Configuring Remote Source-Route Bridging
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Configuring Remote Source-Route Bridging

Table Of Contents

Configuring Remote Source-Route Bridging

Technology Overview

Configuration Considerations

RSRB Configuration Task List

Configuring RSRB Using Direct Encapsulation

Defining a Ring Group in RSRB Context

Identifying the Remote Peers (Direct Encapsulation)

Enabling SRB on the Appropriate Interfaces

Configuring RSRB Using IP Encapsulation over an FST Connection

Setting Up an FST Peer Name and Assigning an IP Address

Identifying the Remote Peers (FST Connection)

Enabling SRB on the Appropriate Interfaces

Configuring RSRB Using IP Encapsulation over a TCP Connection

Identifying the Remote Peer (TCP Connection)

Enabling SRB on the Appropriate Interfaces

Configuring RSRB Using TCP and LLC2 Local Acknowledgment

Enabling LLC2 Local Acknowledgment Between Two Remote Peer Bridges

Enabling SRB on the Appropriate Interfaces

Enabling Local Acknowledgment and Passthrough

Configuring Direct Frame Relay Encapsulation Between RSRB Peers

Establishing SAP Prioritization

Defining a SAP Priority List

Defining SAP Filters

RSRB Network Tuning Configuration Task List

Prioritizing Traffic Based on SNA Local LU Addresses

Enabling Class of Service

Assigning a Priority Group to an Input Interface

Configuring the Largest Frame Size

Monitoring and Maintaining the RSRB Network

RSRB Configuration Examples

RSRB Direct Frame Relay Encapsulation Example

RSRB Using IP Encapsulation over a TCP Connection Example

RSRB/TCP Fast-Switching Configuration Example

RSRB Using IP Encapsulation over an FST Connection Example

RSRB Using All Types of Transport Methods Example

RSRB with Local Acknowledgment Example

RSRB with Local Acknowledgment and Passthrough Example

Local Acknowledgment for LLC2 Example

IP for Load Sharing over RSRB Example

Configuring Priority for Locally Terminated Token Ring Interfaces in RSRB Example


Configuring Remote Source-Route Bridging


This chapter describes how to configure remote source-route bridging (RSRB). For a complete description of the RSRB commands mentioned in this chapter, refer to the "Remote Source-Route Bridging Commands" chapter of the Cisco IOS Bridging and IBM Networking Command Reference (Volume 1 of 2). To locate documentation of other commands that appear in this chapter, use the command reference master index or search online.

This chapter contains the following sections:

Technology Overview

RSRB Configuration Task List

RSRB Network Tuning Configuration Task List

Monitoring and Maintaining the RSRB Network

RSRB Configuration Examples

To identify the hardware platform or software image information associated with a feature, use the Feature Navigator on Cisco.com to search for information about the feature or refer to the software release notes for a specific release.

Technology Overview

In contrast to Source-Route Bridging (SRB), which involves bridging between Token Ring media only, RSRB is Cisco's first technique for connecting Token Ring networks over non-Token Ring network segments. (DLSw+ is Cisco's strategic method for providing this function.)

Cisco's RSRB software implementation includes the following features:

Provides for multiple routers separated by non-Token Ring segments. Three options are available:

Encapsulate the Token Ring traffic inside IP datagrams passed over a Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) connection between two routers.

Use Fast-Sequenced Transport (FST) to transport RSRB packets to their peers without TCP or User Datagram Protocol (UDP) header or processor overhead.

Use data link layer encapsulations over a single serial line, Ethernet, Token Ring, or Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) ring connected between two routers attached to Token Ring networks.

Provides for configurable limits to the size of the TCP backup queue.

Figure 1 shows an RSRB topology. The virtual ring can extend across any non-Token Ring media supported by RSRB, such as serial, Ethernet, FDDI, and WANs. The type of media you select determines the way you set up RSRB.

Figure 1 RSRB Topology


Note If you bridge across Token Ring media, it is recommended that you do not use RSRB. Use SRB instead. Refer to the chapter "Configuring Source-Route Bridging."


