Cisco IOS Dial Technologies Configuration Guide, Release 12.2SX
Configuring Asynchronous SLIP and PPP
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Configuring Asynchronous SLIP and PPP

Table Of Contents

Configuring Asynchronous SLIP and PPP

Finding Feature Information

Contents

How to <Phrase Based on Module Title>

<Task>

Prerequisites

Restrictions

Examples

Troubleshooting Tips

What to Do Next

Configuration Examples for <Phrase Based on Module Title>

Example: <xxx>

Information About Configuring Asynchronous SLIP and PPP

Asynchronous SLIP and PPP Overview

Responding to BOOTP Requests

Asynchronous Network Connections and Routing

Asynchronous Interfaces and Broadcasts

Network-Layer Protocols over PPP and SLIP

Configuring IPX and PPP

AppleTalk and PPP

Asynchronous Host Mobility

Additional Remote Node Connections

Creating PPP Connections

Making SLIP Connections

Remote Access to NetBEUI Services

Performance Parameters

TCP Packet Headers Compression

TCP Connection Attempt Time

IPX Packet Headers Compression over PPP

Fast Switching

Route Cache Invalidation

SLIP and PPP Banner Messages Customization

How to Configure Asynchronous SLIP and PPP

Configuring Network-Layer Protocols over SLIP and PPP

Configuring IP and PPP

Enabling IPX and PPP over X.25 to an IPX Network on Virtual Terminal Lines

Configuring AppleTalk and PPP

Configuring IP and SLIP

Configuring Asynchronous Host Mobility

Configuring Performance Parameters

Compressing TCP Packet Headers

Setting the TCP Connection Attempt Time

Compressing IPX Packet Headers over PPP

Enabling Fast Switching

Controlling Route Cache Invalidation

Customizing SLIP and PPP Banner Messages

Configuration Examples for Asynchronous SLIP and PPP

Examples: Basic PPP Configurations

Examples: Remote Node NetBEUI

Example: Remote Network Access Using PPP Basic Configuration

Example: Remote Network Access Using PPP and Routing IP

Example: Remote Network Access Using a Leased Line with Dial-Backup and PPP

Example: Multilink PPP Using Multiple Asynchronous Interfaces

Additional References

Related Documents

Standards

MIBs

Technical Assistance

Feature Information for Configuring Asynchronous SLIP and PPP


Configuring Asynchronous SLIP and PPP


First Published: November 4, 1996
Last Updated: March 23, 2012

The Configuring Asynchronous SLIP and PPP module describes how to configure asynchronous Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) and PPP.

Finding Feature Information

Your software release may not support all the features documented in this module. For the latest feature information and caveats, see the release notes for your platform and software release. To find information about the features documented in this module, and to see a list of the releases in which each feature is supported, see the "Feature Information for Configuring Asynchronous SLIP and PPP" section.

Use Cisco Feature Navigator to find information about platform support and Cisco software image support. To access Cisco Feature Navigator, go to http://www.cisco.com/go/cfn. An account on Cisco.com is not required.

Contents

Information About Configuring Asynchronous SLIP and PPP

How to Configure Asynchronous SLIP and PPP

Configuration Examples for Asynchronous SLIP and PPP

Additional References

Feature Information for Configuring Asynchronous SLIP and PPP

How to <Phrase Based on Module Title>

<<Text.>>

<<Text.>>

<Task>

<<Untitled Context-Setting Paragraph.>>

Prerequisites

<<Text.>>

Restrictions

<<Text.>>

SUMMARY STEPS

1. enable

2. configure terminal

3. command [keyword argument]

4. command [keyword argument]

DETAILED STEPS

 
Command or Action
Purpose

Step 1 

enable

Example:

Router> enable

Enables privileged EXEC mode.

Enter your password if prompted.

Step 2 

configure terminal

Example:

Router# configure terminal

Enters global configuration mode.

Step 3 

 

Step 4 

 

Examples

<<Text.>>

Troubleshooting Tips

<<Text.>>

What to Do Next

<<Text.>>

Configuration Examples for <Phrase Based on Module Title>

<<Text.>>

<<Text.>>

Example: <xxx>

<<Text.>>

Information About Configuring Asynchronous SLIP and PPP

Asynchronous SLIP and PPP Overview

Responding to BOOTP Requests

Asynchronous Network Connections and Routing

Asynchronous Interfaces and Broadcasts

Network-Layer Protocols over PPP and SLIP

Asynchronous Host Mobility

Additional Remote Node Connections

Remote Access to NetBEUI Services

Performance Parameters

Asynchronous SLIP and PPP Overview

PPP and SLIP define methods of sending IP packets over standard asynchronous serial lines with minimum line speeds of 1200 baud.

