Cisco IOS XR XML API Guide, Cisco IOS XR Release 4.1
Cisco IOS XR Perl Scripting Toolkit
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Cisco IOS XR Perl Scripting Toolkit

Table Of Contents

Cisco IOS XR Perl Scripting Toolkit

Cisco IOS XR Perl Scripting Toolkit Concepts

Security Implications for the Cisco IOS XR Perl Scripting Toolkit

Prerequisites for Installing the Cisco IOS XR Perl Scripting Toolkit

Installing the Cisco IOS XR Perl Scripting Toolkit

Using the Cisco IOS XR Perl XML API in a Perl Script

Handling Types of Errors for the Cisco IOS XR Perl XML API

Starting a Management Session on a Router

Closing a Management Session on a Router

Sending an XML Request to the Router

Using Response Objects

Using the Error Objects

Using the Configuration Services Methods

Using the Cisco IOS XR Perl Data Object Interface

Understanding the Perl Data Object Documentation

Generating the Perl Data Object Documentation

Creating Data Objects

Specifying the Schema Version to Use When Creating a Data Object

Using Data Operation Methods on a Data Object

get_data Method

find_data Method

get_keys Method

get_entries Method

set_data Method

delete_data Method

Using the Batching API

batch_start Method

batch_send Method

Displaying Data and Keys Returned by the Data Operation Methods

Specifying the Session to Use for the Data Operation Methods

Cisco IOS XR Perl Notification and Alarm API

Registering for Alarms

Deregistering an Existing Alarm Registration

Deregistering All Registration on a Particular Session

Receiving an Alarm on a Management Session

Using the Debug and Logging Facilities

Debug Facility Overview

Logging Facility Overview

Examples of Using the Cisco IOS XR Perl XML API

Configuration Examples

Setting the IP Address of an Interface

Configuring a Simple BGP Neighbor

Adding a List of Neighbors to a BGP Neighbor Group

Displaying the Members of Each BGP Neighbor Group

Setting Up ISIS on an Interface

Finding the Circuit Type That is Currently Configured for an Interface for ISIS

Configuring a New Instance, Area, and Interface for OSPF

Getting a List of the Usernames That are Configured on the Router

Finding the IP Address of All Interfaces That Have IP Configured

Adding an Entry to the Access Control List

Denying Access to a Set of Interfaces from a Particular IP Address

Configuring a New Static Route Entry

Operational Examples

Retrieving the Operational Information for All Interfaces on the Router

Retrieving the Link State Database for a Particular Level for ISIS

Getting a List of All Interfaces on the System

Retrieving the Combined Interface and IP Information for Each Interface

Listing the Hostname and Interface for Each ISIS Neighbor

Recreating the Output of the show ip interfaces CLI Command

Producing a Textual Output Similar to the show bgp neighbors CLI Command

Displaying Tabular XML Data in a Generic HTML Table Using XSLT

Displaying the Interface State in a Customized HTML Table

Displaying the BGP Neighbor Operational Data in a Complex HTML Format

Performing Actions Whenever Certain Events Occur


Cisco IOS XR Perl Scripting Toolkit


This chapter describes the Cisco IOS XR Perl Scripting Toolkit as an alternative method to existing router management methods. This method enables the router to be managed by a Perl script running on a separate machine. Management commands and data are sent to, and from, the router in the form of XML over either a Telnet or an SSH connection. The well-defined and consistent structure of XML, which is used for both commands and data, makes it easy to write scripts that can interactively manage the router, display information returned from the router in the format required, or manage multiple routers at once.

These sections describe how to use the Cisco IOS XR Perl Scripting Toolkit:

Cisco IOS XR Perl Scripting Toolkit Concepts

Security Implications for the Cisco IOS XR Perl Scripting Toolkit

Prerequisites for Installing the Cisco IOS XR Perl Scripting Toolkit

Installing the Cisco IOS XR Perl Scripting Toolkit

Using the Cisco IOS XR Perl XML API in a Perl Script

Handling Types of Errors for the Cisco IOS XR Perl XML API

Starting a Management Session on a Router

Closing a Management Session on a Router

Sending an XML Request to the Router

Using Response Objects

Using the Error Objects

Using the Configuration Services Methods

Using the Cisco IOS XR Perl Data Object Interface

Cisco IOS XR Perl Notification and Alarm API

Examples of Using the Cisco IOS XR Perl XML API

Cisco IOS XR Perl Scripting Toolkit Concepts

Table 16-1 describes the toolkit concepts. Some sample scripts are modified and show how to use the API in your own scripts.

Table 16-1 List of Concepts for the IOS XR Perl Scripting Toolkit 

Concept
Definition

Cisco IOS XR Perl XML API

Consists of the core of the toolkit and provides the ability to create management sessions, send management requests, and receive responses by using Perl objects and methods.

Cisco IOS XR Perl Data Object API

Allows management requests to be sent and responses received entirely using Perl objects and data structures without any knowledge of the underlying XML.

Cisco IOS XR Perl Notification/Alarm API

Allows a script to register for notifications (for example, alarms), on a management session and receive the notifications asynchronously as Perl objects.


Security Implications for the Cisco IOS XR Perl Scripting Toolkit

Similar to using the CLI over a Telnet or Secured Shell (SSH) connection, all authentication and authorization are handled by authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA) on the router. A script prompts you to enter a password at run time, which ensures that passwords never get stored on the client machine. Therefore, the security implications for using the toolkit are identical to the CLI over the same transport.

Prerequisites for Installing the Cisco IOS XR Perl Scripting Toolkit

To use the toolkit, you must have installed Perl version 5.6 on the client machine that runs UNIX and Linux. To use the SSH transport option, you must have the SSH client executable installed on the machine and in your path.

You need to install these specific standard Perl modules to use various functions:

XML::LibXML—This module is essential for using the Perl XML API and requires that the libxml2 library be installed on the system first. This must be the version that is compatible with the version of XML::LibXML. The toolkit is tested to work with XML::LibXML version 1.58 and libxml2 version 2.6.6. If you are installing libxml2 from a source, you must apply the included patch file before compiling.

Term::ReadKey (optional but recommended)—This module reads passwords without displaying them on the screen.

Net::Telnet—This module is needed if you are using the Telnet or SSH transport modules.

If one of the modules is not available in the current version, you are warned during the installation process. Before installing the toolkit, you should install the current versions of the modules. You can obtain all modules from this location: http://www.cpan.org/

These modules are not necessary for using the API, but are required to run some sample scripts:

XML::LibXSLT—This module is needed for the sample scripts that use XSLT to produce HTML pages. The module also requires that the libxslt library be installed on the system first. The toolkit is tested to work with XML::LibXSLT version 1.57 and libxslt version 1.1.3.

Mail::Send—This module is needed only for the notifications sample script.

Installing the Cisco IOS XR Perl Scripting Toolkit

The Cisco IOS XR Perl Scripting Toolkit is distributed in a file named: Cisco-IOS_XR-Perl-Scripting-Toolkit-<version>.tar.gz.

To install the Cisco IOS XR Perl Scripting Toolkit, perform these steps:


Step 1 Extract the contents from the directory in which the file resides by entering this command:

tar -f Cisco-IOS_XR-Perl-Scripting-Toolkit-<version>.tar.gz -xzC <destination>

Table 16-2 defines the parameters.

Table 16-2 Toolkit Installation Directory Parameters 

Parameter
Description

<version>

Defines the version of the toolkit to install, for example, version 1.0.

<destination>

Specifies the existing directory in which to create the toolkit installation directory. A directory called Cisco-IOS_XR-Perl-Scripting-Toolkit-<version> is created within the <destination> directory along with the extracted contents.


Step 2 Use the cd command to change to the toolkit installation directory and enter this command:

perl Makefile.PL

If the command gives a warning that one of the prerequisite modules is not found, download and install the applicable module from the Comprehensive Perl Archive Network (CPAN) before using the API.

Step 3 Use the make command to maintain a set of programs, as shown in this example:

make

Step 4 Use the make install command, as shown in this example:

make install

Ensure that you have the applicable permission requirements for the installation. You may need to have root privileges.

If you do not encounter any errors, the toolkit is installed successfully. The Perl modules are copied into the appropriate directory, and you can use your own Perl scripts.


Using the Cisco IOS XR Perl XML API in a Perl Script

To use the Cisco IOS XR Perl XML API in a Perl application, import the module by including this statement at the top of the script:

use Cisco::IOS_XR;

If you are using the Data Object interface, you can specify extra import options in the statement. For more information about the objects, see the "Creating Data Objects" section.

Handling Types of Errors for the Cisco IOS XR Perl XML API

These types of errors can occur when using the Cisco IOS XR Perl XML API:

Errors returned from the router—Specify that the errors are produced during the processing of an XML request and are returned to you in an XML response document. For more information about how these errors are handled, see the "Using the Error Objects" section.

Errors produced within the Perl XML API modules—Specify that the script cannot continue. The module causes the script to be terminated with the appropriate error message. If the script writer wants the script to handle these error types, the writer must write the die handlers (for example, enclose the call to the API function within an eval{} block).

Starting a Management Session on a Router

Before any requests are sent, a management session must be started on the router, which is done by creating a new object of type named Cisco::IOS_XR. The new object is used for all further requests during the session, and the session is ended when the object is destroyed. A Cisco::IOS_XR object is created by calling Cisco::IOS_XR::new.

Table 16-3 lists the optional parameters specified as arguments.

Table 16-3 Argument Definitions 

Name
Description

use_command_line

Controls whether or not the new() method parses the command-line options given when the script was invoked. If the value of the argument is true, which is the default, the command-line options specify or override any of the subsequent arguments and control debug and logging options. The value of 0 defines the value as false.

interactive

If the value of the argument is true, the script prompts you for the username and password if they have not been specified either in the script or on the command line. The Term::ReadKey module must be installed.

