Cisco Provisioning Center User's Guide, 4.2
Glossary
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Glossary

Table Of Contents


Glossary


A
ABR (Available Bite Rate)
ABR is an ATM Service category in which the ATM network makes its "best effort" to meet traffic bit rate requirements.
ACR (Allowed Cell Rate)
An ABR (Available Bit Rate) Service parameter, ACR is the current rate in cells/sec at which a source is allowed to send.
Activate
Make the pending configuration active in the network element.
Address Mask
A bit mask used to select bits from an Internet address for subnet addressing. The mask is 32 bits long and selects the network portion of the Internet address and one or more bits of the local portion. Sometimes called Subnet Mask.
Address Prefix
A string of 0 or more bits up to a maximum of 152 bits that is the lead portion of one or more ATM addresses.
Address Resolution
the procedure by which a client associates a LAN destination with the ATM address of another client or the BUS (Broadcast and Unknown Server).
Administrative Domain
A collection of managed entities grouped for administrative reasons.
ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line)
Modems attached to twisted pair copper wiring that transmit from 1.5 Mbps to 9 Mbps downstream (to the subscriber) and from 16 kbps to 800 kbps upstream, depending on line distance.
Affected List
The set of affected objects for a given Transaction. There is one such list for each site affected by the Transaction.
Affected Object
When a CMS (Configuration Management Services) object is modified, an object which refers to this data will require configuration data regeneration. Such an object which needs to be translated due to one or more modified objects, including the changed CMA object itself, are affected by the change. The same object may be affected in more than one Transaction.
Affected Site
A network element capable of accepting a new version of configuration on its own behalf or on behalf of another network element. Network sites are usually, but not always, synonymous with nodes in the network.
AIS (Alarm Indication Signal)
An all ones signal sent down or up stream by a device when it detects an error condition or receives an error condition or receives an error notification from another unit in the transmission path.
Alternative Routing
A mechanism that supports the use of a new path after an attempt to set up a connection along a previously selected path fails.
API (Application Program Interface)
A programmatic interface used for interprogram communications or for interfacing between protocol layers.
ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)
The TCP/IP protocol that translates an Internet address into the hardware address of a network interface card.
ASP (Advanced Surge Protection)
An implementation-independent description of an interaction between a service-user and a service-provider at a particular service boundary, as defined by Open Systems Interconnection (OSI).
ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode)
A transfer mode in which the information is organized into cells. It is asynchronous in the sense that the recurrence of cells containing information from an individual user is not necessarily periodic.
ATM Address
Defined in the UNI Specification as 3 formats, each having 20 bytes in length including country, area and end-system identifiers.
ATM Layer Link
A section of an ATM Layer connection between two adjacent active ATM Layer entities (ATM-entities).
ATM Link
A virtual path link (VPL) or a virtual channel link (VCL).
ATM User-User Connection
An association established by the ATM Layer to support communication between two or more ATM Service users (i.e., between two or more next higher entities or between two or more ATM-entities). The communications over an ATM Layer connection may be either bidirectional or unidirectional. The same Virtual Channel Identifier (VCI) issued for both directions of a connection at an interface.
ATM Traffic Description
A generic list of traffic parameters that can be used to capture the intrinsic traffic characteristics of a requested ATM connection.
ATM User-User Connection
An association established by the ATM Layer to support communication between two or more ATM Service users (i.e., between two or more next higher entities or between two or more ATM-entities). The communications over an ATM Layer connection may be either bidirectional or unidirectional. The same Virtual Channel Identifier (VCI) issued for both directions of a connection at an interface.
Attribute
A data value associated with an instance; that is, an individually definable part of the data that makes up a network element.
Authentication
A security feature that allows access to information to be granted on an individual basis.