Using SLIP or PPP encapsulation over asynchronous lines is an inexpensive way to connect personal computers (PCs) to a network. PPP and SLIP over asynchronous dialup modems allow a home computer to be connected to a network without the cost of a leased line. Dialup PPP and SLIP links can also be used for remote sites that need only occasional remote node or backup connectivity. Both public-domain and vendor-supported PPP and SLIP implementations are available for a variety of computer applications.

The Cisco IOS software concentrates a large number of SLIP or PPP PC or workstation client hosts onto a network interface that allows the PCs to communicate with any host on the network. The Cisco IOS software can support any combination of SLIP or PPP lines and lines dedicated to normal asynchronous devices such as terminals and modems.

SLIP is an older protocol. PPP is a newer, more robust protocol than SLIP, and it contains functions that can detect or prevent misconfiguration. PPP also provides greater built-in security mechanisms.


Note Most asynchronous serial links have very low bandwidth. Take care to configure your system so the links will not be overloaded. Consider using default routes and filtering routing updates to prevent them from being sent on these asynchronous lines.


Figure 1 illustrates a typical asynchronous SLIP or PPP remote-node configuration.

Figure 1 Sample SLIP or PPP Remote-Node Configuration

Responding to BOOTP Requests

The Bootstrap (BOOTP) protocol allows a client machine to discover its own IP address, the address of the router, and the name of a file to be loaded in to memory and executed. There are typically two phases to using BOOTP: first, the client's address is determined and the boot file is selected; then the file is transferred, using the TFTP.

PPP and SLIP clients can send BOOTP requests to the Cisco IOS software, and the Cisco IOS software responds with information about the network. For example, the client can send a BOOTP request to learn its IP address and where the boot file is located, and the Cisco IOS software responds with the information.

BOOTP supports the extended BOOTP requests specified in RFC 1084 and works for both PPP and SLIP encapsulation.

BOOTP compares to Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) as follows: RARP is an older protocol that allows a client to determine its IP address if it knows its hardware address. (Refer to the IP Configuration Guide for more information about RARP.) However, RARP is a hardware link protocol, and can be implemented only on hosts that have special kernel or driver modifications that allow access to these raw packets. BOOTP does not require kernel modifications.

Asynchronous Network Connections and Routing

Line configuration commands configure a connection to a terminal or a modem. Interface configuration (async) commands, described in this chapter, configure a line as an asynchronous network interface over which networking functions are performed.

The Cisco IOS software also supports IP routing connections for communication that requires connecting one network to another.

The Cisco IOS software supports protocol translation for PPP and SLIP between other network devices running Telnet, local-area transport (LAT), or X.25. For example, you can send IP packets across a public X.25 packet assembler/disassembler (PAD) network using SLIP or PPP encapsulation when SLIP or PPP protocol translation is enabled. For more information, see the chapter "Configuring Protocol Translation and Virtual Asynchronous Devices" in Dial Technologies Configuration Guide.

If asynchronous dynamic routing is enabled, you can enable routing at the user level by using the routing keyword with the slip or ppp commands.

Asynchronous interfaces offer both dedicated and dynamic address assignment, configurable hold queues and IP packet sizes, extended BOOTP requests, and permit and deny conditions for controlling access to lines. Figure 2 shows a sample asynchronous routing configuration.

Figure 2 Sample Asynchronous Routing Configuration

Asynchronous Interfaces and Broadcasts

The Cisco IOS software recognizes a variety of IP broadcast addresses. When a router receives an IP packet from an asynchronous client, it rebroadcasts the packet onto the network without changing the IP header.

The Cisco IOS software receives the SLIP or PPP client broadcasts and responds to BOOTP requests with the current IP address assigned to the asynchronous interface from which the request was received. This facility allows the asynchronous client software to automatically learn its own IP address.

Network-Layer Protocols over PPP and SLIP

You can configure network-layer protocols, such as AppleTalk, IP, and Internet Protocol Exchange (IPX), over PPP and SLIP. SLIP supports only IP, but PPP supports each of these protocols.

Configuring IPX and PPP

You can configure IPX over PPP (IPXCP) on synchronous serial and asynchronous serial interfaces using one of two methods.

The first method associates an asynchronous interface with a loopback interface configured to run IPX. It permits you to configure IPX-PPP on asynchronous interfaces only.

The second method permits you to configure IPX-PPP on asynchronous and synchronous serial interfaces. However, it requires that you specify a dedicated IPX network number for each interface, which can require a substantial number of network numbers for a large number of interfaces.

You can also configure IPX to run on virtual terminal lines configured for PPP. See the section "Enabling IPX and PPP over X.25 to an IPX Network on Virtual Terminal Lines" later in this chapter.


Note If you are configuring IPX-PPP on asynchronous interfaces, you should filter routing updates on the interface. Most asynchronous serial links have very low bandwidth, and routing updates take up a great deal of bandwidth. The previous task table uses the ipx update interval command to filter SAP updates. For more information about filtering routing updates, see the section about creating filters for updating the routing table in the chapter "Configuring Novell IPX" in the Cisco IOS AppleTalk and Novell IPX Configuration Guide.