The most secure way of using the toolkit is not to have the input echoed to the screen, which avoids hard coding or any record of passwords being used. The default value is false, which means that the script does not ask for user input. As a command-line option, the interactive argument does not take any arguments. You can specify -interactive to turn on the interactive mode.

transport

Means by which the Perl application should connect to the router, which defaults to Telnet. If a different value is specified, the new() method searches for a package called Cisco::IOS_XR::Transport::<transport_name>. If found, the Perl application uses that package to connect to the router.

ssh_version

If the chosen transport option is SSH and the SSH executable on your system supports SSH v2, specifies which version of SSH you want to use for the connection. The valid values are 1 and 2. If the SSH executable supports only version 1, an error is caused by specifying the ssh_version argument.

host

Specifies the name or IP address of the router to connect. The router console or auxiliary ports should not be used because they are likely to cause problems for the script when logging in and offer significantly lower performance than a management port.

port

Specifies the TCP port for the connection. The default value depends on the transport being used.

username

Specifies the username to log in to the router.

password

Specifies the corresponding password.

connection_timeout

Specifies the timeout value that is used to connect and log in to the session. If not specified, the default value is 5 seconds.

response_timeout

Specifies the timeout value that is used when waiting for a response to an XML request. If not specified, the default value is 10 seconds.

prompt

Specifies the prompt that is displayed on the router after a successful log in. The default is <host>#.


This example shows the arguments given using the standard Perl hash notation:

use Cisco::IOS_XR;
my $session = new Cisco::IOS_XR(transport => 'telnet',
                                 host => 'router1',
                                 port => 7000,
                                 username => 'john',
                                 password => 'smith',
                                 connection_timeout => 3);

Alternatively, the arguments can be specified in a file. For example:

The contents of `/usrs/trice/perlxml.cfg':

[myrouter]
transport = telnet
host = router1
username = john
password = smith
connection_timeout = 3

In the script, the file and profile name are specified:

use Cisco : : IOS_XR;
my $session = new Cisco: :IOS_XR(config_file => 
                        `/usrs/trice/perlxml.cfg', 
                        profile => `myrouter');

Table 16-4 describes the additional command-line options that can be specified.

Table 16-4 Command-Line Options 

Name
Description

debug

Turns on the specified debug type and can be repeated to turn on more than one type.

logging

Turns on the specified logging type and can be repeated to turn on more than one type.

log_file

Specifies the name of the log file to use.

telnet_input_log

Specifies the file used for the Telnet input log, if you are using Telnet.

telnet_dump_log

Specifies the file used for the Telnet dump log, if you are using Telnet.


To use the command-line options when invoking a script, use the -option value (assuming the option has a value). The option name does not need to be given in full, but must be long enough to be distinguished from other options. This is displayed:

perl my_script.pl -host my_router -user john -interactive -debug xml

Closing a Management Session on a Router

When an object of type Cisco::IOS_XR is created, the transport connection to the router and any associated resources on the router are maintained until the object is destroyed and automatically cleaned. For most scripts, the process should occur automatically when the script ends.

To close a particular session during the course of the script, use the close() method. You can perform an operation on a large set of routers sequentially, and not keep all sessions open for the duration of the script, as displayed in this example:

my $session1 = new Cisco::IOS_XR(host => `router1', ...);
#do some stuff
$session1->close;
my $session2 = new Cisco::IOS_XR(host => `router2', ...);
# do some stuff
...

Sending an XML Request to the Router

Requests and responses pass between the client and router in the form of XML. Depending on whether the XML is stored in a string or file, you can construct an XML request that is sent to the router using either the send_req or send_req_file method. Some requests are sent without specifying any XML by using the configuration services methods; for example, commit and lock or the Data Object interface.

This example shows how to send an XML request in the form of a string:

my $xml_req_string = `<?xml...><Request>...</Request>';
my $response = $session->send_req($xml_req_string);

This example shows how to send a request stored in a file:

my $response = $session->send_req_file('request.xml');

Using Response Objects

Both of the send_req and send_req_file methods return a Cisco::IOS_XR::Response object, which contains the XML response returned by the router.


Note Both send methods handle iterators in the background; so if a response consists of many parts, the response object returned is the result of merging them back together.


Retrieving the Response XML as a String

This example shows how to use the to_string method:

$xml_response_string = $response->to_string;

Writing the Response XML Directly to a File

This example shows how to use the write_file method by specifying the name of the file to be written:

$response->write_file('response.xml');

Retrieving the Data Object Model Tree Representation of the Response

This example shows how to retrieve a Data Object Model (DOM) tree representation for the response:

my $document = $response->get_dom_tree;

You should be familiar with the DOM, which an XML document is represented in an object tree structure. For more information, see this URL:

http://www.w3.org/DOM/


Note The returned DOM tree type will be of type XML::LibXML::Document, because this is the form in which the response is held internally. The method is quick, because it does not perform extra parsing and should be used in preference to retrieving the string form of the XML and parsing it again (unless a different DOM library is used).


Determining if an Error Occurred While Processing a Request

This example shows how to determine whether an error has occurred while processing a request:

my $error = $response->get_error;
if (defined($error)) {
	die $error;
}

Use the get_error method to return one error from the response. This returns an error object that represents the first error found or is undefined if none are found.

Retrieving a List of All Errors Found in the Response XML

This example shows how to list all errors that occur, rather than just one, by using the get_errors method:

my @errors = $response->get_errors;

The get_errors method returns an array of error objects that represents all errors that were found in the response XML. For more information, see the "Using the Error Objects" section.

Using the Error Objects

Error objects are returned when calling the get_error and get_errors methods on a response object, and are used to represent an error encountered in an XML response. Table 16-5 lists the methods for the object.

Table 16-5 List of Methods for the Object 

Method
Description

get_message

Returns the error message string that was found in the XML.

get_code

Returns the corresponding error code.

get_element

Returns the tag name of the XML element in which the error was found.

get_dom_node

Returns a reference to the element node in the response DOM1 tree.

to_string

Returns a string that contains the error message, code, and element name. If the error object is used in a scalar context, the method is used automatically to convert it to a string. This example displays all information in an error:

Error encountered in object ConfederationPeerASTable: 'XMLMDA' detected 
the 'warning' condition 'The XML request does not conform to the schema. 
A child element of the element on which this error appears includes a 
non-existent naming, filter, or value element. Please check the request 
against the schema.' Error code: 0x4368a000

1 DOM = Data Object Model.


Using the Configuration Services Methods

Methods are provided to enable the standard configuration services operations to be performed without knowledge of the underlying XML. These are the operations that are usually performed at the start or end of a configuration session, such as locking the running configuration or saving the configuration to a file.

Committing the Target Configuration

The config_commit() function takes these optional arguments:

mode

label

comment

Replace

KeepFailedConfig

IgnoreOtherSessions

Confirmed

This example shows how to use the config_commit function:

$response = $session->config_commit(Label => 'Example1', Comment => 'Just an example');

A response object is returned from which any errors can be extracted, if desired. To retrieve the commit ID that was assigned to the commit upon success, you can call the get_commit_id() method on the response object, as shown in this example:

$commit_id = $response->get_commit_id();

Locking and Unlocking the Running Configuration

This example shows how to use the config_lock and config_unlock functions, which takes no arguments:

$error = $session->config_lock;
$error = $session->config_unlock;

Loading a Configuration from a File

This example shows how to contain a filename as an argument:

$error = $session->config_load(Filename => 'test_config.cfg');

Loading a Failed Configuration

This example shows how to use the config_load_failed function, which takes no arguments:

$error = $session->config_load_failed;

Saving a Configuration to a File

This example shows how to use two arguments for the config_save() function:

$error = $session->config_save(Filename => 'disk0:/my_config.cfg', Overwrite => 'true');

The first argument shows how to use the filename to which to write and the Boolean overwrite setting. The filename must be given with a full path. The second argument is optional.

Clearing the Target Configuration

This example shows how to use the config_clear function, which takes no arguments:

$error = $session->config_clear;

Getting a List of Recent Configuration Events

This example shows how to use the config_get_history function that uses the optional arguments Maximum, EventType, Reverse, and Detail:

$response = $session->config_get_history(EventType => `All', Maximum =>10, Detail => 
`true');

It returns a Response object, on which the method get entries can be called.

Getting a List of Recent Configuration Commits That Can Be Rolled Back

This example shows how to use the config_get_commitlist function that uses the optional arguments Maximum and Detail:

$response = $session->config_get_commitlist (Maximum => 10, Detail => `true');

It returns a Response object, on which the method get entries can be called. This returns an array of Entry objects, on which the method get key can be called to retrieve the CommitID, and get data to retrieve the rest of the fields.