Configuration Considerations

Only use IP encapsulation over a TCP connection within complex meshed networks to support connections between peers that are separated by multiple hops and can potentially use multiple paths, and where performance is not an issue. Use direct encapsulation in point-to-point connections. In a point-to-point configuration, using TCP adds unnecessary processing overhead. Multiple peer types, however, can be combined to in a single router by following the directions for each peer type. For example, for a peer to support both TCP and FST remote-peers, you would need to define both a source-bridge fst peername and a source-bridge remote-peer command for the local router, using the same local IP address.

FST is fast-switched when it receives or sends frames from Ethernet, Token Ring, or FDDI interfaces. It is also fast-switched when it sends and receives from serial interfaces configured with the High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC) encapsulation. In all other cases, FST is slow-switched.

In cases where FST is fast-switched, in either the Cisco routers configured for FST or in the routers contained within the IP "cloud" between a pair of FST peers, only one path is used at a given time between the two FST peers. A single path greatly decreases the likelihood that frames arrive out of sequence. In the rare cases where frames do arrive out of sequence, the FST code on the receiving peer discards the out-of-order frame. Thus the Token Ring end hosts rarely lose a frame over the FST router cloud, and performance levels remain adequate.

The same conditions are true for any slow-switched topology that provides only a single path (for example, a single X.25 network cloud) between the peers. Similarly, if two slow-switched paths are of very different costs such that one always will be chosen over the other, the chances of having frames received out of sequence are also rare.

However, if two or more slow-switched paths of equal cost exist between the two routers (such as two parallel X.25 networks), the routers alternate in sending packets between the two or more equal-cost paths. This results in a high probability of frames arriving out of sequence at the receiver. In such cases, the FST code disposes of every out-of-sequence packet, leading to a large number of drops. This requires that the end hosts resend frames, greatly reducing overall throughput.

When parallel paths exist, we strongly recommend choosing one as the preferred path. Choose a preferred path by specifying a higher bandwidth for the path that contains the direct connections to the two or more parallel paths on the router.

Do not use FST when the probability exists for frames to lose their order in your network. If you have a network where frames are routinely reordered, it is better to use the TCP protocol for remote source-route bridging. TCP provides the overhead necessary to bring frames back in order on the receiving router. FST, to remain fast, does not provide for such a mechanism, and will discard out-of-order frames.

Logical Link Control, type 2 (LLC2) local acknowledgment can only be enabled with TCP remote peers (as opposed to LAN or direct serial interface remote peers) because the Cisco IOS software needs the reliability of TCP to provide the same reliability that an LLC2 LAN end-to-end connection provides. Therefore, the direct media encapsulation options for the source-bridge remote-peer command cannot be used.

If the LLC2 session between the local host and the router terminates on either side of the connection, the other device will be informed to terminate its connection to its local host.

If the TCP queue length of the connection between the two routers reaches 90 percent of its limit, they send Receiver-not-Ready (RNR) messages to the local hosts until the queue limit is reduced to below this limit.

The configuration of the LLC2 parameters for the local Token Ring interfaces can affect overall performance. Refer to the "Configuring LLC2 and SDLC Parameters" chapter for more details about fine-tuning your network through the LLC2 parameters.


Note Local acknowledgment for LLC2 is meant only for extreme cases in which communication is not possible otherwise. Because the router must maintain a full LLC2 session, the number of simultaneous sessions it can support before performance degrades depends on the mix of other protocols and their loads.


The routers at each end of the LLC2 session execute the full LLC2 protocol, which can result in some overhead. The decision to turn on local acknowledgment for LLC2 should be based on the speed of the backbone network in relation to the Token Ring speed. For LAN segments separated by slow-speed serial links (for example, 56 kbps), the T1 timer problem could occur more frequently. In such cases, it may be wise to turn on local acknowledgment for LLC2. For LAN segments separated by a FDDI backbone, backbone delays will be minimal; in such cases, local acknowledgment for LLC2 should not be turned on. Speed mismatch between the LAN segments and the backbone network is one criterion to be used in the decision to use local acknowledgment for LLC2.