IPX and PPP over X.25 to an IPX Network on Virtual Terminal Lines

You can enable IPX-PPP on virtual terminal lines, which permits clients to log in to a virtual terminal on a router, invoke a PPP session at the EXEC prompt to a host, and run IPX to the host.

For example, in Figure 3, the client terminal on the X.25 network logs in to the access server via a virtual terminal line, which is configured for IPX-PPP. When the user connects to the access server and the EXEC prompt appears, enter the PPP command to connect to the IPX host. The virtual terminal is configured to run IPX, so when the PPP session is established from the access server, the terminal can access the IPX host using an IPX application.

Figure 3 IPX-PPP on a Virtual Asynchronous Interface

AppleTalk and PPP

You can configure an asynchronous interface so that users can access AppleTalk zones by dialing in to the router via PPP through this interface. Users accessing the network can run AppleTalk and IP natively on a remote Macintosh, access any available AppleTalk zones from Chooser, use networked peripherals, and share files with other Macintosh users. This feature is referred to as AppleTalk Control Protocol (ATCP).

You create a virtual network that exists only for accessing an AppleTalk internet through the server. To create a new AppleTalk zone, enter the appletalk virtual-net command and use a new zone name; this network number is then the only one associated with this zone. To add network numbers to an existing AppleTalk zone, use this existing zone name in the command; this network number is then added to the existing zone. Routing is not supported on these interfaces.

Asynchronous Host Mobility

The access server supports a packet tunneling strategy that extends the internetwork—in effect creating a virtual private link for the mobile user. When a user activates asynchronous host mobility, the access server on which the remote user dials in becomes a remote point of presence (POP) for the home network of the user. Once logged in, users experience a server environment identical to the one that they experience when they connect directly to the "home" access server.

Once the network-layer connection is made, data packets are tunneled at the physical or data link layer instead of at the protocol layer. In this way, raw data bytes from dial-in users are transported directly to the "home" access server, which processes the protocols.

Figure 4 illustrates the implementation of asynchronous host mobility on an extended internetwork. A mobile user connects to an access server on the internetwork and, by activating asynchronous host mobility, is connected to a "home" access server configured with the appropriate username. The user sees an authentication dialog or prompt from the "home" system and can proceed as if he or she were connected directly to that device.

Figure 4 Asynchronous Host Mobility


Asynchronous host mobility is enabled with the tunnel EXEC command and the ip tcp async-mobility server global configuration command. The ip tcp async-mobility server command establishes asynchronous listening on TCP tunnel port 57. The tunnel command sets up a network-layer connection to the specified destination. Both commands must be used. The access server accepts the connection, attaches it to a virtual terminal line, and runs a command parser capable of running the normal dial-in services. After the connection is established, data is transferred between the modem and network connection with a minimum of interpretations. When communications are complete, the network connection can be closed and terminated from either end.

To connect from a router other than a Cisco router, you must use Telnet. After a connection is established, you receive an authentication dialog or prompt from your home router, and can proceed as if you are connected directly to that router. When communications are complete, the network connection can be closed and terminated from either end of the connection.

Additional Remote Node Connections

This section describes how to connect devices across telephone lines by using PPP and SLIP. It includes the following sections:

Creating PPP Connections

Making SLIP Connections

Creating PPP Connections

When you connect from a remote node computer through an asynchronous port on an access server to the EXEC facility to connect from the access server to a device on the network, use the following command in EXEC mode:

Command
Purpose

Router> ppp {/default | {remote-ip-address | remote-name} [@tacacs-server]} [/routing]

Creates a PPP connection.


If you specify an address for the TACACS server using /default or tacacs-server, the address must be the first parameter in the command after you type ppp. If you do not specify an address or enter /default, you are prompted for an IP address or host name. You can enter /default at this point.

For example, if you are working at home on the device named ntpc in Figure 5 and want to connect to Server 1 using PPP, you could dial in to the access server. When you connect to the EXEC prompt on the access server, enter the ppp command to connect with the device.

Figure 5 Using the ppp Command

To terminate a session, disconnect from the device on the network using the command specific to that device. Then, exit from EXEC mode by using the exit command.

Making SLIP Connections

To make a serial connection to a remote host by using SLIP, use the following command in EXEC mode:

Command
Purpose

Router> slip [/default] {remote-ip-address | remote-name} [@tacacs-server] [/routing]} [/compressed]

Creates a SLIP connection.


Your system administrator can configure SLIP to expect a specific address or to provide one for you. It is also possible to set up SLIP in a mode that compresses packets for more efficient use of bandwidth on the line.

If you specify an address for the TACACS server using /default or tacacs-server, the address must be the first parameter in the command after you type slip. If you do not specify an address or enter /default, you are prompted for an IP address or host name. You can enter /default at this point.