Loading Changes Associated with a Set of Commits

This example shows how to use the config_load_commit_changes function to load into the target configuration the changes that were made during one or more commits, and it uses one of three possible arguments: ForCommitID, SinceCommitID, or Previous:

$error = $session ->config_load_commit_changes (ForCommitID => 1000000072);
#Loads the changes that were made in commit 1000000072

$error = $session ->config_load_commit_changes (SinceCommitID => 1000000072);
#Loads the changes made in commits 1000000072, 1000000073...up to latest

$error = $session ->config_load_commit_changes (Previous => 4);
#Loads the changes made in the last 4 commits

Rolling Back to a Previous Configuration

This example shows how to use the config_rollback() function that uses the optional arguments Label and Comment, and exactly one of the two arguments CommitID or Previous or takes only TrialConfiguration:

$error = $session->config_rollback(Label => `Rollback test', CommitID => 1000000072);

Loading Changes Associated with Rolling Back Configuration

This example shows how to use the config_load_rollback_changes function to load into the target configuration the changes that would be made if you were to roll back one or more commits. The function uses one of three arguments: ForCommitID, ToCommitID and Previous. For example:

$error = $session->config_load_rollback_changes (ForCommitID => 1000000072)
# Loads the changes that would be made to rollback commit 1000000072

$error = $session->config_load_rollback_changes (ToCommitID => 1000000072);
# Loads the changes that would be made to rollback all commits up to and including commit 
1000000072

Getting a List of Current Configuration Sessions

This example shows how to use the config_get_sessions function that uses the optional argument Detail to return detailed information about configuration sessions. For example:

$response = $session->config_get_sessions (Detail => `true');

It returns a response object in which the method get_entries can be called. This returns an array of entry objects in which the method get_key can be called to retrieve the session ID, and get_data method to retrieve the rest of the fields.

Clearing Configuration Session

This example shows how to use config_clear_session function that accepts a configuration session ID SessionID as argument and clears that configuration session:

$error=$session->config_clear_sessions (SessionID => `00000000-000a00c9-00000000');Sending 
a Command-Line Interface Configuration Command

This example shows how to use the config_cli() function, which takes a string argument containing the CLI format configuration that you want to apply to the router:

$response = $session->config_cli($cli_command);

To retrieve the textual CLI response from the response object returned, use the get_cli_response() method, as shown in this example:

$response_text = $response->get_cli_response();


Note Apart from the config_commit, config_get_history, config_get_commitlist, config_get_sessions and config_cli methods, each of the other methods return a reference to an error object if an error occurs or is undefined. For more information, see the "Using the Error Objects" section.


Using the Cisco IOS XR Perl Data Object Interface

Instead of having to specify the XML requests explicitly, the interface allows access to management data using a Perl notation. The Data Object interface is a Perl representation of the management data hierarchy stored on the router. It consists of objects of type Cisco::IOS_XR::Data, which corresponds to items in the IOS_XR management data hierarchy, and a set of methods for performing data operations on them.

To use the Data Object interface, knowledge of the underlying management data hierarchy is required. The management data on an Cisco IOS XR router are under one of six root objects, namely Configuration, Operational, Action, AdminConfiguration, AdminOperational, and AdminAction. The objects that lie below these objects in the hierarchy, along with definitions of any datatypes or filters that are used by them, are documented in the Perl Data Object Documentation.

A hash structure is defined to be a scalar (that is, basic) type; for example, string or number, a reference to a hash whose values are hash structures, or a reference to an array whose values are hash structures. This standard Perl data structure corresponds naturally to the structure of management data on an Cisco IOS XR router. This example shows how to use a hash structure:

# basic type
my $struct1 = `john'; 
# reference to a hash of basic types
my $struct2 = {Forename => $struct1, Surname => `smith'};
# reference to an array of basic types
my $struct3 = (`dog', `budgie', `cat');
# reference to a hash of references and basic types
my $struct4 = {Name => $struct2, Age => `30', Pets => $struct3};

These sections describe how to use the Perl Data Object Documentation:

Understanding the Perl Data Object Documentation

Generating the Perl Data Object Documentation

Creating Data Objects

Specifying the Schema Version to Use When Creating a Data Object

Using Data Operation Methods on a Data Object

Using the Batching API

Displaying Data and Keys Returned by the Data Operation Methods

Specifying the Session to Use for the Data Operation Methods

Understanding the Perl Data Object Documentation

The Perl Data Object Documentation consists of many files, each containing a subtree of the total management data hierarchy. The main part of each filename tells you the area of management data to which that file refers, and the suffix usually tells you below which root object that file's data lies. For example, a file containing configuration data usually ends in _cfg.html. Some files may not contain any object definitions, but just some datatypes or filter definitions and usually end in _common.html.

For leaf objects, the object definition describes the data that the object contains. For nonleaf objects, the definition provides a list of the object's children within the tree. More precisely, the object definition consists of these items:

Name of the object.

Brief description of what data is contained in the object or in the subtree below.

List of the required task IDs that are required to access the data in the object and subtree.

List of parent objects and the files in which they are defined, if the object is the top-level object in that file.

If the object is a leaf object (for example, data is contained without child objects), and its name is not unique within that file, parent objects are listed.

If the object is a table entry, a list of the keys that are needed to identify a particular item in that table. For each key, a name, description, and datatype are given.

If the object is a table, a list of the filters that can be applied to that table.

If the object is a leaf object, a list of the value items that are contained. For each value item, a name, description, and datatype are given.

If the object is a leaf object, its default value (for example, the values for each of its value items that would be assumed if the object did not exist), if there is one.

List of the data operation methods, get_data, set_data, and so forth that are applicable to the object. For more information, see the "Specifying the Schema Version to Use When Creating a Data Object" section

Generating the Perl Data Object Documentation

The Perl Data Object Documentation must be generated from the schema distribution tar file "All-schemas-CRS-1-"release".tar.gz", where "release" is the release of the Cisco IOS XR software that you have installed on the router.

To generate the Perl Data Object Documentation:


Step 1 From the perl subdirectory under the extracted contents of the previously mentioned Schema tarball, copy all *.dat files into the toolkit installation directory Cisco-IOS_XR-Perl-Scripting-Toolkit-"version"/dat (default) or a selected directory for the .dat files. These .dat files are the XML files that are used to generate the HTML documentation.

Step 2 From the perl subdirectory under the extracted contents of the previously mentioned Schema tarball, copy all the *.html files into the toolkit installation directory Cisco-IOS_XR-Perl-Scripting-Toolkit-"version"/html(default) or a selected directory for the .html.

(The default .html subdirectory already contains two files that were extracted with the toolkit distribution: root_objects.html and common_datatypes.html. These files are automatically copied to the selected .html directory, if a non-default directory is selected, upon performing this step).

Step 3 Run the script generate_html_documentation.pl, which is available in the distribution Cisco-IOS_XR-Perl-Scripting-Toolkit-"version"/scripts directory, giving the appropriate directories for the .dat and .html files, when prompted.

Step 4 If the script fails, indicating any error .dat files, evaluate the .dat file to confirm that it is not of "0" size and that it has a header as in this example:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

<!--

Copyright (c) 2004-2005 by cisco Systems, Inc.
All rights reserved.

If not, then remove the .dat file and rerun the script.

Linked HTML files are created in the selected (or default) html directory. The Perl Data Object API documentation can be traversed using the links starting at root_objects.html.


Creating Data Objects

Data objects form a tree corresponding to a section of the data hierarchy. The first object to be created is one of the root data objects, and is created by a call to Cisco::IOS_XR::Data::<object_name>. For example, <object_name> is one of these objects:

Configuration

Operational

Action

AdminOperational

AdminAction

This example shows how to create the Operational object:

my $oper = Cisco::IOS_XR::Data::Operational;

Because the syntax is rather lengthy for a task that is relatively common, there is a shorter way of creating a data object, which eliminates the need for the Cisco::IOS_XR::Data:: at the front of the function name. This is achieved by importing the symbols for the root data object functions when using the Cisco::IOS_XR package at the top of the script. This example shows how to import the Configuration and Operational functions:

use Cisco::IOS_XR qw(Configuration Operational);

This example shows how to import all the root data objects without listing them explicitly:

use Cisco::IOS_XR qw(:root_objects);


Note If there is a function in the script's name space with a name that is one of Configuration, Operational, and so forth, the root data objects cannot be imported with the use of Cisco::IOS_XR qw(Configuration Operational) and refer to the objects simply as Configuration. This may not have the desired effect due to the ambiguity. Instead, you have to refer to them with the more lengthy (that is, fully qualified) syntax, Cisco::IOS_XR::Data::Configuration.


If the root data object is Configuration, additional arguments can be specified that are given as name and value pairs. The Source argument can have values such as ChangedConfig, CurrentConfig, MergedConfig (the default value if the Source argument is not specified), and CommitChanges. If CommitChanges is specified, one of the two arguments ForCommitID and SinceCommitID must also be specified, as shown in this example:

my $config = Configuration(Source => `CommitChanges', ForCommitID => 1000083);

Data objects can be created from existing ones by calling a method on the existing object for which the name is that of the new object that you want to create. The object from which the new object is created is known as its parent, as shown in this example:

my $config = Configuration;
my $bgp = $config->BGP;

If references to the intermediate objects are not required, the syntax allows a very compact way of creating objects as the methods can be strung together. This example shows how to create a BGP object whose parent is Configuration:

my $bgp = Configuration->BGP;

If an object is an item in a table, its keys can be specified as arguments when the object is created by using the standard Perl hash notation. This example shows how to create an object corresponding to the interface configuration for interface Ethernet 0/0/0/0:

my $if_conf = Configuration->InterfaceConfigurationTable->

    InterfaceConfiguration(`Active' => `act', `Name' => `Ethernet0/0/0/0');

Some table keys have a child object and use brackets {} to indicate the child objects of the key. For example, use this CLI to create an object that corresponds to a router static entry:

    router static
        address-family ipv4 unicast
          0.0.0.0/0.12.25.0.1
        !
       !

my $router_static = Configuration->RouterStatic->DefaultVRF;
my $static_ipv4 = $router_static>AddressFamily->VRFIPV4->VRFUnicast;
my $static_prefix - $static_ipv4->VRFPrefixTable->VRFPrefix(Prefix => {IPV4Address 
=>  `0.0.0.0'}, Length => `0');
my $route = $static_prefix ->VRFRouteTable;
my $nexthop = $route->VRFNexthopInfoTable->VRFNexthopInfo(Address => {IPV4Address => 
`12.25.0.1'});

Keys can also be specified by passing a hash structure as an argument. The hash structure would usually be returned as a key from one of the data operation methods; for example, get_keys, but can be defined explicitly, as in this alternative to the previous example:

my $key = {`Active' => `act', `Name' => `Ethernet0/0/0/0'};
my $if_conf = Configuration->InterfaceConfigurationTable->InterfaceConfiguration($key);

There may be some occasions when it is better to keep references to the intermediate data objects, such as when you want to refer to more than one item in a table. This example shows how to refer to more than one interface in the interface configuration table:

my $if_1_key = {`Active' => `act', `Name' => `Ethernet0/0/0/0'};
my $if_2_key = {`Active' => `act', `Name' => `POS0/4/0/0'};
my $if_conf_table = Configuration->InterfaceConfigurationTable;
my $if_conf_1 = $if_conf_table->InterfaceConfiguration($if_1_key);
my $if_conf_2 = $if_conf_table->InterfaceConfiguration($if_2_key);

Currently, there is no checking within the library that the object names specified are valid. However, when a data operation is performed on a data object, and if the object hierarchy is invalid, the response from the router should contain an error to this effect. For information on the valid object names in the data hierarchy, see the "Understanding the Perl Data Object Documentation" section.