B
B-ICI (B-ISDN Inter-Carrier Interface)
An ATM Forum defined specification for the interface between public ATM B-ISDN (Broadband ISDN).
A high-speed network standard (above 1.544 Mbps) that evolved Narrowband ISDN with existing and new Services with voice, data and video in the same network.
Bandwidth
The range of frequencies a transmission line or channel can carry: the greater the bandwidth, the greater the information-carrying capacity of a channel. For a digital channel this is defined in bits. For an analog channel it is dependent on the type and method of modulation used to encode the data.
BN (Bridge Number)
A locally administered bridge ID used in Source Route Bridging to uniquely identify a route between two LANs.
BN (BECN Cell)
A Resource Management (RM) cell type indicator. A Backwards Explicit Congestion Notification (BECN) RM-cell may be generated by the network or the destination. To do so, BN=1 is set, to indicate the cell is not source-generated, and DIR=1 to indicate the backward flow. Source generated RM-BPDU (Bridge Protocol Data Unit)
Bridge
A device that connects two or more physical networks and forwards packets between them. Bridges can usually be made to filter packets, that is, to forward only certain traffic. Related devices are: repeaters which simply forward electrical signals from one cable to the other, and full-fledged routers which make routing decisions based on several criteria. See repeater and router.
BW (Bandwidth)
A numerical measurement of throughput of a system or network.


C
CAC (Connection Admission Control)
The set of actions taken by the network during the call set- up phase (or during call re-negotiation phase) in order to determine whether a connection request can be accepted or should be rejected (or whether a request for re-allocation can be accommodated).
CBR (Constant Bit Rate)
CBR is an ATM Service category that supports a constant or guaranteed rate to transport Services such as video or voice as well as circuit emulation which requires rigorous timing control and performance parameters.
CC (Cross Connection)
An RM-cell field set by the source to its current ACR when it generates a forward RM-cell. This field may be used to facilitate the calculation of ER, and may not be changed by network elements. CCR is formatted as a rate.
CDV (Cell Delay Variation)
CDV is a component of cell transfer delay, induced by buffering and cell scheduling. Peak-to-peak CDV is a QoS delay parameter associated with CBR and VBR Services.
CDVT (Cell Delay Variation Tolerance)
ATM layer functions may alter the traffic characteristics of ATM connections by introducing Cell Delay Variation. When cells from two or more ATM connections are multiplexed, cells of a given ATM connection may be delayed while cells of another ATM connection are being inserted at the output of the multiplexer. Similarly, some cells may be delayed while physical layer overhead or OAM cells are inserted. Consequently, some ran randomness may affect the inter-arrival time between consecutive cells of a connection as monitored at the UNI. The upper bound on the "clumping" measure is the CDVT.
Cell
A connection or attempted connection between two terminal end points on a PSTN or ISDN; for example, a telephone cell between two modems.
Cell Relay
Network technology based on the use of small, fixed-size packets, or cells. Because cells are fixed-length, they can be processed and switched in hardware at high speeds. Cell relay is the basis for many high-speed network protocols including ATM, IEEE 802.6, and SMDS.
CIR (Committed Information Rate)
CIR is the information transfer rate that a network offering Frame Relay Services is committed to transfer under normal conditions. The rate is averaged under a minimum increment of time.
CPC (Cisco Provisioning Center )
Cisco Provisioning Center automates the complex process of Service activation for emerging data-centric telecommunications Services -- saving providers from having to staff a complex manual process or develop an expensive proprietary solution. Cisco Provisioning Center's. ability to automatically design Services, assign resources and activate them without human intervention are key features which dramatically reduce both errors and the time from order received to billing enabled.
Class
The collection of all objects that have identical functions and compatible data.
CLEC (Competitive Local Exchange Carrier)
Company that builds and operates communication networks in metropolitan areas and provides its customers with an alternative to the local telephone Client-Server Model
CLP (Cell Loss Priority)
This bit in the ATM cell header indicates two levels of priority for ATM cells. CLP=0 cells are higher priority than CLP=1 cells. CLP=1 cells may be discarded during periods of congestion to preserve the CLR of CLP=0 cells.
CLR (Cell Loss Ratio)
CLR is a negotiated QoS parameter and acceptable values are network specific. The objective is to minimize CLR provided the end-system adapts the traffic to the changing ATM layer traffic characteristics.
Commit
To make the pending changes in the Cisco Provisioning Center's database - that is, make the new configuration visible to all users and free the CMS (Configuration Management Services) objects for further modifications.
CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture)
OMG's answer to the need for interoperability among the rapidly growing number of hardware and software products available today. CORBA allows applications to communicate with one another no matter where they are located or who has designed them.
CoS (Class of Service)
The categories of traffic types in ATM used to distinguish between real time and CPE (Customer Premise Equipment)
CWM (Cisco WAN Manager)
A suite of WAN multiservice management applications, provides powerful fault, configuration, and performance management functionality for WAN multiservice switches. CWM also provides statistics collection, storing the information in an Informix SQL database and allowing simple integration of this data into existing network management and operations systems.