If you do not use the tacacs-server argument to specify a TACACS server for SLIP address authentication, the TACACS server specified at login (if any) is used for the SLIP address query.

To optimize bandwidth on a line, SLIP enables compression of the SLIP packets using Van Jacobson TCP header compression as defined in RFC 1144.

To terminate a session, disconnect from the device on the network using the command specific to that device. Then, exit from EXEC mode by using the exit command.

Remote Access to NetBEUI Services

NetBIOS Extended User Interface (NetBEUI) is a simple networking protocol developed by IBM for use by PCs in a LAN environment. It is an extension of the original Network Basic Input/Output System (NetBIOS) from IBM. NetBEUI uses a broadcast-based name to 802.x address translation mechanism. Because NetBEUI has no network layer, it is a nonroutable protocol.

The NetBIOS Frames Control Protocol (NBFCP) enables packets from a NetBEUI application to be transferred via a PPP connection. NetBEUI/PPP is supported in the access server and Cisco enterprise images only.

Using the Cisco IOS implementation, remote NetBEUI users can have access to LAN-based NetBEUI services. The PPP link becomes the ramp for the remote node to access NetBIOS services on the LAN. (See Figure 6.) An Logical Link Control, type 2 (LLC2) connection is set up between the remote access client and router, and a second LLC2 connection is set up between the router and the remote access (NetBEUI) server.

Figure 6 NetBEUI Connection

By supporting NetBEUI remote clients over PPP, Cisco routers function as a native NetBEUI dial-in router for remote NetBEUI clients. Thus, you can offer remote access to a NetBEUI network through asynchronous or ISDN connections.

To enable a remote access client using a NetBEUI application to connect with the remote router providing NetBEUI services, configure interfaces on the remote access client side and the remote router side by using the following command in interface configuration mode:

Command
Purpose

Router(config-if)# netbios nbf

Enables NBFCP on each side of a NetBEUI connection.


To view NetBEUI connection information, use the following command in EXEC mode:

Command
Purpose

Router> show nbf sessions

Views NetBEUI connection information.


Performance Parameters

TCP Packet Headers Compression

You can compress the headers of your TCP/IP packets to reduce their size and thereby increase performance. Header compression is particularly useful on networks with a large percentage of small packets, such as those supporting many Telnet connections. This feature compresses only the TCP header, so it has no effect on UDP packets or other protocol headers. The TCP header compression technique, described fully in RFC 1144, is supported on serial lines using High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC) or PPP encapsulation. You must enable compression on both ends of a serial connection.

You can optionally specify outgoing packets to be compressed only when TCP incoming packets on the same interface are compressed. If you do not specify this option, the Cisco IOS software will compress all traffic. The default is no compression.

You can also specify the total number of header compression connections that can exist on an interface. You should configure one connection for each TCP connection through the specified interface.


Note When compression is enabled, fast switching is disabled. Fast processors can handle several fast interfaces, such as T1 lines, that are running header compression. However, you should think carefully about traffic characteristics in your network before compressing TCP headers. You might want to use the monitoring commands to help compare network utilization before and after enabling header compression.


TCP Connection Attempt Time

You can set the amount of time that the Cisco IOS software will wait to attempt to establish a TCP connection. In previous versions of the Cisco IOS software, the system would wait a fixed 30 seconds when attempting to make the connection. This amount of time is not enough in networks that have dialup asynchronous connections, such as a network consisting of dial-on-demand links that are implemented over modems, because it will affect your ability to use Telnet over the link (from the router) if the link must be brought up.

Because the connection attempt time is a host parameter, it does not pertain to traffic going through the router, just to traffic originated at it.

To set the TCP connection attempt time, use the following command in global configuration mode:

IPX Packet Headers Compression over PPP

The Cisco IOS software permits compression of IPX packet headers over various WAN media. There are two protocols for IPX compression on point-to-point links:

CIPX, also known as Telebit style compression

Shiva compression, which is proprietary

Cisco routers support IPX Header Compression (CIPX) on all point-to-point Novell interfaces over various WAN media.

CIPX is described in RFC 1553, Compressing IPX Headers Over WAN Media. The CIPX algorithm is based on the same concepts as Van Jacobson TCP/IP header compression algorithm. CIPX operates over PPP WAN links using either the IPXCP or IPXWAN communications protocols.

CIPX compresses all IPX headers and IPX/NCP headers for Novell packets with the following Network Control Program (NCP) packet types:

0x2222—NCP request from workstation

0x3333—NCP replies from file server

In this version of software, CIPX is configurable only for PPP links.

CIPX header compression can reduce header information from 30 bytes down to as little as 1 byte. This reduction can save bandwidth and reduce costs associated with IPX routing over WAN links that are configured to use IPXCP or IPXWAN.

Consider the following issues before implementing CIPX:

CIPX is supported on all point-to-point IPX interfaces using PPP or IPXWAN processing (or both).