Specifying the Schema Version to Use When Creating a Data Object

To specify which version of a particular schema you are using, pass this information as arguments when creating the relevant data object. The router checks this information against its own schema versions when it receives a request, and rejects the request if the versions are not compatible.

The object in which this information should be specified is the top-level object within the schema whose version you want to specify. This information is found at the top of the page of the schema. For example, you may want to specify that using BGP schema version 1.4. This example shows how to create a BGP object. (The version numbers shown are hypothetical. Substitute the actual version numbers when using this command.)

my $bgp = Configuration->BGP(MajorVersion => 1, MinorVersion => 4);

The object can then be used in the normal way to create child objects. Whenever any data operation request is sent using one of these objects, the specified version information is always included.

Using Data Operation Methods on a Data Object

To access management data on the router, data operation methods, which can be called on data objects, are provided for the getting, setting, and deletion of corresponding data. The management session in which they act is the current session, and usually the most recent Cisco::IOS_XR object to be created.

The types of data operation methods that are allowed depend on what the root data object is for the data object in question. For example, if the root object is Configuration, getting, setting, and deletion are allowed. If it is Operational, only getting is allowed. The get methods that can be used also depend on whether the data object in question is a leaf object or a table object.

Each of the data operation methods returns a response object from which any errors can be extracted. For more information, see the "Using Response Objects" section. For the methods that return values of some sort, a method of the same name is used to actually extract the information required from the response object.

get_data Method

The get_data method can be called on a leaf object and is used to retrieve the data contained in that object. It returns a response object from which the desired data can be extracted by calling the method of the same name, get_data.

This example shows how to get the data for the interface configuration:

my $response = $if_conf->get_data;
if (defined($response->get_error)) {
   die $response->get_error;
} else {
   my $data = $response->get_data;
   ...
}

find_data Method

The find_data method performs a get request on a leaf object, but with the option of specifying key values for any table entries that occur within the hierarchy as a wildcard rather than as explicit values.

The XML response then contains every occurrence of the required object that matches the combination of key values and wildcards specified in the hierarchy.


Note Wildcards are supported only for configuration data.


Currently, the function does not interpret the XML response in any way, due to the potentially complex structure of the returned data, and so the returned response object can be used only to extract the XML and other errors in the usual way.

When specifying the keys for a table entry object, if you want one of the keys to be a wildcard rather than specified explicitly, pass an argument called wildcard value, where the value is the name of the key. If access control lists (ACLs) have been configured, this example shows how to get the inbound ACLs of all interfaces on the router:

my $response = $if_conf_table->
    InterfaceConfiguration(Active => `act', wildcard => `Name')->
    IPV4PacketFilter->Inbound->find_data;

If you want one or more of the keys for a particular table entry to be wildcards, the value of the wildcard can be a reference to an array containing the names of those keys. For example, to include any nonactive interface configuration in the above example, use this syntax:

my $response = $if_conf_table->
    InterfaceConfiguration(wildcard => [`Name', `Active'])->
    IPV4PacketFilter->Inbound->find_data;

get_keys Method

The get_keys method must be called only on a table object and is used to retrieve a list of the keys for each item in the table. It returns a response object from which the keys can be extracted by calling the method of the same name, get_keys. This returns an array of hash structures containing the key values. A returned key can also be used as the parameter to a new data object.

This example shows how to get the keys for each item in the configuration table, and then for each key, how to create a data object and perform some operations with it:

my $response = $if_conf_table->get_keys;
if (defined($response->get_error)) {
    die $response->get_error;
} else {
   foreach my $key ($response->get_keys) {
       my $interface = $if_conf_table->InterfaceConfiguration($key);
       # do something with this object such as get_data...
   }
}

These two optional arguments can be specified as name and value pairs:

Count—Determines the maximum number of table entries that will be returned.

Filter—Specifies a reference to a hash whose elements are the arguments to the filter plus an element Filtername that specifies the filter to use, as shown in this example:

my $table = Operational->BGP->VRFTable->VRF(VrfName='VRF1')->NeighborTable;
my $filter = {FilterName => `BGP_ASFilter', AS => 6};
my $response = $table->get_keys(Count => 10, Filter => $filter);

get_entries Method

Similarly, the get_entries method must be called only on a table object, and is used to retrieve a list of the keys and data for each entry in the table.

It returns a response object from which the entries can be extracted by calling the method of the same name, get_entries. This method returns an array of entry objects. The get_key and get_data methods can then be called on an entry object to extract the key and data for that entry.

This example shows how to get an array of the keys and data for each item in the interface configuration table and perform some operations with each:

my $response = $if_conf_table->get_entries;
if (defined($response->get_error)) {
    die $response->get_error;
} else {
    foreach my $entry ($response->get_entries) {
        my $key = $entry->get_key;
        my $data = $entry->get_data;
        # do something with these values...
    }
}

The same optional arguments, Count and Filter, can be specified in the get_keys method.

set_data Method

The set_data method is called only on leaf objects, and sets the data for the object in the specified argument. The argument must be a hash structure; for example, the data is returned by a previous call of get_data or get_entries.

The returned value is a response object from which the entries are extracted. Unless batching is enabled, the returned value is undefined.

This example shows how to add an IPv4Multicast object to the GlobalAFTable of BGP AS 1 object:

my $data = {`Enabled' => `true'};
my $bgp_af = Configuration->BGP->AS(`AS' => 0)->FourByteAS(`AS'=>1);
my $global_af = $bgp_as ->DefaultVRF->Global->GlobalAFTable->GlobalAF (`AF' => 
`IPv4Multicast');
GlobalAFTable->GlobalAF(`AF' => `IPv4Multicast');
my $error = $global_af->set_data($data);


NoteIf not all items in a leaf object are specified when setting data, the remaining items are set to null (overwrites any value that may have been there previously).

If the data is passed to set_data as a hash or basic type (not an array), it can also be provided explicitly rather than by reference, in the same way as keys can be specified.


This example shows how data is passed to set_data as a hash or basic type:

my $error = $global_af->set_data(`Enabled' => `true');

If the data to be set is an array, it must be provided by references because if it were given explicitly it would be incorrectly interpreted as a hash.

delete_data Method

The delete_data method can be used on any object and deletes all data below that object in the hierarchy, as shown in this example:

my $bgp as = Configuration->BGP->AS(`AS' => 0)->FourByteAS(`AS' => 1);
my $error = $bgp_as->DefaultVRF->Global->delete_data;

The returned value is a response object from which any errors can be extracted. Unless batching is enabled, the returned value is undefined.

Using the Batching API

By default, whenever the set_data or delete_data methods are called on a data object, the resulting XML request is sent immediately. The script is enabled to verify immediately whether the operation was successful or not. However, if a script wants to set or delete many items at once, this can be a very inefficient method.

By using the batching API, a script can specify that it wants a group of set or delete operations all to be sent together in one XML request. This reduces the overhead of the router having to process multiple requests and reduces the amount of data that needs to be sent. Due to the way two XML requests with overlapping hierarchies are merged, the resulting XML is not as long as the sum of the original two. The common hierarchy is not repeated.


Note A commit operation cannot be performed within a batch. To enforce this, the config_commit() function dies with an error if it is called while batching is in progress.


batch_start Method

When the batch_start method is called on the session object in question, all subsequent calls of set_data or delete_data are not performed immediately but are stored locally until the batch_send method is called. This example shows how to enable batching on the session $session:

$session->batch_start;


Note Any calls to set_data or delete_data between the batch_start and the subsequent batch_send methods return undefined rather than as a response object.


batch_send Method

The batch_send method should be called at the point in the script when you want to send all set and delete operations that were made since the previous call to batch_start. The batch_send method sends these operations as a single XML request and returns a single response object. If this response contains no errors, all operations were successful. Otherwise, the details of any error returned must be analyzed to determine which operation caused the error, as shown in this example:

my $response = $session->batch_send;
my $error = $response->get_error;
if ($error) {
    die "Error in batch_send: $error";
}


Note An error occurs in the script if batch_send is called while batching is not in progress; for example, it must occur after a call to batch_start.


Displaying Data and Keys Returned by the Data Operation Methods

When a key or data is returned either by calling get_data or get_keys functions on a response object, or by calling get_data or get_key functions on an entry object that was returned from the get_entries function, it is always in the form of a value object. This object behaves identically to a hash structure; therefore, the value object can be easily navigated using hash and array dereferencing if required. A key value can be used when creating a new data object or as an argument to the set_data function.

