

Table 9-15 defines the G-Series Ethernet card Statistics parameters.

Table 9-15 G-Series Ethernet Statistics Parameters 

Parameter
Meaning

Time Last Cleared

A time stamp indicating the last time statistics were reset

Link Status

Indicates whether or not the Ethernet link is receiving a valid Ethernet signal (carrier) from the attached Ethernet device; up means present and down means not present

Rx Packets

Number of packets received since the last counter reset

Rx Bytes

Number of bytes received since the last counter reset

Tx Packets

Number of packets transmitted since the last counter reset

Tx Bytes

Number of bytes transmitted since the last counter reset

Rx Total Errors

Total number of receive errors

Rx FCS

Number of packets with a FCS error; FCS errors indicate frame corruption during transmission

Rx Alignment

Number of packets with received incomplete frames

Rx Runts

Total number of frames received that are less than 64 bytes in length and have a CRC error

Rx Jabbers

Total number of frames received that exceed the1548-byte maximum and contain CRC errors

Rx Pause Frames

Number of received Ethernet IEEE 802.3z pause frames

Tx Pause Frames

Number of transmitted IEEE 802.3z pause frames

Rx Pkts Dropped Internal Congestion

Number of received packets dropped due to overflow in G-Series frame buffer

Tx Pkts Dropped Internal Congestion

Number of transmit queue drops due to drops in the G-Series frame buffer

HDLC errors

HDLC errors received from SONET/SDH)1

1 Do not use the HDLC errors counter to count the number of frames dropped because of HDLC errors, because each frame can fragment into several smaller frames during HDLC error conditions and spurious HDLC frames can also be generated. If HDLC error counters are incrementing when no SONET path problems should be present, it might indicate a problem with the quality of the SONET path. For example, a SONET protection switch generates a set of HLDC errors. But the actual values of these counters are less significant than the fact they are changing.


9.5.2.2  G-Series Ethernet Utilization Window

The Utilization window shows the percentage of Tx and Rx line bandwidth used by the Ethernet ports during consecutive time segments. The Mode field displays the real-time mode status, such as 100 Full, which is the mode setting configured on the G-Series port. However, if the G-Series port is set to autonegotiate the mode (Auto), this field shows the result of the link negotiation between the G-Series and the peer Ethernet device attached directly to the G-Series port.

The Utilization window provides an Interval menu, that enables you to set time intervals of 1 minute, 15 minutes, 1 hour, and 1 day. Line utilization is calculated with the following formulas:

Rx = (inOctets + inPkts * 20) * 8 / 100 % interval * maxBaseRate

Tx = (outOctets + outPkts * 20) * 8 / 100 % interval * maxBaseRate

The interval is defined in seconds. The maxBaseRate is defined by raw bits/second in one direction for the Ethernet port (that is, 1 Gbps). Table 9-16 shows the maxBaseRates for G-Series Ethernet cards.

Table 9-16 maxBaseRate for STS Circuits 

STS
maxBaseRate

STS-1

51840000

STS-3c

155000000

STS-6c

311000000

STS-12c

622000000



Note Line utilization numbers express the average of ingress and egress traffic as a percentage of capacity.



Note Unlike the E-Series, the G Series card does not have a display of trunk utilization statistics, because the G-Series card is not a Layer 2 device or switch.


9.5.2.3  G-Series Ethernet History Window

The Ethernet History window lists past Ethernet statistics for the previous time intervals. Depending on the selected time interval, the History window will display the statistics for each port for the number of previous time intervals as shown in Table 9-17. The listed parameters are defined in Table 9-15.

Table 9-17 Ethernet History Statistics per Time Interval

Time Interval
Number of Intervals Displayed

1 minute

60 previous time intervals

15 minutes

32 previous time intervals

1 hour

24 previous time intervals

1 day (24 hours)

7 previous time intervals


9.6  Performance Monitoring for Optical Cards

The following sections define performance monitoring parameters and definitions for the OC-3, OC-12, and OC-48 cards.

9.6.1  OC-3 Card Performance Monitoring Parameters

Figure 9-9 shows the signal types that support near-end and far-end PM parameters. Figure 9-10 shows where overhead bytes detected on the ASICs produce PM parameters for the OC-3 card.