CIPX needs to be negotiated for both directions of the link, because it uses the reverse direction of the link for communicating decompression problems back to the originating peer. In other words, all peer routers must have CIPX enabled.


Note We recommend that you keep a slot value of 16. Because slots are maintained in the router buffer, a larger number can impact buffer space for other operations.


Fast Switching

Fast switching involves the use of a high-speed switching cache for IP routing. With fast switching, destination IP addresses are stored in the high-speed cache so that some time-consuming table lookups can be avoided. The Cisco IOS software generally offers better packet transfer performance when fast switching is enabled.

Route Cache Invalidation

The high-speed route cache used by IP fast switching is invalidated when the IP routing table changes. By default, the invalidation of the cache is delayed slightly to avoid excessive CPU load while the routing table is changing.


Note This task normally should not be necessary. It should be performed only under the guidance of technical staff. Incorrect configuration can seriously degrade the performance of your router.


SLIP and PPP Banner Messages Customization

This feature enables you to customize the banner that is displayed when making a SLIP or PPP connection to avoid connectivity problems the default banner message causes in some non-Cisco SLIP and PPP dialup software. This feature is particularly useful when legacy client applications require a specialized connection string.

You can also use tokens in the banner message to display current IOS configuration variables. Tokens are keywords of the form $(token). When you include tokens in a banner command, Cisco IOS will replace $(token) with the corresponding configuration variable.

Table 1 lists the tokens that you can use in the banner slip-ppp command.

Table 1 SLIP Banner Tokens 

Tokens
Information Displayed in Banner
Global

 $(hostname)

Hostname of the router

 $(domain)

Domain name of the router

Slip/PPP Banner-Specific

 $(peer-ip)

IP address of the peer machine

 $(gate-ip)

IP address of the gateway machine

 $(encap)

Encapsulation type (SLIP, PPP, and so on)

 $(encap-alt)

Encapsulation type displayed as SL/IP instead of SLIP

 $(mtu)

MTU size


How to Configure Asynchronous SLIP and PPP

To configure SLIP and PPP, perform the tasks in the following sections; all tasks are optional:

Configuring Network-Layer Protocols over PPP and SLIP

Asynchronous Host Mobility

Additional Remote Node Connections

Remote Access to NetBEUI Services

Performance Parameters

Configuring Network-Layer Protocols over SLIP and PPP

Configuring IP and PPP

To enable IP-PPP (IPCP) on a synchronous or an asynchronous interface, use the following commands in interface configuration mode:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

Router(config-if)# ip address ip-address mask [secondary]

or

Router(config-if)# ip unnumbered type number

Configures IP routing on the interface.

 
        

Configures IP unnumbered routing on a serial interface.

Step 2 

Router(config-if)# encapsulation ppp

Enables PPP encapsulation on the serial interface.

Step 3 

Router(config-if)# async mode interactive

Enables interactive mode on an asynchronous interface.

Configuring IPX and PPP and Associating Asynchronous Interfaces with Loopback Interfaces

To permit IPX client connections to an asynchronous interface, the interface must be associated with a loopback interface configured to run IPX. To permit such connections, use the following commands beginning in global configuration mode:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

Router(config)# ipx routing [node]

Enables IPX routing.

Step 2 

Router(config)# interface loopback number

Creates a loopback interface, which is a virtual interface existing only inside the router, and begins interface configuration mode.

Step 3 

Router(config-if)# ipx network network1

Enables IPX routing on the loopback interface.

Step 4 

Router(config-if)# exit

Exits to global configuration mode.

Step 5 

Router(config)# interface async number

Enters interface configuration mode for the asynchronous interface.

Step 6 

Router(config-if)# ip unnumbered type number

Configures IP unnumbered routing on the interface.

Step 7 

Router(config-if)# encapsulation ppp

Enables PPP encapsulation on the interface.

Step 8 

Router(config-if)# async mode interactive

Enables interactive mode on an asynchronous interface.

Step 9 

Router(config-if)# ipx ppp-client loopback number

Assigns the asynchronous interface to the loopback interface configured for IPX.

Step 10 

Router(config-if)# ipx update interval

Turns off Service Advertising Protocol (SAP) updates to optimize bandwidth on asynchronous interfaces.

1 Every interface must have a unique IPX network number.

Configuring IPX and PPP Using Dedicated IPX Network Numbers for Each Interface

To enable IPX and PPP, use the following commands beginning in global configuration mode. The first five steps are required. The last step is optional.

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

Router(config)# ipx routing [node]

Enables IPX routing.

Step 2 

Router(config)# interface loopback number

Creates a loopback interface, which is a virtual interface existing only inside the router, and begins interface configuration mode.

Step 3 

Router(config-if)# encapsulation ppp

Enables PPP encapsulation on the interface.

Step 4 

Router(config-if)# async mode interactive

Enables interactive mode on an asynchronous interface.