However, to display the whole structure or any parts of it, use the built-in function to_string on any value object that returns a formatted string form of the structure. In fact, you do not need to call the function to_string on the object. Using the value object in a scalar context, automatically converts it to a formatted string. This is the code:

my $response = Configuration->InterfaceConfigurationTable
    ->InterfaceConfiguration(Active => `act', Name => `POS0/2/0/0')
    ->get_data;
print $response->get_data;

This example displays that data on the screen in a readable way:

Shutdown
    true
IPV4PacketFilter
    Inbound
        HardwareCount
        Name
           myacl
Description
    my POS interface

Specifying the Session to Use for the Data Operation Methods

If only one Cisco::IOS_XR object has been created, this management session is automatically used by subsequent data operation methods. In scripts in which more than one Cisco::IOS_XR object has been created, the data operation methods use whichever session is the current session. The session to use for the data operation methods is whichever Cisco::IOS_XR object was the last to be created, unless, you have since asked to change the current session by calling the method use_for_data_operations on the Cisco::IOS_XR object that you want to use.

This example shows how to create two management sessions and then use the first one for subsequent data operations:

my $session1 = new Cisco::IOS_XR(host => `router1');
# Here the current session is $session1
my $session2 = new Cisco::IOS_XR(host => `router2');
# Here the current session is $session2
$session1->use_for_data_operations;
# Now the current session is $session1 again

Cisco IOS XR Perl Notification and Alarm API

The notification API provides functionality that enables a Perl script to register for and receive asynchronous responses or notifications during a management session on the router. One important type of notification is Alarms for which the specific API is provided.

The API allows a script to register, deregister, and receive alarms using Perl methods and objects. This completely hides the underlying XML from the user in much the same way that the data object API for normal management requests does.

These sections describe how to use the Alarm API:

Registering for Alarms

Deregistering an Existing Alarm Registration

Deregistering All Registration on a Particular Session

Receiving an Alarm on a Management Session

Registering for Alarms

To register for a receipt of alarms on a particular management session, use the alarm_register function of the Cisco::IOS_XR object that represents the management session. The alarm_register function takes as arguments a list of name and value pairs, which specify the set of filter criteria that you want to use to filter the alarms that you receive. If no filter criteria are specified, all alarms are received.

This example shows how to register for receipt of all alarms of Group SYS and Code CONFIG_I:

my $response = $session->alarm_register(Group => `SYS', Code => `CONFIG_I');

The alarm_register function returns a response object that is checked for errors in a normal way. These errors may be returned if a value specified for one of the filter criteria is invalid.

In addition, a successful registration response contains a registration ID, which must be used if the script wants to deregister (cancel this registration). The registration ID can be extracted from the response object by calling the get_registration_id method, as shown in this example:

my $registration_id = $response->get_registration_id;

Deregistering an Existing Alarm Registration

To deregister a particular registration, use the alarm_deregister function on the Cisco::IOS_XR object, by giving as an argument for the registration ID that was returned from the initial registration as follows:

my $response = $session->alarm_deregister($registration_id);

The response object that is returned is checked for errors to determine if the deregistration was successful.

Deregistering All Registration on a Particular Session

To deregister all alarm registrations that have been made on a particular management session, use the alarm_deregister_all function as follows:

my $response = $session->alarm_deregister_all;

The response object can be used to check for any errors. No errors should exist, even if there was no registration to deregister on that session.

Receiving an Alarm on a Management Session

After alarms have been registered, the alarm_receive function can be called on the management session object. The alarm_receive function attempts to pick up an alarm from the transport, which may happen immediately if there is already an alarm waiting in the buffer. Otherwise, it waits until one is received. An optional timeout value can be specified as the argument. If an alarm is not received within the timeout limit, the function returns undefined. If no timeout value is specified, the default of an infinite timeout is used, as shown in this example:

my $alarm = $session->alarm_receive(60); # Wait 60 seconds for an alarm

If an alarm is received within the timeout limit, the function returns an alarm object from which these values can be extracted:

RegistrationID—Specifies the registration ID that was returned from the registration for the matched alarm.

SourceID

EventID

Timestamp

Category

Group

Code

Severity

State

CorrelationID

AdditionalText

These values can be extracted using the corresponding get_* functions, as shown in this example:

my $registration_id = $alarm->get_registration_id;
my $event_id = $alarm->get_event_id;
my $text = $alarm->get_additional_text;

Using the Debug and Logging Facilities

These sections describe how to control debug and logging facilities within your script:

Debug Facility Overview

Logging Facility Overview

For more information on how to control debug and logging from the command line when starting a script, see the "Starting a Management Session on a Router" section.

Debug Facility Overview

The debug facility displays on the screen run-time information to aid investigation of problems. The user is given fine control over which debug messages are displayed to the screen by allowing the user to specify at any point in the script which types of debug messages to be displayed and which ones not to be displayed.


Note Debug applies to the script as a whole rather than to each management session.


Table 16-6 lists the current built-in types.

Table 16-6 Definitions for the Debug Types 

Type
Description

transport

Specifies the messages relating to the state of the current transport, for example, Telnet or SSH.

xml

Displays the request and response XML for every request sent to the router that includes those generated by the Data Object interface and configuration services methods.

xml_response_parts

Displays each part separately if an XML response has been split into multiple parts.

user

Specifies that the script writer can be used to add his or her own debug messages.


To turn on debug, use the Cisco::IOS_XR::debug_on function at any point in your script, giving those types of debug that you want to turn on as arguments. This is shown in this example:

Cisco::IOS_XR::debug_on(`transport', `xml');

Similarly, to turn off debug for certain types, use the Cisco::IOS_XR::debug_off function. Specifying no arguments turns off all types of debug, as shown in this example:

Cisco::IOS_XR::debug_off(`xml');

To insert your own debug messages in a script, use the Cisco::IOS_XR::debug function, giving as arguments the type of debug followed by the message. This is shown in this example:

Cisco::IOS_XR::debug(`user', `This is a user debug message');

In addition to being able to use the built-in type user to add debug messages to the scripts, it is possible to define your own debug types to give greater control over what is displayed. This is done by calling the Cisco::IOS_XR::add_debug_types function and giving as arguments a list of name and value pairs. The name is the name of the new type, and the value is its display name (that is, the string that appears at the beginning of every message of that type when displayed on the screen at run time). This is shown in this example:

Cisco::IOS_XR::add_debug_types(`general' => `General', `detailed' => `Detailed');

These types can immediately be used to write debug messages, as shown in this example:

Cisco::IOS_XR::debug(`detailed', `This is a detailed debug message');

Logging Facility Overview

The logging facility leaves an audit trail of usage or diagnoses problems after an error has occurred. The types of logging messages that are supported include all debug types, including any user-defined debug types.

To turn on logging, use the Cisco::IOS_XR::logging_on function at any point in your script, giving those types of messages that you want to turn on for logging as arguments. This is shown in this example:

Cisco::IOS_XR::logging_on(`transport', `xml');

Similarly, to turn off logging for certain types, use the Cisco::IOS_XR::logging_off function. Logging can be turned off for all types of messages by giving no arguments, as shown in this example:

Cisco::IOS_XR::logging_off(`xml');

By default, the messages are written to a file, called ios_xr_log.txt, in the same directory as the running script. You can specify which file to use with the function Cisco::IOS_XR::set_log_file that can be called at any point in your script. For example, to specify a different log file before carrying out operations on a different management session, see this example:

Cisco::IOS_XR::set_log_file(`router2_log.txt');

In addition to being able to log each of the standard message types, the Telnet module allows two types of extra logging at a lower level. These can be turned on for the duration of a management session by specifying one of these arguments when calling Cisco::IOS_XR::new, as listed in Table 16-7.

Table 16-7 Logging Arguments 

Type
Description

telnet_input_log

Logs all data received from the router, which usually includes the echoes of everything that is sent.

telnet_dump_log

Logs all I/O1 through the Telnet connection in a dump format. The dump, however, is less readable than the input log.

1 I/O = input/output.


The value of each argument specifies the file to which the log should be written.


Note If both types of logging are specified, the filenames must be different and they both must be different from the name of the standard log file.


Examples of Using the Cisco IOS XR Perl XML API

These sections provide examples of using the Cisco IOS XR Perl XML API to perform some of the common router management tasks:

Configuration Examples

Operational Examples

The examples demonstrate the advantages of using the XML and Perl XML API instead of the CLI and existing screen-scraping techniques.

They are also intended to show how simple it is to convert the most common configuration and operational tasks to scripts using the Perl XML API, as well as how easy it is to write scripts to perform tasks that are not possible using the existing methods.

Some of these tasks may be quite involved, so sample scripts have been provided within the toolkit, which can be customized to suit your needs. Other tasks may require very few lines of code.

Those examples in which scripts have been provided have a line at the top of the script, which specifies the perl executable to use to run it. By default, this line is #!/usr/bin/perl -w. If this is not the location of Perl on your machine, you must change this line accordingly before running the script.

You may also need to give yourself execute permission on the script if it is not already set using the chmod command:

chmod +x <script name>.pl

You should be able run the script using this command from the directory in which it resides:

./<script name>.pl

Configuration Examples

Examples are provided for setting the configuration and getting the running configuration, which are two of the most common configuration tasks. Additional examples cover the standard router applications. One of these examples also demonstrates in detail how you would use the Data Object documentation to help write the necessary code to access a particular item of data.

Another example shows how to use the Cisco IOS XR Perl Notification API to perform actions whenever particular events occur, such as getting the current configuration changes whenever a commit occurs, or sending an e-mail to notify an administrator when an interface is down.


NoteIn all basic examples of setting a configuration, the final step of committing the configuration is omitted to avoid repetition.