There are some situations (such as host B failing between the time host A sends data and the time
host B receives it) in which host A would behave as if, at the LLC2 layer, data was received when it actually was not, because the device acknowledges that it received data from host A before it confirms that host B can actually receive the data. But because both NetBIOS and SNA have error recovery in situations where an end device goes down, these higher-level protocols will resend any missing or lost data. These transaction request/confirmation protocols exist above LLC2, so they are not affected by tight timers, as is LLC2. They also are transparent to local acknowledgment.

If you are using NetBIOS applications, note that there are two NetBIOS timers—one at the link level and one at the next higher level. Local acknowledgment for LLC2 is designed to solve session timeouts at the link level only. If you are experiencing NetBIOS session timeouts, you have two options:

Experiment with increasing your NetBIOS timers.

Avoid using NetBIOS applications on slow serial lines.

In a configuration scenario where RSRB is configured between Router A and Router B and both routers are not routing IP, a Host connected to router A through Token Ring (or other LAN media) has no IP connectivity to router B. This restriction exists because IP datagrams received from the Host by
Router A are encapsulated and sent to router B where they can only be de-encapsulated and source-bridged to a tokenring. In this scenario, IP routing is recommended. To enable the Host to reach Router B in this scenario, IP routing should be enabled on Router A's Token Ring interface to which the Host is attached.

RSRB Configuration Task List

To configure RSRB, perform the tasks in one of the following sections:

Configuring RSRB Using Direct Encapsulation

Configuring RSRB Using IP Encapsulation over an FST Connection

Configuring RSRB Using IP Encapsulation over a TCP Connection

Configuring RSRB Using TCP and LLC2 Local Acknowledgment

Configuring Direct Frame Relay Encapsulation Between RSRB Peers

Establishing SAP Prioritization

See the "RSRB Configuration Examples" section for examples.

Configuring RSRB Using Direct Encapsulation

Configuring RSRB using the direct encapsulation method uses an HDLC-like encapsulation to pass frames over a single physical network connection between two routers attached to Token Rings. Use this method when you run source-route bridge traffic over point-to-point, single-hop, serial, or LAN media. Although this method does not have the flexibility of the TCP method, it provides better performance because it involves less overhead.To configure a remote source-route bridge to use a point-to-point serial line or a single Ethernet, or single FDDI hop, perform the tasks in the following sections:

Defining a Ring Group in RSRB Context

Identifying the Remote Peers (Direct Encapsulation)

Enabling SRB on the Appropriate Interfaces

Defining a Ring Group in RSRB Context

In our implementation of RSRB, whenever you connect Token Rings using non-Token Ring media, you must treat that non-Token Ring media as a virtual ring by assigning it to a ring group. Every router with which you wish to exchange Token Ring traffic must be a member of this same ring group. These routers are referred to as remote peer bridges. The ring group is therefore made up of interfaces that reside on separate routers.

A ring group must be assigned a ring number that is unique throughout the network. It is possible to assign different interfaces on the same router to different ring groups, if, for example, you plan to administer them as interfaces in separate domains.

To define or remove a ring group, use one of the following commands in global configuration mode, as needed:

:

Command
Purpose

Router(config)# source-bridge ring-group ring-group [virtual-mac-address]

Defines a ring group.

Router(config)# no source-bridge ring-group ring-group [virtual-mac-address]

Removes a ring group.


Identifying the Remote Peers (Direct Encapsulation)

The interfaces that you identify as remote peer bridges must be serial, Ethernet, FDDI, or Token Ring interfaces. On a serial interface, you must use HDLC encapsulation. To identify remote-peer bridges, use the following command in global configuration mode:

Command
Purpose

Router(config)# source-bridge remote-peer ring-group interface interface-name [mac-address] [lf size]

Defines the ring group and identify the interface over which to send SRB traffic to another router in the ring group.