Figure 9-9 Monitored Signal Types for the OC-3 Card

Figure 9-10 PM Parameter Read Points on the OC-3 Card


Note For PM locations relating to protection switch counts, see the Telcordia GR-253-CORE document.


The PM parameters for the OC-3 cards are described in Table 9-18 through Table 9-24.

Table 9-18 Near-End Section PM Parameters for the OC-3 Card 

Parameter
Definition
CV-S

CV-S is a count of BIP errors detected at the section layer (that is, using the B1 byte in the incoming SONET signal). Up to eight section BIP errors can be detected per STS-N frame, with each error incrementing the current CV-S second register.

ES-S

SES-S is a count of the number of seconds when at least one section-layer BIP error was detected or a SEF or LOS defect was present.

SES-S

SES-S is a count of the seconds when K (see Telcordia GR-253-CORE for value) or more section-layer BIP errors were detected or a SEF or LOS defect was present.

SEFS-S

SEFS-S is a count of the seconds when a SEF defect was present. A SEF defect is expected to be present during most seconds when a LOS or LOF defect is present. However, there can be situations when the SEFS-S parameter is only incremented based on the presence of the SEF defect.


Table 9-19 Near-End Line Layer PM Parameters for the OC-3 Card 

Parameter
Definition
CV-L

CV-L is a count of BIP errors detected at the line layer (that is, using the B2 bytes in the incoming SONET signal). Up to 8 x n BIP errors can be detected per STS-N frame; each error increments the current CV-L second register.

ES-L

ES-L is a count of the seconds when at least one line-layer BIP error was detected or an AIS-L defect was present.

SES-L

SES-L is a count of the seconds when K (see Telcordia GR-253-CORE for values) or more line-layer BIP errors were detected or an AIS-L defect was present.

UAS-L

UAS-L is a count of the seconds when the line is considered unavailable. A line becomes unavailable at the onset of ten consecutive seconds that qualify as SES-Ls, and continues to be unavailable until the onset of ten consecutive seconds occur that do not qualify as SES-Ls.

FC-L

FC-L is a count of the number of near-end line failure events. A failure event begins when an AIS-L failure is declared or when a lower-layer, traffic-related, near-end failure is declared. This failure event ends when the failure is cleared. A failure event that begins in one period and ends in another period is counted only in the period where it begins.



Note For information about troubleshooting path protection switch counts, refer to the Cisco ONS 15327 Troubleshooting Guide. For information about creating circuits that perform a switch, refer to the Cisco ONS 15327 Procedure Guide.


Table 9-20 Near-End Protection-Switching PM Parameters for the OC-3 Cards 

Parameter
Definition
PSC (1+1 protection)

In a 1+1 protection scheme for a working card, Protection Switching Count (PSC) is a count of the number of times service switches from a working card to a protection card plus the number of times service switches back to the working card.

For a protection card, PSC is a count of the number of times service switches to a working card from a protection card plus the number of times service switches back to the protection card. The PSC PM parameter is only applicable if revertive line-level protection switching is used.

Note BLSR is not supported on the OC-3 card; therefore, the Protection Switching Count-Working (PSC-W), Protection Switching Count-Span (PSC-S), and Protection Switching Count-Ring (PSC-R) PM parameters do not increment.

PSD

Protection Switching Duration (PSD) applies to the length of time, in seconds, that service is carried on another line. For a working line, PSD is a count of the number of seconds that service was carried on the protection line.

For the protection line, PSD is a count of the seconds that the line was used to carry service. The PSD PM parameter is only applicable if revertive line-level protection switching is used.

Note BLSR is not supported on the OC-3 card; therefore, the Protection Switching Duration-Working (PSD-W), Protection Switching Duration-Span (PSD-S), and Protection Switching Duration-Ring (PSD-R) PM parameters do not increment.



Note In CTC, the count fields for PPJC and NPJC PM parameters appear white and blank unless they are enabled on the Provisioning > Line tabs. See the "Pointer Justification Count Reference" section.