Step 5 

Router(config-if)# ipx network network1

Enables IPX routing on the interface.

Step 6 

Router(config-if)# ipx update interval

(Optional) Turns off SAP updates to optimize bandwidth on asynchronous interfaces.

1 Every interface must have a unique IPX network number.

Enabling IPX and PPP over X.25 to an IPX Network on Virtual Terminal Lines

To enable IPX to run over your PPP sessions on virtual terminal lines, use the following commands beginning in global configuration mode:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

Router(config)# ipx routing [node]

Enables IPX routing.

Step 2 

Router(config)# interface loopback number

Creates a loopback interface and begins interface configuration mode.

Step 3 

Router(config-if)# ipx network network1

Enables a virtual IPX network on the loopback interface.

Step 4 

Router(config-if)# vty-async ipx ppp-client loopback number

Enables IPX-PPP on virtual terminal lines by assigning it to the loopback interface configured for IPX.

1 Every loopback interface must have a unique IPX network number.

Configuring AppleTalk and PPP

To enable ATCP for PPP, use the following commands in interface configuration (asynchronous) mode:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

Router(config-if)# encapsulation ppp

Defines encapsulation as PPP on this interface.

Step 2 

Router(config-if)# appletalk virtual-net network-number zone-name

Creates an internal network on the server.

Step 3 

Router(config-if)# appletalk client-mode

Enables client-mode on this interface.

Configuring IP and SLIP

To enable IP-SLIP on a synchronous or asynchronous interface, use the following commands in interface configuration mode:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

Router(config-if)# ip address ip-address mask

or

Router(config-if)# ip unnumbered type number

Configures IP routing on the interface.

Configures IP unnumbered routing on a serial interface.

Step 2 

Router(config-if)# encapsulation slip

Enables SLIP encapsulation on the serial interface.

Step 3 

Router(config-if)# async mode interactive

Enables interactive mode on an asynchronous interface.

Configuring Asynchronous Host Mobility

To enable asynchronous host mobility, use the following commands beginning in global configuration mode:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

Router(config)# ip tcp async-mobility server

Enables asynchronous listening on TCP tunnel port 57.

Step 2 

Router(config)# exit

Returns to user EXEC mode.

Step 3 

Router# tunnel host

Sets up a network-layer connection to a router by specifying its Internet name or address. Replace the host argument with the name or address of the device that you want to connect to.

Configuring Performance Parameters

TCP Packet Headers Compression

TCP Connection Attempt Time

IPX Packet Headers Compression over PPP

Fast Switching

Route Cache Invalidation

SLIP and PPP Banner Messages Customization

Compressing TCP Packet Headers

To enable compression, use the following commands in interface configuration mode:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

Router(config-if)# ip tcp header-compression [passive]

Enables TCP header compression.

Step 2 

Router(config-if)# ip tcp compression-connections number

Specifies the total number of header compression connections that can exist on an interface.

Setting the TCP Connection Attempt Time

Command
Purpose

Router(config)# ip tcp synwait-time seconds

Sets the amount of time for which the Cisco IOS software will wait to attempt to establish a TCP connection.


Compressing IPX Packet Headers over PPP

To configure CIPX, use the following command in global configuration mode:

Command
Purpose

Router(config)# ipx compression cipx number-of-slots

Compresses IPX packet headers in a PPP session.


Enabling Fast Switching

To enable or disable fast switching, use the following commands in interface configuration mode:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

Router(config-if)# ip route-cache

Enables fast-switching (use of a high-speed route cache for IP routing).

Step 2 

Router(config-if)# no ip route-cache

Disables fast switching and enables load balancing on a per-packet basis.

Controlling Route Cache Invalidation

To control route cache invalidation, use the following commands in global configuration mode as needed for your network:


Note This task normally should not be necessary. It should be performed only under the guidance of technical staff. Incorrect configuration can seriously degrade the performance of your router.


 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

Router(config)# no ip cache-invalidate-delay

Allows immediate invalidation of the cache.

Step 2 

Router(config)# ip cache-invalidate-delay [minimum maximum quiet-threshold]

Delays invalidation of the cache.

Customizing SLIP and PPP Banner Messages

To configure the SLIP-PPP banner message, use the following command in global configuration mode:

Command
Purpose

Router(config)# banner slip-ppp d message d

Configures the SLIP-PPP banner to display a customized message.


Configuration Examples for Asynchronous SLIP and PPP

Examples: Basic PPP Configurations

Examples: Remote Node NetBEUI

Example: Remote Network Access Using PPP Basic Configuration

Example: Remote Network Access Using PPP and Routing IP

Example: Remote Network Access Using a Leased Line with Dial-Backup and PPP

Example: Multilink PPP Using Multiple Asynchronous Interfaces

Examples: Basic PPP Configurations

The following example illustrates how to make a connection when the system administrator defines a default IP address by including the peer default ip address command in interface configuration mode.