Configure a source-bridge remote peer command for each peer router that is part of the virtual ring. When using direct encapsulation, you do not need to configure a local router ID.


Note If the medium being used for the direct connection is a multipoint medium (for example, Ethernet or FDDI), then you may have to specify a target Media Access Control (MAC) address for the remote peer. If so, this MAC address should be the MAC address of the interface on the remote peer that is connected to the transport medium (the medium shared by the local and remote peers).


To assign a keepalive interval to the remote source-bridging peer, use the following command in interface configuration mode:

Command
Purpose

Router(config-if)# source-bridge keepalive seconds

Defines the keepalive interval of the remote source-bridging peer.


Enabling SRB on the Appropriate Interfaces

Enable Source-Route Bridging (SRB) on each interface through which SRB traffic will pass. The value you specify in the target ring parameter should be the ring group number you have assigned to the interface. To enable SRB on an interface, use the following command in interface configuration mode:

Command
Purpose

Router(config-if)# source-bridge local-ring bridge-number target-ring

Enables SRB on an interface.


Configuring RSRB Using IP Encapsulation over an FST Connection

Encapsulating the source-route bridged traffic inside IP datagrams passed over a FST connection between two routers is not as fast as using direct encapsulation. It does, however, outperform IP encapsulation over a TCP connection because it has lower overhead. However, this method is fast-switched and does not support any IP-level functions, including local acknowledgment or fragmentation. Nor is it suitable for use in networks that tend to reorder frame sequences.

To configure a remote source-route bridge to use IP encapsulation over an FST connection, you must perform the tasks in the following sections:

Setting Up an FST Peer Name and Assigning an IP Address

Identifying the Remote Peers (FST Connection)

Enabling SRB on the Appropriate Interfaces


Note FST encapsulation preserves the dynamic media-independent nature of IP routing to support SNA and NetBIOS applications.


For an example of how to configure RSRB over an FST connection, see the "RSRB Using IP Encapsulation over an FST Connection Example" section.

Setting Up an FST Peer Name and Assigning an IP Address

To set up an FST peer name and provide an IP address to be used by the local router, use the following command in global configuration mode:

Command
Purpose

Router(config)# source-bridge fst-peername local-interface-address

Sets up an FST peer name and provide the local router with an IP address.


In our implementation of RSRB, whenever you connect Token Rings using non-Token Ring media, you must treat that non-Token Ring media as a virtual ring by assigning it to a ring group. Every router with which you want to exchange Token Ring traffic must be a member of this same ring group. Therefore, after you set up an FST peer name, define a ring group. For more information about defining a ring group, see the "Define a Ring Group in SRB Context" section of the "Configuring Source-Route Bridging" chapter.

Identifying the Remote Peers (FST Connection)

All the routers with which you want to exchange Token Ring traffic are referred to as remote peer bridges. The remote peers can be at the other end of an FST connection. To identify the remote peers, use the following command in global configuration mode:

Command
Purpose

Router(config)# source-bridge remote-peer ring-group fst ip-address [lf size]

Identifies your peers and specify an FST connection.


Specify one source bridge remote peer command for each peer router that is part of the virtual ring. Also specify one source bridge remote peer command to identify the IP address of the local router. The IP address you specify should be the IP address you want the router to reach.

You can assign a keepalive interval to the RSRB peer. Use the following command in interface configuration mode:

Command
Purpose

Router(config-if)# source-bridge keepalive seconds

Defines the keepalive interval of the RSRB peer.


Enabling SRB on the Appropriate Interfaces

Enable SRB on each interface through which SRB traffic passes. Make the value of the target ring parameter you specify the ring group number you assigned to the interface. To enable SRB on an interface, use the following command in interface configuration mode:

Command
Purpose

Router(config-if)# source-bridge local-ring bridge-number target-ring

Enables local SRB on a Token Ring interface.


Configuring RSRB Using IP Encapsulation over a TCP Connection

Encapsulating the source-route bridged traffic inside IP datagrams passed over a TCP connection between two routers offers lower performance, but is the appropriate method to use under the following conditions:

You plan to connect Token Ring networks across arbitrary media including Ethernet, FDDI, serial interfaces, and X.25 networks.