Table 9-21 Near-End SONET Path H-Byte PM Parameters for the OC-3 Card 

Parameter
Definition
PPJC-Pdet

PPJC-Pdet is a count of the positive pointer justifications detected on a particular path on an incoming SONET signal.

NPJC-Pdet

NPJC-Pdet is a count of the negative pointer justifications detected on a particular path on an incoming SONET signal.

PPJC-Pgen

PPJC-Pgen is a count of the positive pointer justifications generated for a particular path to reconcile the frequency of the SPE with the local clock.

NPJC-Pgen

NPJC-Pgen is a count of the negative pointer justifications generated for a particular path to reconcile the frequency of the SPE with the local clock.


Table 9-22 Far-End Line Layer PM Parameters for the OC-3 Card 

Parameter
Definition
CV-LFE

CV-LFE is a count of BIP errors detected by the far-end LTE and reported back to the near-end LTE using the REI-L indication in the line overhead. For SONET signals at rates below OC-48, up to 8 x n BIP errors per STS-N frame can be indicated using the Line remote error indication (REI-L). For OC-48 signals, up to 255 BIP errors per STS-N frame can be indicated. The current CV-L second register is incremented for each BIP error indicated by the incoming REI-L.

ES-LFE

ES-LFE is a count of the seconds when at least one line-layer BIP error was reported by the far-end LTE or a Line remote defect indication (RDI-L) defect was present.

SES-LFE

SES-LFE is a count of the seconds when K (see Telcordia GR-253-CORE for values) or more line-layer BIP errors were reported by the far-end LTE or an RDI-L defect was present.

UAS-LFE

UAS-LFE is a count of the seconds when the line is unavailable at the far end. A line becomes unavailable at the onset of ten consecutive seconds that qualify as SES-LFEs, and continues to be unavailable until the onset of ten consecutive seconds occur that do not qualify as SES-LFEs.

FC-LFE

FC-LFE is a count of the number of far-end line failure events. A failure event begins when RFI-L failure is declared, and it ends when the Line remote fault indication (RFI-L) failure clears. A failure event that begins in one period and ends in another period is counted only in the period where it began.



Note SONET path PM parameters do not count unless IPPM is enabled. For additional information, see the "Intermediate-Path Performance Monitoring Reference" section.


Table 9-23 Near-End SONET Path PM Parameters for the OC-3 Card 

Parameter
Definition
STS CV-P

STS CV-P is a count of BIP errors detected at the STS path layer (that is, using the B3 byte). Up to eight BIP errors can be detected per frame; each error increments the current CV-P second register.

STS ES-P

STS ES-P is a count of the seconds when one or more STS path BIP errors were detected. An AIS-P defect (a lower-layer, traffic-related, near-end defect) or an LOP-P defect can also cause an STS ES-P.

STS FC-P

STS FC-P is a count of the number of near-end STS path failure events. A failure event begins with an AIS-P failure, an LOP-P failure, a UNEQ-P failure, or a TIM-P failure is declared, or if the STS PTE that is monitoring the path supports RDI-P for that path. The failure event ends when these failures are cleared.

STS SES-P

STS SES-P is a count of the seconds when K (2400) or more STS path BIP errors were detected. An AIS-P defect (a lower-layer, traffic-related, near-end defect) or an LOP-P defect can also cause an STS SES-P.

STS UAS-P

STS UAS-P is a count of the seconds when the STS path is considered unavailable. An STS path becomes unavailable at the onset of ten consecutive seconds that qualify as SES-Ps, and continues to be unavailable until the onset of ten consecutive seconds that do not qualify as SES-Ps.



Note SONET path PM parameters do not count unless IPPM is enabled. For additional information, see the "Intermediate-Path Performance Monitoring Reference" section.


Table 9-24 Far-End SONET Path PM Parameters for the OC-3 Card 

Parameter
Definition
STS CV-PFE

STS CV-PFE is a count of BIP errors detected at the STS path layer (that is, using the B3 byte). Up to eight BIP errors can be detected per frame; each error increments the current CV-P second register.

STS ES-PFE

STS ES-PFE is a count of the seconds when one or more STS path BIP errors were detected. An AIS-P defect (a lower-layer, traffic-related, far-end defect) or an LOP-P defect can also cause an STS ES-PFE.