Note The peer default ip address command replaces the async default ip address command.


Once a correct password is entered, you are placed in SLIP mode, and the IP address appears:

Router> slip
Password:
Entering SLIP mode.
Your IP address is 192.168.7.28, MTU is 1524 bytes 

The following example shows the prompts displayed and the response required when dynamic addressing is used to assign the SLIP address:

Router> slip
IP address or hostname? 192.168.6.15
Password:
Entering SLIP mode
Your IP address is 192.168.6.15, MTU is 1524 bytes 

In the previous example, the address 192.168.6.15 had been assigned as the default. Password verification is still required before SLIP mode can be enabled, as follows:

Router> slip default
Password:
Entering SLIP mode
Your IP address is 192.168.6.15, MTU is 1524 bytes
 
   

The following example illustrates the implementation of header compression on the interface with the IP address 172.16.2.1:

Router> slip 172.16.2.1 /compressed 
Password:
Entering SLIP mode.
Interface IP address is 172.16.2.1, MTU is 1500 bytes.
Header compression will match your system.
 
   

In the preceding example, the interface is configured for ip tcp header-compression passive, which permitted the user to enter the /compressed keyword at the EXEC mode prompt. The message "Header compression will match your system" indicates that the user has specified compression. If the line was configured for ip tcp header-compression on, this line would read "Header compression is On."

The following example specifies a TACACS server named parlance for address authentication:

Router> slip 10.0.0.1@parlance
Password:
Entering SLIP mode.
Interface IP address is 10.0.0.1, MTU is 1500 bytes
Header compression will match your system. 
 
   

The following example sets the SLIP-PPP banner using several tokens and the percent sign (%) as the delimiting character:

Router(config)# banner slip-ppp %
Enter TEXT message.  End with the character '%'.
Starting $(encap) connection from $(gate-ip) to $(peer-ip) using a maximum packet size of 
$(mtu) bytes... %
 
   

When you enter the slip command, you will see the following banner. Notice that the $(token) syntax is replaced by the corresponding configuration variables.

Starting SLIP connection from 192.168.69.96 to 172.16.80.8 using a maximum packet size of 
1500 bytes...

Examples: Remote Node NetBEUI

In the following example, asynchronous interface 7 and Ethernet interface 0 are configured to enable NetBEUI connectivity between the corporate telecommuter client and the remote access (NetBEUI) server. The PC client is running the Chat legacy application in Windows NT to connect with the remote server. (See Figure 7.)

Figure 7 Connecting a Remote NetBEUI Client to a Server Through a Router

The configuration for the router is as follows:

interface async 7
 netbios nbf
 encapsulation ppp
 
   

You would also need to configure security, such as TACACS+, RADIUS, or another form of login authentication on the router.

Example: Remote Network Access Using PPP Basic Configuration

Figure 8 illustrates a simple network configuration that includes remote PCs with modems connected via modem to a router. The cloud is a Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). The modems are connected via asynchronous lines, and the access server is connected to a local network.

In this example, the following is configured:

An asynchronous line on the access server configured to use PPP encapsulation.

An interface on the access server for the modem connection; this interface also needs to be configured to accept incoming modem calls.

A default IP address for each incoming line.

Figure 8 Remote Network Access Using PPP

This default address indicates the address of the remote PC to the server, unless the user explicitly specifies another when starting the PPP session.

The server is configured for interactive mode with autoselect enabled, which allows the user to automatically begin a PPP session upon detection of a PPP packet from the remote PC; or, the remote PC can explicitly begin a PPP session by entering the ppp EXEC command at the prompt.

The configuration is as follows:

ip routing
!
interface ethernet 0
 ip address 192.168.32.12 255.255.255.0
!
interface async 1
 encapsulation ppp
 async mode interactive
 async default ip address 192.168.32.51
 async dynamic address
 ip unnumbered ethernet 0
 
   
line 1
 autoselect ppp
 modem callin
 speed 19200

Example: Remote Network Access Using PPP and Routing IP

Figure 9 illustrates a network configuration that provides routing functionality, allowing routing updates to be passed across the asynchronous lines.

This network is composed of remote and local PCs connected via modem and network connections to an access server. This access server is connected to a second access server via an asynchronous line running TCP/IP. The second access server is connected to a local network via modem.

For this scenario, you will need to configure the following:

An asynchronous line on both access servers configured to use PPP encapsulation

An interface on both access servers for the modem connection and for this interface to be configured to accept incoming modem calls

A default IP address for each incoming line

IP routing on all configured interfaces

Figure 9 Routing on an Asynchronous Line Using PPP

The configuration is as follows:

interface async 1
 encapsulation ppp
 async mode interactive
 async default ip address 192.168.32.10
 async dynamic address
 ip unnumbered ethernet 0
 async dynamic routing
 
   

If you want to pass IP routing updates across the asynchronous link, enter the following commands:

line 1
 autoselect ppp
 modem callin
 speed 19200
 
   

Next, enter the following commands to configure the asynchronous lines between the access servers beginning in global configuration mode:

interface async 2
 async default ip address 192.168.32.55
 ip tcp header compression passive
 
   

Finally, configure routing as described in the Cisco IOS IP Configuration Guide using one of the following methods. The server can route packets three different ways.