All the examples are written as though the script begins with a use statement, which imports all root data object functions, such as Configuration, Operational, and Action, as shown in this example:

use Cisco::IOS_XR qw(:root_objects);

If your script cannot import the functions due to name clashes, you must fully qualify the function names with the Cisco::IOS_XR::Data:: prefix.

Setting the IP Address of an Interface

Setting the IP address of an interface is normally performed by a sequence of two CLI commands, as shown in this example:

interface MgmtEth0/0/CPU0/0
ip address 1.2.3.4 255.255.255.0

To carry out this example in a Perl script using the Perl Data Object API requires only one line of code; although, in practice you would usually break it up into smaller lines for clarity and to be able to reuse parts of it. This is shown in this example:

my $config = Configuration;
my $if_conf_table = $config->InterfaceConfigurationTable; 
my $eth0 = $if_conf_table->
    InterfaceConfiguration(Active => `act', Name => `MgmtEth0/0/CPU0/0');
$eth0->IPV4Network->Addresses->Primary->
    set_data(IPAddress => `1.2.3.4', Mask => `255.255.255.0');

If the script is needed to access some other configuration, it would not need to repeat the first line but could use $config. Similarly, if it is needed to access some other configuration associated with Ethernet0/0/0/0, it would not need to repeat the first three lines but could just use the $eth0 variable. This example shows how to set the MTU of the Ethernet0/0/0/0 to 1500 interface:

$eth0->IPV4Network->MTU->set_data(1500);


Note The code, as shown in the examples, would probably be used in the middle of a large script, which performs a more complex job. If it is a common task, it could also be wrapped in a small function for that purpose.


For example, a function to set up the IP address of an interface could be made very easily by using the preceding code, which is then called, as shown in this example:

set_int_ip_address(`Ethernet0/0/0/0', `1.2.3.4', `255.255.255.0');

The code could be wrapped in a small script that enabled the task to be performed from the command line, as shown in this example:

set_int_ip_address.pl -name Ethernet0/0/0/0 -ip 1.2.3.4 -mask 255.255.255.0

Configuring a Simple BGP Neighbor

This example shows a correspondence to the CLI commands and subcommands for configuring a Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) neighbor:

RP/0/RP0/CPU0:router# configure
RP/0/RP0/CPU0:router(config)# router bgp 1
RP/0/RP0/CPU0:router(config-bgp)# neighbor 1.2.3.4

The equivalence of these two commands using the Data Object interface is shown in this example:

my $bgp_as = Configuration->BGP->AS(AS => 0)->FourByteAS(AS => 1);
my $bgp_entity = $bgp_as->DefaultVRF->BGPEntity
my $neighbor = $bgp_entity->NeighborTable->
    Neighbor(IPAddress => {IPV4Address => `1.2.3.4'});

This example shows how to set the remote autonomous system (AS) number for the neighbor:

$error = $neighbor->RemoteAS->set_data(44);

To set the description for this neighbor, see this example:

$error = $neighbor->Description->set_data(`The router next door');

Adding a List of Neighbors to a BGP Neighbor Group

This is a more complex example, which shows how a script can be used to expedite a common task. You can perform this task using the CLI. You would have to enter a series of commands, as shown in this example:

RP/0/RP0/CPU0:router# configure
RP/0/RP0/CPU0:router(config)# router bgp 1
RP/0/RP0/CPU0:router(config-bgp)# neighbor 1.2.3.4 
RP/0/RP0/CPU0:router(config-bgp-nbr)# use neighbor-group user1
RP/0/RP0/CPU0:router(config-bgp-nbr)# exit
RP/0/RP0/CPU0:router(config-bgp)# neighbor 2.3.4.5 
RP/0/RP0/CPU0:router(config-bgp-nbr)# use neighbor-group user1
RP/0/RP0/CPU0:router(config-bgp-nbr)# exit
RP/0/RP0/CPU0:router(config-bgp)# neighbor 3.4.5.6 
RP/0/RP0/CPU0:router(config-bgp-nbr) use neighbor-group user1

etc...

The sample shows how to perform this task in a faster and more user-friendly way, as shown in this example:

./add_neighbors_to_group.pl -host my_router -user john
Password:
Neighbor-group: user1
Neighbor ip addresses to add:
1.2.3.4
2.3.4.5
3.4.5.6
<cr>

The script can be found in the examples/bgp/add_neighbors_to_group.pl file within the toolkit installation directory.

Displaying the Members of Each BGP Neighbor Group

The example shows how a script using the Cisco IOS XR Perl scripting toolkit can retrieve and display information in ways that cannot be done using the CLI on the router. The script allows you to display the current members of each neighbor group and, which groups oppose how the information can be viewed using the CLI. In the same way, the previous example shows you how to add neighbors to a group rather than to add the group to each neighbor.

The script can be found in the examples/bgp/display_neighbor_group_members.pl file.

Setting Up ISIS on an Interface

The simplest integrated Intermediate System-to-Intermediate system (ISIS) configuration task is to set up ISIS on an interface. In this example, CLI commands are set up as though the interface in question is already configured:

RP/0/RP0/CPU0:router# configure
RP/0/RP0/CPU0:router(config)# router isis 1
RP/0/RP0/CPU0:router(config-isis)# net 49.0000.0000.3.00
RP/0/RP0/CPU0:router(config-isis)# interface POS0/2/0/0
RP/0/RP0/CPU0:router(config-isis-if)# address-family ipv4

To use the Data Object interface, you must define the ISIS instance, as shown in this example:

my $instance = Configuration->ISIS->InstanceTable->Instance(InstanceID => 1);

Enable the instance:
$instance->Running->set_data(`True');

This example shows how to set up a Network Entity Title (NET) for that instance:

$instance->NETTable->NET(NET => '49.0000.0000.3.00')->set_data(Enable =>'True');

This example shows how to set up the interface:

my $if = $instance->InterfaceTable->Interface(Name => 'POS0/2/0/0');
$if->Running->set_data('True');

This example shows how to set up the IPv4 address family on that interface:

$if->InterfaceAddressFamilyTable->
    InterfaceAddressFamily(AF => 'IPv4', SubAF => 'Unicast')->
    Running->set_data('True');

Finding the Circuit Type That is Currently Configured for an Interface for ISIS

The example shows how to use the Perl Data Object documentation to help you write code to access a particular piece of data.

You may know that ISIS is configured on a particular interface, for example, POS 0/2/0/0, but you may not know whether that interface was configured as only Level 1, only Level 2, or both. The data you are looking for is ISIS configuration data, which should be documented in a file whose name ends with _cfg.html. A quick browse through the Data Object documentation files reveals isis_cfg.html as a sensible place to look.

The first object definition is ISIS. The parent object is specified as RootCfg, which is the top-level configuration object that is accessed using the Configuration function. This example shows how to create an object that corresponds to ISIS configuration:

my $isis = Configuration->ISIS;

The only child object of ISIS is InstanceTable, which has entries of the object instance. Under the Keys heading, notice that Instance has only one key called InstanceID. If the ISIS instance in which you are interested is 1, you can now create a data object corresponding to that instance by specifying the instance ID as an argument. The creation of the data object is shown in this example:

my $instance = $isis->InstanceTable->Instance(InstanceID => `1');

Browsing at the child objects of Instance, you see an object called InterfaceTable, and you want this item of data for a particular interface. Therefore, it is presumably somewhere under that object, as shown in this example:

my $interface_table = $instance->InterfaceTable;

By looking at the definition of the InterfaceTable object, you see it has one child called Interface. Looking at the definition of Interface, you see that it has one child called CircuitType, which must be the item that you are looking for. The definition of Interface contains one key called InterfaceName, which specifies the interface to create the corresponding data object, as shown in this example:

my $interface = $interface_table->Interface(InterfaceName => `POS0/2/0/0');

The following example shows how to create a CircuitType object:

my $circuit_type = $interface->CircuitType;

Looking at the definition of CircuitType, you see that it has a value and the get_data method can be called on it. You can now retrieve the required data, as shown in this example:

my $response = $circuit_type->get_data;

The actual value can now be accessed from the response object, as shown in the following example:

my $value = $response->get_data;

You might not want to perform as many individual steps as are shown in the previous examples, and it is probably not necessary. In practice, you may perform some of the steps at once. This sample code does the same thing in four lines as the above set of examples does in seven lines:

my $response = Configuration->ISIS->InstanceTable->Instance(InstanceID => `1')
	->InterfaceTable->Interface(InterfaceName => `POS0/2/0/0')
	->CircuitType->get_data;
my $value = $response->get_data;

Finally, you would have to know the type of value of CircuitType to do any comparison of the value, which is given as ISISConfigurableLevels. The definition of ISISConfigurableLevels states what values are valid for this item. These enumerations are included with the valid values:

Level1

Level2

Levels1And2

Configuring a New Instance, Area, and Interface for OSPF

The example shows how to set up OSPF on an interface.