STS FC-PFE

STS FC-PFE is a count of the number of far-end STS path failure events. A failure event begins with an AIS-P failure, an LOP-P failure, a UNEQ-P failure, or a TIM-P failure is declared, or if the STS PTE that is monitoring the path supports RDI-P for that path. The failure event ends when these failures are cleared.

STS SES-PFE

STS SES-PFE is a count of the seconds when K (2400) or more STS path BIP errors were detected. An AIS-P defect (a lower-layer, traffic-related, far-end defect) or an LOP-P defect can also cause an STS SES-PFE.

STS UAS-PFE

STS UAS-PFE is a count of the seconds when the STS path is considered unavailable. An STS path becomes unavailable at the onset of ten consecutive seconds that qualify as SES-PFEs, and continues to be unavailable until the onset of ten consecutive seconds that do not qualify as SES-PFEs.


9.6.2  OC-12 Card Performance Monitoring Parameters

Figure 9-11 shows the signal types that support near-end and far-end PM parameters. Figure 9-12 shows where overhead bytes detected on the ASICs produce performance monitoring parameters for the OC-12 cards.

Figure 9-11 Monitored Signal Types for the OC-12 Cards


Note PM parameters on the protect STS are not supported for BLSR. The XX in Figure 9-11 represents all PM parameters listed in Figure 9-12 with the given prefix and/or suffix.


Figure 9-12 PM Parameter Read Points on the OC-12 Cards


Note For PM locations relating to protection switch counts, see the Telcordia GR-1230-CORE document.


The PM parameters for the OC-12 cards are described in Table 9-25 through Table 9-31.

Table 9-25 Near-End Section PM Parameters for the OC-12 Cards 

Parameter
Definition
CV-S

CV-S is a count of BIP errors detected at the section layer (that is, using the B1 byte in the incoming SONET signal). Up to eight section BIP errors can be detected per STS-N frame; each error increments the current CV-S second register.

ES-S

ES-S is a count of the number of seconds when at least one section-layer BIP error was detected or a SEF or LOS defect was present.

SES-S

SES-S is a count of the seconds when K (see Telcordia GR-253 for value) or more section-layer BIP errors were detected or a SEF or LOS defect was present.

SEFS-S

SEFS-S is a count of the seconds when a SEF defect was present. An SEF defect is expected to be present during most seconds when a LOS or LOF defect is present. However, there may be situations when the SEFS-S parameter is only incremented based on the presence of an SEF defect.


Table 9-26 Near-End Line Layer PM Parameters for the OC-12 Cards 

Parameter
Definition
CV-L

CV-L is a count of BIP errors detected at the line layer (that is, using the B2 bytes in the incoming SONET signal). Up to 8 x N BIP errors can be detected per STS-N frame; each error increments the current CV-L second register.

ES-L

ES-L is a count of the seconds when at least one line-layer BIP error was detected or an AIS-L defect was present.

SES-L

SES-L is a count of the seconds when K (see Telcordia GR-253 for values) or more line-layer BIP errors were detected or an AIS-L defect was present.

UAS-L

UAS-L is a count of the seconds when the line is unavailable. A line becomes unavailable at the onset of ten consecutive seconds that qualify as SES-Ls, and continues to be unavailable until the onset of ten consecutive seconds that do not qualify as SES-Ls.

FC-L

FC-L is a count of the number of near-end line failure events. A failure event begins when an AIS-L failure or a lower-layer traffic-related, near-end failure is declared. This failure event ends when the failure is cleared. A failure event that begins in one period and ends in another period is counted only in the period where it begins.



Note In CTC, the count fields for Positive Point Justification Count (PPJC) and Negative Pointer Justification Count (NPJC) PM parameters appear white and blank unless they are enabled on the Provisioning > Line tabs. See the "Pointer Justification Count Reference" section.


Table 9-27 Near-End SONET Path H-byte PM Parameters for the OC-12 Cards 

Parameter
Definition
PPJC-Pdet

PPJC-Pdet is a count of the positive pointer justifications detected on a particular path on an incoming SONET signal.