D
Daemon
A program that is not invoked explicitly, but lies dormant waiting for some condition(s) to occur.
DLCI (Data Link Connection Identifier)
This is a value that specifies a PVC or SVC in a Frame Relay network. In the basic Frame Relay specification, DLCIs are locally significant (connected devices might use different values to specify the same connection).
Domain
A collection of managed entities grouped for administrative reasons.
Downstream Rate
The line rate for return messages or data transfers from the network machine to the user's customer's premise machine.
DSL (Digital Subscriber Line)
Modems on either end of a single twisted pair wire that delivers ISDN Basic Rate Access.
DSLAM (Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer)
This is a network device, usually at a telephone company central office, that receives signals from multiple customer Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) connections and puts the signals on a high-speed backbone line using multiplexing techniques. Depending on the product, DSLAM multiplexers connect DSL lines with some combination of asynchronous transfer mode (ATM), Frame Relay, or IP networks. DSLAM enables a phone company to offer business or homes users the fastest phone line technology (DSL) with the fastest backbone network technology (ATM).


E
EM (Element Manager)
A software component that is responsible for a particular component of a network.
EM (Equipment Module)
The equipment module is a plug-in component for Cisco Provisioning Center that provides support for a specific piece of equipment from a specific vendor. It contains a CMS (Configuration Management Services) package, Java packages, and (optionally) a Network Interface package.
Endpoint
For a connection object, endpoint data describes the configuration at the endpoints of the connection. Endpoint data can be further classified into antisymmetric data and independent data.
Equipment Module (EM)
A Cisco Provisioning Center plug-in component which provides support for a specific piece of equipment from a specific vendor. It contains a CMS (Configuration Management Services) package, a client package and optionally a Network Interface.
Equipment Module Model
The set of CMS (Configuration Management Services) object classes supported by a given Equipment Module. An Equipment Module model may include multiple technologies (for example, different objects in the Equipment Module model can be derived from different resource models).
Equipment Module Resource Model
The Equipment Module (EM) Resource Model is Equipment Model specific. With a request from the Service object, the GRM determines which Service elements to update and then uses the EM Resource Model to update them.
Ethernet
One of the most common local area network LAN wiring schemes, Ethernet has a transmission rate of 10 Megabits per second; a newer standard called Fast Exterior Reachable Address


F
Fabric Elements
Fabric elements represent the network "fabric" upon which Services are provisioned. These objects represent the hardware, software, and configurations required to be present before a Service can be added (for example, ports, protocol stacks).
Frame
A packet as it is transmitted over a serial line. The term derives from character oriented protocols where special start-of-frame and end-of-frame characters were added when transmitting packets.
Frame Relay
A cost-effective, lightweight, many-to-many, medium-speed, virtual network, link-layer technology.
FTI (Flow-Through Interface)
The primary interface to Cisco Provisioning Center is the Flow-Through Interface (FTI). This allows a flow-through application (one that uses the Flow-Through Interface) to perform the same Cisco Provisioning Center functions that are available through an interactive session. The main purpose of FTI is to allow other management applications to integrate with Cisco Provisioning Center. For more information on FTI, see the Cisco Provisioning Center Programmer's Guide.
FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
The Internet protocol (and program) used to transfer files between hosts.