Assuming that the POS0/2/0/0 and Loopback0 interfaces are already configured, this example shows how to use the CLI commands:

RP/0/RP0/CPU0:router# configure
RP/0/RP0/CPU0:router(config)# router ospf 1
RP/0/RP0/CPU0:router(config-ospf)# router-id 1.1.1.1
RP/0/RP0/CPU0:router(config-ospf)# area 1
RP/0/RP0/CPU0:router(config-ospf-ar)# interface POS0/2/0/0

By using the Data Object, you can define the OSPF process and instance and ensure that it is started. This is shown in this example:

my $ospf_process = Configuration->OSPF->ProcessTable->Process(InstanceName => '1');
$ospf_process->Start->set_data('true');

This example shows how to set up the router ID for the process:

$ospf_process->DefaultVRF->RouterID->InterfaceID->set_data(`1.1.1.1');

This example shows how to set up the area of which this interface is part:

my $area = $ospf_process->DefaultVRF->AreaTable->Area(IntegerID => 1); 
$area->Running->set_data('true');

This example shows how to configure the interface:

$area->NameScopeTable->NameScope(Interface => "POS0/2/0/0")->Running->
    set_data('true');

Getting a List of the Usernames That are Configured on the Router

You may want to get a list of the usernames that are configured on the router, but without all other information that is displayed by the CLI command show aaa userdb. This example shows where you would use the get_keys function:

my $response = Configuration->AAA->UsernameTable->get_keys;
my @keys = $response->get_keys;

You could use the resulting array however you want; for example, to display your own compact list of usernames. This is shown in this example:

print "Usernames configured on the system:\n";
foreach my $key (@keys) {
    print "$key->{Name}\n";
}

Finding the IP Address of All Interfaces That Have IP Configured

The example shows how to use the find_data function of the Data Object interface to find every occurrence of a particular leaf object that matches the combination of key values and wildcards that are specified in the hierarchy.

The code that is needed is almost identical to that which would be used to get the IP address of a particular interface, except that the Name key to the interface configuration table is specified as a wildcard, and the function calls the find_data method rather than get_data method. This is shown in this example:

my $if_conf_table = Configuration->InterfaceConfigurationTable;
my $response = $if_conf_table->
    InterfaceConfiguration(Active => `act', wildcard => `Name')->
    IPV4Network->Addresses->Primary->find_data;

The XML response can be extracted from the returned response object using the to_string method. In addition, the XML response can be examined programmatically by extracting the DOM tree representation from the response object using the get_dom_tree method.

Adding an Entry to the Access Control List

These commands show how to add an entry to an access control list (ACL) to block a particular source IP address:

RP/0/RP0/CPU0:router# configure
RP/0/RP0/CPU0:router(config)# ipv4 access-list user1
RP/0/RP0/CPU0:router(config-ipv4-acl)# deny ip host 1.2.3.4 any

These commands show how to add an ACL to the inbound traffic of an interface:

RP/0/RP0/CPU0:router# configure
RP/0/RP0/CPU0:router(config)# interface POS0/2/0/0
RP/0/RP0/CPU0:router(config-if)# ipv4 access-group user1 in

You can also perform the tasks using the Perl Data Object API. The code acts as though the specified ACL already exists and the last sequence number in the list is already known. The last sequence number for the new entry can be easily calculated. This example shows how to define the relevant tables that you are interested in:

my $acl_table = Configuration->IPV4_ACLAndPrefixList;
my $if_conf_table = Configuration->InterfaceConfigurationTable;

This example shows how to add a new entry to the ACL. (This request sets all other items in an access list entry to null.)

my $acl = $acl_table->AccessListTable->AccessList(Name => `user1');
$error = $acl->AccessListEntryTable->
    AccessListEntry(SequenceNumber => `50')->ACERule ->
    set_data(SourceAddress => `1.2.3.4',
             Grant => 'Deny',
             Protocol => 'IP');

This example shows how to add the ACL to the interface:

my $interface = $if_conf_table->
    InterfaceConfiguration(Active => `act', Name => `POS0/2/0/0');
$error = $interface->IPV4PacketFilter->Inbound->set_data(Name => `user1');

Denying Access to a Set of Interfaces from a Particular IP Address

The intended use of the script is to quickly and easily block a particular IP address from gaining access to the router on whichever interfaces you choose; for example, a security threat. This is a good example of a script that retrieves some existing configuration data. Based on the information, some new configuration is applied to the router.

In practice, the set requests are all sent in one request as described in this list:

Interfaces in which the new ACL entry is to be applied, the IP address to block, and the name of the new ACL (if needed) that you enter when prompted are included. If desired, all can be specified instead of listing all interfaces on the system.

The router is queried to see which access control lists are defined, and what the current entries are to find the last sequence number in each list.

The router is queried to see which inbound ACLs are assigned to each interface, if any.


Note The request retrieves only the specific configuration that is desired, which can be done by using the CLI. In addition, it makes use of a wildcard for the Name key of the interface table to get the required data for all interfaces, which can also be done by using the CLI.


If any of those interfaces did not already have an ACL assigned to it, a new ACL is created and assigns it to those interfaces.

New ACL entry is added to each of the existing ACLs that were assigned to one of the interfaces in question, and to the new ACL if there is one.


Note The example could be easily extended to block more than one IP address, or to apply the new ACL entry to multiple routers at one time. The script can be found in the examples/acl/deny_access.pl file.


Each configuration item is set with an individual call to the set_data function of the Data Object interface. Usually, this would result in many separate XML requests. Because the batching API is used, the configuration is set using a single XML request to maximize efficiency.

Configuring a New Static Route Entry

This example shows how to add a new static route entry with the applicable CLI commands:

router static 
  address-family ipv4 unicast 
    0.0.0.0/0 12.25.0.1

This script is used for the data object interface:

my $static_route = Configuration->RouterStatic->DefaultVRF;
my $static_ipv4 = $static->AddressFamily->VRFIPV4->VRFUnicast;
my $static_prefix = $static_ipv4->VRFPrefixTable->
        VRFPrefix(Prefix => {IPV4Address => '0.0.0.0'}, Length => '0');

my $route = $static_prefix->VRFRouteTable;
my $nexthop = $route->VRFNexthopInfoTable->
        VRFNexthopInfo(Address => {IPV4Address => '12.25.0.1'});
$error = $nexthop->Description->set_data(`sample');

Operational Examples

Certain examples can be used to retrieve operational data from the router. These examples all make use of the Perl Data Object API because of the ease with which requests can be formed, and the flexibility of having access to a Perl representation of the response data and the XML form.

Some of these examples are very simple, such as retrieving all data in a particular table, and requires only a couple lines of code. Other examples involve getting data from more than one place and combining the data.

There are some scripts that give examples of how to display the retrieved data in different ways. There are some examples of producing a textual output similar to the corresponding CLI command. These use the Data Object interface because of the ease with which the desired data can be extracted from the Perl representation of the response.

Some examples can be used to transform an XML response into an HTML table for ease of viewing in a web browser. These examples take full advantage of having the response data in XML format. HTML can be produced with ease from XML using the style sheet transformation language XLST.

Retrieving the Operational Information for All Interfaces on the Router

This example shows how to retrieve a single table of data, which can be done with ease by using the Data Object interface get_entries function. It can be done all in one line (rather than one statement that has to be split over multiple lines). For clarity and to take advantage of error checking, however, it is best to do the retrieval in stages.

To retrieve the operational information for all interfaces on the router, perform these steps:


Step 1 Define the key for the data node in which you are interested (for example, primary RP), as shown in this example:

my $data_node = {RPLocation => {Rack => 0, Slot => RP0, Instance => 'CPU0'}};

Step 2 Define the table and what contents to retrieve, as shown in this example:

my $interface_table = Operational->InterfaceProperties->DataNodeTable->
    DataNode($data_node)->SystemView->InterfaceTable;

Step 3 Call the get_entries function on the table, as shown in this example:

my $result = $interface_table->get_entries;

Step 4 Check to see if an error occurred. If not, retrieve the entries, as shown in this example:

if (!defined($result->get_error)) {
    my @entries = $result->get_entries;
    # Now do something with the entries...
}


Retrieving the Link State Database for a Particular Level for ISIS

Another example is to retrieve a single table of data, which is accomplished by using the get_entries function. The data that is retrieved corresponds roughly to that displayed by the CLI command show isis database level <level no> and split up into three stages. The last two stages are exactly the same.

To retrieve the link state database for a particular level for ISIS, perform these steps:


Step 1 Define the table from which you want to get data from, as shown in this example:

my $table = Operational->ISIS->InstanceTable->Instance(InstanceID => 1)->
	LevelTable->LevelInstance(Level => "Level1")->LSPTable;

Step 2 Call the get_entries function on the table, as shown in this example:

my $result = $table->get_entries;

Step 3 Check to see if an error occurred. If not, retrieve the entries, as shown in this example:

if (!defined($result->get_error)) {
    my @entries = $result->get_entries;
    # Now do something with the entries...
}


Getting a List of All Interfaces on the System

The simple example shows how to use the get_keys function to get a list of the items in a table without getting all other associated data with them; this cannot be done using the CLI show commands.

To get a list of all interfaces on the system, perform these steps:


Step 1 Define the table, as shown in this example:

my $interface_table = Operational->InterfaceProperties->DataNodeTable->
    DataNode(RPLocation => {Rack => 0, Slot => RP0, Instance => "CPU0"})->
    SystemView->InterfaceTable;

Step 2 Call the get_keys function and check for errors, as shown in this example:

my $result = $interface_table->get_keys;
if ($result->get_error) {
    die "Error in get_keys: $result->get_error";
}


The list of interfaces is returned now as an array from $response->get_keys to carry out an action for each interface.

This example shows how to print it:

foreach my $if ($result->get_keys) {
	print $if->{Name} . "\n";
}

Retrieving the Combined Interface and IP Information for Each Interface

This is a more complicated example of retrieving operational data as it gets the data from more than one place and combines that data in some way. The get_ip_interfaces() function retrieves the operational state for each interface and the IPv4 information for each interface that has IPv4 information.

These two sets of information are combined into one table so that the data is easily accessed by a script that wants to display the data. This is exactly the information that is used by the show interfaces CLI command.

The function is a good example of how the use of XML makes scripts robust to changes in the underlying data. For example, if new data items are added to the tables, or names of items change, the function still works. The function can be found in the examples/interfaces/get_ip_interfaces.pm file within the toolkit installation directory.