NPJC-Pdet

NPJC-Pdet is a count of the negative pointer justifications detected on a particular path on an incoming SONET signal.

PPJC-Pgen

PPJC-Pgen is a count of the positive pointer justifications generated for a particular path to reconcile the frequency of the SPE with the local clock.

NPJC-Pgen

NPJC-Pgen is a count of the negative pointer justifications generated for a particular path to reconcile the frequency of the SPE with the local clock.



Note For information about troubleshooting path protection switch counts, refer to the Cisco ONS 15327 Troubleshooting Guide. For information about creating circuits that perform a switch, refer to the Cisco ONS 15327 Procedure Guide.


Table 9-28 Near-End Protection-Switching PM Parameters for the OC-12 Cards 

Parameter
Definition
PSC (BLSR)

For a protect line in a two-fiber ring, PSC refers to the number of times a protection switch has occurred either to a particular span's line protection or away from a particular span's line protection. Therefore, if a protection switch occurs on a two-fiber BLSR, the PSC of the protection span to which the traffic is switched will increment, and when the switched traffic returns to its original working span from the protect span, the PSC of the protect span will increment again.

PSC (1+1 protection)

In a 1+1 protection scheme for a working card, PSC is a count of the number of times service switches from a working card to a protection card plus the number of times service switches back to the working card.

For a protection card, PSC is a count of the number of times service switches to a working card from a protection card plus the number of times service switches back to the protection card. The PSC PM parameter is only applicable if revertive line-level protection switching is used.

PSD

For an active protection line in a two-fiber BLSR, PSD is a count of the number of seconds that the protect line is carrying working traffic following the failure of the working line. PSD increments on the active protect line and PSD-W increments on the failed working line.

PSC-W

For a working line in a two-fiber BLSR, PSC-W is a count of the number of times traffic switches away from the working capacity in the failed line and back to the working capacity after the failure is cleared. PSC-W increments on the failed working line and PSC increments on the active protect line.

PSD-W

For a working line in a two-fiber BLSR, PSD-W is a count of the number of seconds that service was carried on the protection line. PSD-W increments on the failed working line and PSD increments on the active protect line.



Note SONET path PM parameters do not count unless IPPM is enabled. For additional information, see the "Intermediate-Path Performance Monitoring Reference" section.


Table 9-29 Near-End SONET Path PM Parameters for the OC-12 Cards 

Parameter
Definition
STS CV-P

STS CV-P is a count of BIP errors detected at the STS path layer (that is, using the B3 byte). Up to eight BIP errors can be detected per frame; each error increments the current CV-P second register.

STS ES-P

STS ES-P is a count of the seconds when at least one STS path BIP error was detected. An AIS-P defect (a lower-layer, traffic-related, near-end defect) or an LOP-P defect can also cause an STS ES-P.

STS FC-P

STS FC-P is a count of the number of near-end STS path failure events. A failure event begins with an AIS-P failure, an LOP-P failure, a UNEQ-P failure or a TIM-P failure is declared, or if the STS PTE that is monitoring the path supports RDI-P for that path. The failure event ends when these failures are cleared.

STS SES-P

STS SES-P is a count of the seconds when K (2400) or more STS path BIP errors were detected. An AIS-P defect (a lower-layer, traffic-related, near-end defect) or an LOP-P defect can also cause an STS SES-P.

STS UAS-P

STS UAS-P is a count of one-second intervals when the STS path is unavailable. An STS path is unavailable at the onset of ten consecutive seconds that qualify as SES-Ps, and continues to be unavailable until the onset of ten consecutive seconds occur that do not qualify as SES-Ps. The ten seconds with no SES-Ps are excluded from unavailable time.


Table 9-30 Far-End Line Layer PM Parameters for the OC-12 Card 

Parameter
Definition
CV-LFE

CV-LFE is a count of BIP errors detected by the far-end LTE and reported back to the near-end LTE using the REI-L indication in the line overhead. For SONET signals at rates below OC-48, up to 8 x N BIP errors per STS-N frame can be indicated using the REI-L. For OC-48 signals, up to 255 BIP errors per STS-N frame can be indicated. The current CV-LFE second register is incremented for each BIP error indicated by the incoming REI-L.