Use ARP, which is the default behavior.

Use a default-gateway by entering the command ip default-gateway x.x.x.x, where x.x.x.x is the IP address of a locally attached router.

Run an IP routing protocol such as Routing Information Protocol (RIP), Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP), Enhanced IGRP (EIGRP), or Open Shortest Path First (OSPF).

Example: Remote Network Access Using a Leased Line with Dial-Backup and PPP

Figure 10 illustrates a scenario where two networks are connected via access servers on a leased line. Redundancy is provided by a dial-backup line over the PSTN so that if the primary leased line goes down, the dial-backup line will be automatically brought up to restore the connection. This configuration would be useful for using an auxiliary port as the backup port for a synchronous port.

For this scenario, you would need to configure the following:

Two asynchronous interfaces on each access server

Two modem interfaces

A default IP address for each interface

Dial-backup on one modem interface per access server

An interface connecting to the related network of an access server

Figure 10 Asynchronous Leased Line with Backup

The configuration for this scenario follows:

hostname routerA
!
username routerB password cisco
chat-script backup "" "AT" TIMEOUT 30 OK atdt\T TIMEOUT 30 CONNECT \c !
!
interface Serial0
 backup interface Async1
 ip address 192.168.222.12 255.255.255.0
!
interface Async1
 ip address 172.16.199.1 255.255.255.0
 encapsulation ppp
 async default ip address 172.16.199.2
 async dynamic address
 async dynamic routing
 async mode dedicated
 dialer in-band
 dialer map IP 172.16.199.2 name routerB modem-script backup broadcast 3241129 
 dialer-group 1
 ppp authentication chap
!
 dialer-list 1 protocol ip permit
!
line aux 0
 modem InOut
 rxspeed 38400
 txspeed 38400
 
   

Example: Multilink PPP Using Multiple Asynchronous Interfaces

The following example shows how to configure MLP using multiple asynchronous interfaces:

chat-script backup "" "AT" TIMEOUT 30 OK atdt\T TIMEOUT 30 CONNECT \c
!
ip address-pool local
ip pool foo 10.0.1.5 10.0.1.15
!
int as 1 (2, 3)
 no ip address
 dialer in-band
 encapsulation ppp
 ppp multilink
 dialer-rotary 1
!
interface dialer 1
 encaps ppp
 ip unnumbered ethernet 0
 peer default ip addr pool foo
 ppp authentication chap
 ppp multilink
 dialer in-band
 dialer map ip 10.200.100.9 name WAN-R3 modem-script backup broadcast 2322036
 dialer load-threshold 5 either
 dialer-group 1
!
dialer-list 1 protocol ip permit
!
line line 1 3
modem InOut
speed 115000

Additional References

Related Documents

Related Topic
Document Title

Cisco IOS commands

Master Commands List, All Releases

Dial Technologies commands

Dial Technologies Command Reference


Standards

Standard
Title

RFC 1055

 

RFCs 1331

 

RFCs 1332

 

RFC 1084

 
   

MIBs

MIB
MIBs Link

To locate and download MIBs for selected platforms, Cisco software releases, and feature sets, use Cisco MIB Locator found at the following URL:

http://www.cisco.com/go/mibs


Technical Assistance

Description
Link

The Cisco Support and Documentation website provides online resources to download documentation, software, and tools. Use these resources to install and configure the software and to troubleshoot and resolve technical issues with Cisco products and technologies. Access to most tools on the Cisco Support and Documentation website requires a Cisco.com user ID and password.

http://www.cisco.com/cisco/web/support/index.html


Feature Information for Configuring Asynchronous SLIP and PPP

<<Table 2>> lists the release history for this feature.

Use Cisco Feature Navigator to find information about platform support and software image support. Cisco Feature Navigator enables you to determine which software images support a specific software release, feature set, or platform. To access Cisco Feature Navigator, go to http://www.cisco.com/go/cfn. An account on Cisco.com is not required.


Note Table 2 lists only the software release that introduced support for a given feature in a given software release train. Unless noted otherwise, subsequent releases of that software release train also support that feature.


Table 2 Feature Information for Configuring Asynchronous SLIP and PPP

Feature Name
Releases
Feature Information

PPP

11.2
12.2(28)SB
12.2(33)SRC
12.2(33)XNA
15.2(2)S

The Configuring Asynchronous SLIP and PPP module describes how to configure asynchronous Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) and PPP.

The following commands were introduced or modified: ppp multilink, ppp multilink group.