Listing the Hostname and Interface for Each ISIS Neighbor

You can call the get_keys function on the ISIS neighbor table that returns the interface name and system ID for each neighbor. The system ID is an internal value that uniquely identifies the neighbor, but it is not very useful as a displayed value. However, a second table called the hostname table provides a mapping from the system ID to the actual hostname. The hostname is displayed by the show isis neighbors CLI show command, rather than by the system ID. Thus, combining the data from these tables, you can produce a list of the hostname and interface name for each neighbor.

The list_isis_neighbors function example resides in the examples/isis/list_isis_neighbors.pm file. The function calls the get_keys function on the NeighborTable object, which produces a list of the system ID and interface for each neighbor. Then, it calls the get_entries function on the HostnameTable object, and maps the resulting table into a hash, which provides a mapping from system ID to hostname. Finally, the mapping is used to create a new array containing a list of the hostname and interface for each neighbor.

As an example of using the list_isis_neighbors function, this piece of code prints the hostname and interface for each neighbor for ISIS instance 1:

require `<toolkit inst dir>/examples/isis/list_isis_neighbors.pm';
my @neighbors = list_isis_neighbors(1);
print "Interface:          Hostname:\n";
foreach my $nbr (@neighbors) {
    printf("%-20s%s\n", $nbr->{Interface}, $nbr->{Hostname});
}

Recreating the Output of the show ip interfaces CLI Command

The example shows how to write an easily customized script for displaying information retrieved from a router.

The script gets the required data by calling the get_ip_interfaces() function. For details, see the "Retrieving the Combined Interface and IP Information for Each Interface" section. The script goes through each entry in the table and picks particular data items and displays them in a custom format that is the same format as the original show CLI command.

The display function easily can be customized by removing sections when data is no longer of interest, adding sections if new data needs to be displayed, or changing the way particular data is displayed. You can create your own version of the show interfaces CLI command.

The function is clearly more dependent on the names of the data items that are returned and their formats than the underlying get_ip_interfaces() function. Because of XML, the function still works if extra items are added to, or removed from, tables that are not currently being displayed.

The script can be found in the /examples/interfaces/show_ip_interfaces.pl file within the toolkit installation directory.

Producing a Textual Output Similar to the show bgp neighbors CLI Command

This is another example of displaying data retrieved from the router in a custom format and again in the same style as the original show CLI command. The data-retrieval part of the script is simple and uses the get_entries function, as shown in this example:

my $response = 
         Operational->VRFTable->VRF(VrfName='VRF1')->BGP->NeighborTable->get_entries;

The script goes through each of the returned entries and calls the print_neighbor_info function to display the details of the neighbor.

The function shows how easily the required items can be accessed and displayed, and how to ignore information in which you are not interested (for example, AF-specific information, which uses the Data Object interface).

The script can be found in the examples/bgp/show_bgp_neighbors.pl file within the toolkit installation directory.

Displaying Tabular XML Data in a Generic HTML Table Using XSLT

HTML is one of the useful ways to display data. The HTML format has many useful features, such as the ease in which it can display formatted data in a platform-independent way, and the ability to add links for easy navigation.

For data that takes the form of a list of records (for example, a table), an HTML table is a natural way to display it. A sample function has been provided that uses XLST to transform a table of data in XML format into an HTML table.

The function is generic. You can pass as an argument the name of the table that you want to display, and the script automatically tries to produce the best HTML table it can. If the table is simple (for example, each field in the table has exactly one value), the output should be a good representation of the data.

If the structure of the data is more complicated (for example, certain fields contain multiple subfields or even subtables within the table), the contents of these subfields or subtable appears within one field and probably will not be very useful.

The function can be found in the examples/common/xml_to_html_table.pm file within the toolkit installation directory. The XSL file it uses to do the transformation is in: examples/common/xml_to_html_table.xsl.


Note The XML::LibXSLT module must be installed to use the example.


To use the function, display the operational data for each interface on the router:


Step 1 Use the require statement to specify the name of the module, as shown in this example:

require "xml_to_html_table.pm"; # may need to specify a path here

Step 2 Retrieve the information in XML format. This example uses the Data Object interface to do this:

my $data_node_table = Operational->InterfaceProperties->DataNodeTable;
my $interface_table = $data_node_table->DataNode(RPLocation => 
    {Rack => 0, Slot => RP0, Instance => "CPU0"})->SystemView->InterfaceTable;
my $response_string = $interface_table->find_data->to_string;

Step 3 Transform the XML to HTML, as shown in this example:

xml_to_html_table($response_string, $html_file, "InterfaceTable");

The example can be found in the examples/interfaces/generic_interface_props_table.pl file.


The resulting HTML file contains a table with a row for each interface and a column for each field of data. Clearly, the function is best suited for tables in which the number of fields is small enough that they all fit the screen. However, the main drawback to using the generic function is that the display format of the fields is identical to XML, which may not be desired—as is the case with the Type, State, and Line State fields in the interface properties example. For more information, see the "Displaying the Interface State in a Customized HTML Table" section.

Displaying the Interface State in a Customized HTML Table

In many cases, the generic HTML table example does not display the information exactly the way you would want it. For example, you may want to display only some data items for each table entry and change the display format of certain items.

The example produces an HTML containing the State and Line State for each interface and ignores all other data in the interface table. These enhancements are provided over the generic HTML table:

Only the fields of interest are displayed, and they are displayed in the order desired rather than the order that they appear in XML.

The State and Line State fields are converted from their numeric values to text values that are easier to understand.

Color-coding is added so that important information, such as an interface being down, stands out.

The interfaces are sorted, so any interfaces that are down appear before those that are up; this makes it easy to spot problems without having to scroll down a long list.

The transformation is again done using XLST. The XML::LibXSLT module must be installed to run the example. This means that the Perl script is very short and most of the work is done in the XSL file, which can be easily modified to customize the format of the displayed data, or extended to display more of the information returned in the XML.

The request in the example is stored as preformed XML to demonstrate the use of the basic Perl XML API, but the script could easily have been written using the Data Object API to form the request.

The example can be found in the examples/interfaces/interface_props_table.pl file. The XSL style sheet can be found in the examples/interfaces/interface_props_table.xsl file.

Displaying the BGP Neighbor Operational Data in a Complex HTML Format

This is an example of displaying data that does not conform naturally to a simple table format. The data displayed corresponds roughly to the show bgp neighbors command, for which the output has an entry for each BGP neighbor and within each entry a subtable of information exists for each address family. Because the intended use of the script is for monitoring, the only values shown are operational rather than configurational.

Unlike the previous example, the script uses the Perl Data Object API to create the request that avoids having to write to any XML, which makes it quicker to write and easier to understand and maintain. However, the response format used is still XML and is needed to transform into HTML using XSLT.

The layout of the HTML output has a structure similar to that of the show command, with each BGP neighbor entry consisting of a selection of items laid out in a logical way; this includes the address family information that is displayed in a simple subtable.

The benefits of having the information in HTML are:

Format of bold headings makes the information clearer.

Layout is much easier to control using tables, because they automatically adjust themselves to fit the information contained in them and the available space on the screen.

To facilitate navigation of the neighbor list, a separate HTML page is created that contains a simple summary table, with one entry for each neighbor. Each neighbor in the table has a link, which when clicked jumps to the neighbor's entry in the main table.

When the script is run, a session is created on the router that repeatedly polls the router for the latest information at regular intervals by updating the HTML files each time. Each of the two HTML files causes the web browser to automatically refresh them at the same regular interval, so the values on screen are automatically kept up to date. Ideally, the script would be modified to run as a CGI script on a web server, so that you can just open the web page (from any machine that has access) and not have to start the script first.

The script can be found in the examples/bgp/bgp_neighbor_table_html.pl file. The summary page produced is examples/bgp/bgp_neighbor_table_summary.html, and the main page is examples/bgp/bgp_neighbor_table.html.


Note The XML::LibXSLT module must be installed to run the example.


Performing Actions Whenever Certain Events Occur

The sample, which demonstrates how to use the Cisco IOS XR Perl Notification and Alarm API, shows how to perform an action whenever a certain event occurs. In particular, someone is informed through e-mail (network administrator) about the events listed in Table 16-8.

Table 16-8 List of Events 

Event
Description

Interfaces going up/down

When the event occurs, an e-mail is sent informing the recipient of the interface, the router on which the interface is, and the new state.

Configuration change

When the running configuration on the router is changed, an e-mail is sent informing the recipient that the event occurred. The configuration change event includes the commitID of the latest commit, the location of a file that contains the commit changes in XML format, and a readable version of the commit changes.


These steps for the script are described:

1. Registers for alarms for the two relevant types, which are determined by specifying the Group and Code fields, and records the two returned registration IDs.

2. Enters an event loop in which the script calls the alarm_receive () function to get the next alarm from the session, and calls the relevant handler determined by the registration ID of the alarm.

For change in configuration, differences are retrieved from the router using the same management session that is used for receiving alarms. The XML response is stored in a local file with each commit being stored in a separate file. A readable version of the differences, which is created automatically by using the data object in a string context, is included in the e-mail.

An e-mail, is sent to the specified address, which can be a regular e-mail or a message sent to a pager. This is not practical for a long message (for example, a configuration change), but can be well-suited to a single-line message similar to the interface up or down case.

Actions taken when an event occurs are not limited to sending e-mails. A script could do just about anything in response to an event; for example, performing actions or changing configuration on the router. In addition, a script could register to receive notifications from more than one router, which gives it the ability to know the state of a whole network and perform actions accordingly.

The script can be found in the examples/notification/notification.pl file.


Note The script uses the Perl module Mail::Send, which must be installed to use it.