ES-LFE

ES-LFE is a count of the seconds when at least one line-layer BIP error was reported by the far-end LTE or an RDI-L defect was present.

SES-LFE

SES-LFE is a count of the seconds when K (see Telcordia GR-253-CORE for values) or more line-layer BIP errors were reported by the far-end LTE or an RDI-L defect was present.

UAS-LFE

UAS-LFE is a count of the seconds when the line is considered unavailable at the far end. A line is considered unavailable at the onset of ten consecutive seconds that qualify as SES-LFEs, and continues to be unavailable until the onset of ten consecutive seconds that do not qualify as SES-LFEs.

FC-LFE

FC-LFE is a count of the number of far-end line failure events. A failure event begins when RFI-L failure is declared and ends when the RFI-L failure clears. A failure event that begins in one period and ends in another period is counted only in the period where it began.



Note SONET path PM parameters do not count unless IPPM is enabled. For additional information, see the "Intermediate-Path Performance Monitoring Reference" section.


Table 9-31 Far-End SONET Path PM Parameters for the OC-12 Card 

Parameter
Definition
STS CV-PFE

STS CV-PFE is a count of BIP errors detected at the STS path layer (that is, using the B3 byte). Up to eight BIP errors can be detected per frame; each error increments the current CV-P second register.

STS ES-PFE

STS ES-PFE is a count of the seconds when at least one STS path BIP error was detected. An AIS-P defect (or a lower-layer, traffic-related, far-end defect) or an LOP-P defect can also cause an STS ES-PFE.

STS FC-PFE

STS FC-PFE is a count of the number of far-end STS path failure events. A failure event begins with an AIS-P failure, an LOP-P failure, a UNEQ-P failure, or a TIM-P failure is declared, or if the STS PTE that is monitoring the path supports RDI-P for that path. The failure event ends when these failures are cleared.

STS SES-PFE

STS SES-PFE is a count of the seconds when K (2400) or more STS path BIP errors were detected. An AIS-P defect (or a lower-layer, traffic-related, far-end defect) or an LOP-P defect can also cause an STS SES-PFE.

STS UAS-PFE

STS UAS-PFE is a count of one-second intervals when the STS path is unavailable. An STS path is unavailable at the onset of ten consecutive seconds that qualify as SES-PFEs, and continues to be unavailable until the onset of ten consecutive seconds occur that do not qualify as SES-PFEs. The ten seconds with no SES-PFEs are excluded from unavailable time.


9.6.3  OC-48 Card Performance Monitoring Parameters

Figure 9-13 shows the signal types that support near-end and far-end PM parameters. Figure 9-14 shows where overhead bytes detected on the ASICs produce performance monitoring parameters for the OC-48 cards.

Figure 9-13 Monitored Signal Types for the OC-48 Cards


Note PM parameters on the protect STS are not supported for BLSR. The XX in Figure 9-13 represents all PM parameters listed in Figure 9-14 with the given prefix and/or suffix.


Figure 9-14 PM Parameter Read Points on the OC-48 Cards


Note For PM locations relating to protection switch counts, see the Telcordia GR-1230-CORE document.


The PM parameters for the OC-48 cards are described in Table 9-32 through Table 9-38.

Table 9-32 Near-End Section PM Parameters for the OC-48 Cards 

Parameter
Definition
CV-S

CV-S is a count of BIP errors detected at the section layer (that is, using the B1 byte in the incoming SONET signal). Up to eight section BIP errors can be detected per STS-N frame; each error increments the current CV-S second register.

ES-S

ES-S is a count of the number of seconds when at least one section-layer BIP error was detected or a SEF or LOS defect was present.

SES-S

SES-S is a count of the seconds when K (see Telcordia GR-253 for value) or more section-layer BIP errors were detected or a SEF or LOS defect was present.

SEFS-S

SEFS-S is a count of the seconds when a SEF defect was present. An SEF defect is expected to be present during most seconds when a LOS or LOF defect is present. However, there may be situations when the SEFS-S parameter is only incremented based on the presence of an SEF defect.