G
Generic Service
A Service which is defined using Resource Models only. This kind of Service can be provisioned using any Equipment Module that supports those Resource Models.
GUI (Graphical User Interface)
User environment that uses pictorial as well as textual representations of the input and output of applications and the hierarchical or other data structure in which information is stored. Conventions such as buttons, icons, and windows are typical, and many actions are performed using a pointing device (such as a mouse).


I
IDL (Interface Definition Language)
IDL is a generic term for a language that lets a program or object written in one language communicate with another program written in an unknown language. In distributed object technology, it's important that new objects be able to be sent to any platform environment and discover how to run in that environment. An ORB is an example of a program that would use an interface definition language to "broker" communication between one object program and another.
IDSL (ISDN Digital Subscriber Line)
This uses ISDN transmission technology to deliver data at 128 kbps in an IDSL modem bank connected to a router.
IEC (Inter-Exchange Carrier)
A long distance telephone company.
IP (Internet Protocol)
Originally developed by the Department of Defense to support interworking of dissimilar computers across a network. This protocol works in conjunction with TCP (Transfer Control Protocol) and is usually identified as TCP/IP. A connectionless protocol that operates at the network layer (layer 3) of the OSI model.
IP Address
The 32-bit address assigned to hosts that want to participate in a TCP/ IP Internet.


K
Kb (Kilobit)
1024 bits.
KB (Kilobyte)
1024 bytes (1 byte=8 bits).
Ksh (Korn Shell)
This shell was written by David Korn of Bell labs. It is now provided as the standard shell on Unix systems. It provides all the features of the C and TC shells together with a shell programming language similar to that of the original Bourne shell.


L
L2TP (Layer 2 Tunnelling Protocol)
Protocol allowing PPP sessions to be tunnelled across an arbitrary media to a `home gateway' at an ISP or corporation. The Cisco 6400 aggregates user PPP sessions into L2TP tunnels.
LEC (Local Exchange Carrier)
A telephone carrier that provides customer access to the worldwide public switched network through one of its central offices.
Link
An entity that defines a topological relationship (including available transport capacity) between two nodes in different subnetworks. Multiple links may exist between a pair of subnetworks. Synonymous with logical link.
Link Attribute
A link state parameter that is considered individually to determine whether a given link is acceptable and/or desirable for carrying a given connection.
Link Connection
A link connection (e.g., at the VP (Virtual Path)-level) is a connection capable of transferring information transparently across a link without adding any overhead, such as cells for purposes for monitoring. It is delineated by connection points at the boundary of the subnetwork.
Link Constraint
A restriction on the use of links for path selection for a specific connection.
LPort (Logical Port)
A logical entry to a server machine. These ports are mostly invisible to the user, though you may occasionally see a URL with a port number included in it. These ports do not refer to physical locations; they are set up by server administrators for network trafficing.


M
Managed Object
A persistent object which provides a repository for information representing the configuration (current, pending, suspended views) of a particular managed network element. It has three parts -- attributes, relationships and behavior.
Mb (Megabit)
Approximately 1,000,000 bits.
MB
Approximately 1,000,000 bytes (1 byte=8 bits).
MD (Management Domain)
Specifies the name of the Management Domain that contains the object. MDs are logical groupings of network devices that divide the network into geographical or administrative regions.
MIB (Management Information Base)
A definition of management items for some network component that can be accessed by a network manager. A MIB includes the names of objects it contains and the type of information retained.
MPLS (Multi-Protocol Label Switching)
This is an emerging industry standard upon which tag switching is based.
MPOA (Multiprotocol over ATM)
An effort taking place in the ATM Forum to standardize protocols for the MTP (Message Transfer Part).
Level 1 through 3 protocols of the SS7 protocol stack. MTP 3 (Level 3) is used to support BISUP.