Table 9-33 Near-End Line Layer PM Parameters for the OC-48 Cards 

Parameter
Definition
CV-L

CV-L is a count of BIP errors detected at the line layer (that is, using the B2 bytes in the incoming SONET signal). Up to 8 x n BIP errors can be detected per STS-N frame; each error increments the current CV-L second register.

ES-L

ES-L is a count of the seconds when at least one line-layer BIP error was detected or an AIS-L defect was present.

SES-L

SES-L is a count of the seconds when K (see Telcordia GR-253 for values) or more line-layer BIP errors were detected or an AIS-L defect was present.

UAS-L

UAS-L is a count of the seconds when the line is considered unavailable. A line becomes unavailable at the onset of ten consecutive seconds that qualify as SES-Ls, and continues to be unavailable until the onset of ten consecutive seconds that do not qualify as SES-Ls.

FC-L

FC-L is a count of the number of near-end line failure events. A failure event begins when an AIS-L failure or a lower-layer, traffic-related, near-end failure is declared. This failure event ends when the failure is cleared. A failure event that begins in one period and ends in another period is counted only in the period where it begins.



Note In CTC, the count fields for Positive Point Justification Count (PPJC) and Negative Pointer Justification Count (NPJC) PM parameters appear white and blank unless they are enabled on the Provisioning > Line tabs. See the "Pointer Justification Count Reference" section.


Table 9-34 Near-End SONET Path H-byte PM Parameters for the OC-48 Cards 

Parameter
Definition
PPJC-Pdet

PPJC-Pdet is a count of the positive pointer justifications detected on a particular path on an incoming SONET signal.

NPJC-Pdet

NPJC-Pdet is a count of the negative pointer justifications detected on a particular path on an incoming SONET signal.

PPJC-Pgen

PPJC-Pgen is a count of the positive pointer justifications generated for a particular path to reconcile the frequency of the SPE with the local clock.

NPJC-Pgen

NPJC-Pgen is a count of the negative pointer justifications generated for a particular path to reconcile the frequency of the SPE with the local clock.



Note For information about troubleshooting path protection switch counts, refer to the Cisco ONS 15327 Troubleshooting Guide. For information about creating circuits that perform a switch, refer to the Cisco ONS 15327 Procedure Guide.


Table 9-35 Near-End Protection-Switching PM Parameters for the OC-48 Cards 

Parameter
Definition
PSC (BLSR)

For a protect line in a two-fiber ring, PSC refers to the number of times a protection switch has occurred either to a particular span's line protection or away from a particular span's line protection. Therefore, if a protection switch occurs on a two-fiber BLSR, the PSC of the protection span to which the traffic is switched will increment, and when the switched traffic returns to its original working span from the protect span, the PSC of the protect span will increment again.

PSC (1+1 protection)

In a 1+1 protection scheme for a working card, PSC is a count of the number of times service switches from a working card to a protection card plus the number of times service switches back to the working card.

For a protection card, PSC is a count of the number of times service switches to a working card from a protection card plus the number of times service switches back to the protection card. The PSC PM parameter is only applicable if revertive line-level protection switching is used.

PSD

For an active protection line in a two-fiber BLSR, PSD is a count of the number of seconds that the protect line is carrying working traffic following the failure of the working line. PSD increments on the active protect line and PSD-W increments on the failed working line.

PSC-W

For a working line in a two-fiber BLSR, PSC-W is a count of the number of times traffic switches away from the working capacity in the failed line and back to the working capacity after the failure is cleared. PSC-W increments on the failed working line and PSC increments on the active protect line.

PSD-W

For a working line in a two-fiber BLSR, PSD-W is a count of the number of seconds that service was carried on the protection line. PSD-W increments on the failed working line and PSD increments on the active protect line.



Note SONET path PM parameters do not count unless IPPM is enabled. For additional information, see the "Intermediate-Path Performance Monitoring Reference" section.


Table 9-36 Near-End SONET Path PM Parameters for the OC-48 Cards 

Parameter
Definition
STS CV-P

STS CV-P is a count of BIP errors detected at the STS path layer (that is, using the B3 byte). Up to eight BIP errors can be detected per frame; each error increments the current CV-P second register.