N
NC (Network Connection)
A connection between two ingress and egress points of a network. More specifically, it is a chain of connections in the network.
NE (Network Element)
Network Element objects are a representation of the network - they model the configuration of the equipment using network management object models. Each Equipment Module has its own object model, but all objects in all Equipment Modules are derived from a common set of base classes.
NNI (Network to Network Interface)
An interface between ATM switches defined as the interface between two network nodes.
NNI Resiliency
NNI resiliency includes NNI gateway fail, recover, and rebalance functions when links between subnetworks fail.
NLC (Node Line Card)
One of the component cards used in the Cisco 6400 UAC. These cards provide the interfaces for moving data into and out of the Cisco 6400 system. They can be used as either uplink or downlink interfaces. Different types of line cards support different transmission protocols and data rates.
NOC (Network Operations Center)
The organization responsible for maintaining a network.
Node
A general term used to refer to a computer or related device; often used to refer to a networked computer or device. A node on a map is a graphical symbol which represents a managed object in the network or abstracted objects. A node has an iconic representation while a link has a vector representation. Links can only exist as a connection between two nodes.
nrt-VBR (Non Real-Time Variable Bit Rate
An ATM Forum defined Service category which supports variable bit rate data traffic with average and peak traffic parameters where there is no fixed timing.


O
OAF (Object Attribute File)
Text files that show the visible attributes of object and their interrelationships.
OId (Object Identifier)
The unique identifier for every Cisco Provisioning Center Engine and Equipment Module object instance. It is defined as Class: Instance where Class is the name of the object class and Instance is a unique number within the class assigned by Cisco Provisioning Center.
ORB (Object Request Broker)
In CORBA, an ORB is the programming that acts as a "broker" between a client request for a Service from a distributed object or component and the completion of that request. Having ORB support in a network means that a client program can request a Service without having to understand where the server is in a distributed network or exactly what the interface to the server program looks like. Components can find out about each other and exchange interface information as they are running.
OSS (Operational Support System)
Network management system supporting a specific management function in a carrier network.


P
PA (PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) Aggregation Service)
In ordinary PPP, a computer will use TCP/IP with a standard telephone line and high-speed modem to establish a link between two (and only two) terminal installations. The aggregation Service uses multiplexing and demultiplexing techniques in order to transmit several connections along this link.
Packet
The unit of data sent across a packet switching network.
Physical Port
A physical connection to a computer through which data flows. An "Ethernet port", for example, is where Ethernet network cabling plugs into a computer.
POP (Point of Presence)
The dial-in-point or connection point for users connecting to an ISP.
Port
The abstraction used by Internet transport protocols to distinguish among multiple simultaneous connections to a single destination host.
PPort (Physical Port)
An actual port on a piece of equipment (as opposed to a logical port).
PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol)
This is a protocol that allows a computer to use TCP/IP with a standard telephone line and a high-speed modem to establish a link between two (and only two) terminal installations.
This is a link with a static route defined in advance, usually by manual setup.


Q
QoS (Quality of Service)
Quality of Service is defined on an end-to-end basis in terms of the following attributes of the end-to-end ATM connection:
- Cell Loss Ratio (CLR)
- Cell Transfer Delay (CTD)
- Cell Delay Variation (CDV)


R
Resource Model
A set of CMS (Configuration Management Services) object classes representing a specific technology (for example, Frame Relay). Objects in Equipment Module models are derived from objects in resource models.
RO (Read-Only)
Attributes which are read-only can not be written by Network Management. Only the PNNI (Private Network-Network Interface) Protocol entity may change the value of a read-only attribute. Network Management entities are restricted to only reading such read-only attributes. Read-only attributes are typically for statistical information, including reporting result of actions taken by auto-configuration.
Route
The path that network traffic takes from its source to its destination. The route a datagram may follow can include many gateways and many physical networks. In the Internet, each datagram is routed separately.
Routing
The process of finding a path to a destination host, often via a number of intermediate destinations.
A general term indicating a protocol run between routers and/or route servers in order to exchange information used to allow computation of routes. The result of the routing computation will be one or more forwarding descriptions.
rt-VBR (Real-time Variable Bit Rate)
An ATM Forum defined Service category which supports variable bit rate data traffic with average and peak traffic parameters where there is a fixed timing relationship between samples.