STS ES-P

STS ES-P is a count of the seconds when at least one STS path BIP error was detected. An AIS-P defect (a lower-layer, traffic-related, near-end defect) or an LOP-P defect can also cause an STS ES-P.

STS FC-P

STS FC-P is a count of the number of near-end STS path failure events. A failure event begins with an AIS-P failure, an LOP-P failure, a UNEQ-P failure, or a TIM-P failure is declared, or if the STS PTE that is monitoring the path supports RDI-P for that path. The failure event ends when these failures are cleared.

STS SES-P

STS SES-P is a count of the seconds when K (2400) or more STS path BIP errors were detected. An AIS-P defect (or a lower-layer, traffic-related, near-end defect) or an LOP-P defect can also cause an STS SES-P.

STS UAS-P

STS UAS-P is a count of the one-second intervals when the STS path is unavailable. The STS path is unavailable at the onset of ten consecutive seconds that qualify as SES-Ps, and continues to be unavailable until the onset of ten consecutive seconds that do not qualify as SES-Ps. The ten seconds with no SES-Ps are excluded from available time.


Table 9-37 Far-End Line Layer PM Parameters for the OC-48 Cards 

Parameter
Definition
CV-LFE

CV-LFE is a count of BIP errors detected by the far-end LTE and reported back to the near-end LTE using the REI-L indication in the line overhead. For SONET signals at rates below OC-48, up to 8 x N BIP errors per STS-N frame can be indicated using the REI-L. For OC-48 signals, up to 255 BIP errors per STS-N frame can be indicated. The current CV-L second register is incremented for each BIP error indicated by the incoming REI-L.

ES-LFE

ES-LFE is a count of the seconds when at least one line-layer BIP error was reported by the far-end LTE or an RDI-L defect was present.

SES-LFE

SES-LFE is a count of the seconds when K (see Telcordia GR-253-CORE for values) or more line-layer BIP errors were reported by the far-end LTE or an RDI-L defect was present.

UAS-L

UAS-L is a count of the seconds when the line is considered unavailable at the far end. A line becomes unavailable at the onset of ten consecutive seconds that qualify as SES-LFEs, and continues to be unavailable until the onset of ten consecutive seconds that do not qualify as SES-LFEs.

FC-L

FC-L is a count of the number of far-end line failure events. A failure event begins when RFI-L failure is declared and ends when the RFI-L failure clears. A failure event that begins in one period and ends in another period is counted only in the period where it began.



Note SONET path PM parameters do not count unless IPPM is enabled. For additional information, see the "Intermediate-Path Performance Monitoring Reference" section.


Table 9-38 Far-End SONET Path PM Parameters for the OC-48 Cards 

Parameter
Definition
STS CV-PFE

STS CV-PFE is a count of BIP errors detected at the STS path layer (that is, using the B3 byte). Up to eight BIP errors can be detected per frame; each error increments the current CV-P second register.

STS ES-PFE

STS ES-PFE is a count of the seconds when at least one STS path BIP error was detected. An AIS-P defect (or a lower-layer, traffic-related, far-end defect) or an LOP-P defect can also cause an STS ES-PFE.

STS FC-PFE

STS FC-PFE is a count of the number of far-end STS path failure events. A failure event begins with an AIS-P failure, an LOP-P failure, a UNEQ-P failure, or a TIM-P failure is declared, or if the STS PTE that is monitoring the path supports RDI-P for that path. The failure event ends when these failures are cleared.

STS SES-PFE

STS SES-P is a count of the seconds when K (2400) or more STS path BIP errors were detected. An AIS-P defect (or a lower-layer, traffic-related, far-end defect) or an LOP-P defect can also cause an STS SES-PFE.

STS UAS-PFE

STS UAS-PFE is a count of the one-second intervals when the STS path is unavailable. The STS path is unavailable at the onset of ten consecutive seconds that qualify as SES-PFEs, and continues to be unavailable until the onset of ten consecutive seconds that do not qualify as SES-PFEs. The ten seconds with no SES-PFEs are excluded from available time.