S
SAP (Service Access Points)
The points (source and destination) identify protocols from which a packet has come and to which a packet must be delivered.
Service Application
A Service Application is a package that provides a Service Provider with the ability to provision a particular Service offering (for example, outsourced modem pool). Each Service Provider has a distinctive set of Service offerings in order to differentiate that Service Provider from competitors. Therefore there are likely to be a large number of Service packages, grouped into broad categories which are similar (for example, outsourced modem pool) but customized for the individual Service Provider clients. A Service Application may contain multiple Service Objects.
Service Element
Service Elements represent the individual low-level objects that are created and modified in order to provision a Service (for example, PVCs, Access Control Lists, etc.). Service Elements are manipulated by Service Objects and are applied to the network under change control
Service Element Profiles
Profiles are used to store default attribute values for Service Elements, such that it is not necessary for a Service Object to supply values for all of the attributes. Instead the Service Object can supply the name of a profile, and the Service Element itself retrieves the individual attribute values from the profile. In this way "canned" Service Element definitions can be created.
Service Instance
A Service that has been deployed on a single Cisco 6400.
Service Profile
This profile will capture the relevant information for a Service instance of a particular Service category. The profile can then be applied to one or more Service instances, and the data edited if necessary. See Profile.
Session
Operations within Cisco Provisioning Center involve the concept of a session. A session is the enveloping context associated with a user, and all clients and servers that the user is using work within the context of a session.
Single-step Provisioning
The phrase single-step Service provisioning refers to the ability to configure a network Service as if it was a single change to the network.
SO (Service Object)
The Service object is a plug-in component for Cisco Provisioning Center that can provision a specific end-user Service (for example, VPN). Each instance represents a business agreement between two business units - the Service provider and the Service consumer.
Specific Service
A Service which is defined using EM Models (or a combination of EM Models and Resource Models). This kind of Service can only be provisioned using those specific EM.


T
Transaction
Transactions provide context for service and configuration changes. Interrelated changes are applied in the context of a single, network-wide transaction. If one of the changes fails, the entire transaction is rolled back, leaving the database in a consistent state.


U
UBR (Unspecified Bit Rate)
UBR is an ATM Service category that does not specify traffic relayed Service guarantees. Specifically, UBR does not include the notion of a per-connection negotiated bandwidth. UBR does not make any numerical commitments with respect to the cell loss ratio experienced by a UBR connection, or as to the cell transfer delay experienced by cells on the connection.
UNI (User to Network Interface)
An interface point between ATM end users and a private ATM switch, or between a private ATM switch and the public carrier ATM network. UNI is the standard to define connections between users or end stations and a local switch.
UNI Resiliency
UNI Resiliency includes UNI fail and recover functions when a foreground logical port fails.


V
VBR (Variable Bit Rate)
An ATM Forum defined Service category which supports variable bit rate data traffic with average and peak traffic parameters.
Version
Data which represents the configuration of a CMS (Configuration Management Services) object at a particular time. The following versions are defined:
Current Version: Data which represents the actual running configuration of a network element. There is at most one current version.
Pending Version: Data which represents a configuration that has been defined based on the current version, but not yet made available to the network element. There is at most one pending version.
Viewer
A graphical user interface window.
VPN (Virtual Private Network)
A private network constructed within a public network infrastructure, such as the Internet or a Service provider's IP, Frame Relay, or ATM public infrastructure.


W
WAN (Wide Area Network)
This is a network which spans a large geographic area relative to the office or campus environment of a LAN (Local Area Network).