You plan to connect Token Ring networks across a multiprotocol backbone network.

You plan to load balance over multiple, redundant paths. Using this topology, when a path fails there is no need for hosts to resend explorer packets. IP routing handles the network reconfiguration transparently to the Token Ring hosts.

To configure a remote source-route bridge to use IP encapsulation over a TCP connection, you must perform the tasks in the following sections:

Identifying the Remote Peer (TCP Connection)

Enabling SRB on the Appropriate Interfaces

Identifying the Remote Peer (TCP Connection)

In our implementation, whenever you connect Token Rings using non-Token Ring media, you must treat that non-Token Ring media as a virtual ring by assigning it to a ring group. Every router with which you want to exchange Token Ring traffic must be a member of this same ring group. For more information about defining a ring group, see the "Define a Ring Group in SRB Context" section of the "Configuring Source-Route Bridging" chapter.

To identify the remote peers, use the following command in global configuration mode:

Command
Purpose

Router(config)# source-bridge remote-peer ring-group tcp ip-address [lf size] [tcp-receive-window wsize] [local-ack] [priority]

Identifies the IP address of a peer in the ring group with which to exchange source-bridge traffic using TCP.


Specify one source-bridge remote peer command for each peer router that is part of the virtual ring. Configure an additional source-bridge remote peer command to identify the IP address to be used by the local router.

You can assign a keepalive interval to the RSRB peer. Use the following command in interface configuration mode:

Command
Purpose

Router(config-if)# source-bridge keepalive seconds

Defines the keepalive interval of the remote source-bridging peer.


Enabling SRB on the Appropriate Interfaces

To enable SRB on an interface, use the following command in interface configuration mode:

Command
Purpose

Router(config-if)# source-bridge local-ring bridge-number target-ring

Enables local source-route bridging on a Token Ring interface.


The value of the target ring parameter you specify should be the ring group number.

Configuring RSRB Using TCP and LLC2 Local Acknowledgment

Encapsulating source-route bridged traffic inside IP datagrams that traverse a TCP connection between two routers with local acknowledgment enabled is appropriate when you have LANs separated by wide geographic distances and you want to avoid time delays, multiple resending, or loss of user sessions.

LLC2 is an ISO standard data link level protocol used in Token Ring networks. LLC2 was designed to provide reliable sending of data across LAN media and to cause minimal or at least predictable time delays. However, RSRB and WAN backbones created LANs that are separated by wide, geographic distances spanning countries and continents. As a result, LANs have time delays that are longer than LLC2 allows for bidirectional communication between hosts. Local acknowledgment addresses the problem of unpredictable time delays, multiple resending, and loss of user sessions.

In a typical LLC2 session, when one host sends a frame to another host, the sending host expects the receiving host to respond positively or negatively in a predefined period of time commonly called the T1 time. If the sending host does not receive an acknowledgment of the frame it sent within the T1 time, it retries a few times (normally 8 to 10 times). If there is still no response, the sending host drops the session.

Figure 2 illustrates an LLC2 session. A 37x5 on a LAN segment can communicate with a 3x74 on a different LAN segment separated via a wide-area backbone network. Frames are transported between Router A and Router B using RSRB. However, the LLC2 session between the 37x5 and the 3x74 is still end-to-end; that is, every frame generated by the 37x5 traverses the backbone network to the 3x74, and the 3x74, on receipt of the frame, acknowledges it.

Figure 2 LLC2 Session without Local Acknowledgment

On backbone networks consisting of slow serial links, the T1 timer on end hosts could expire before the frames reach the remote hosts, causing the end host to resend. Resending results in duplicate frames reaching the remote host at the same time as the first frame reaches the remote host. Such frame duplication breaks the LLC2 protocol, resulting in the loss of sessions between the two IBM machines.

One way to solve this time delay is to increase the timeout value on the end nodes to account for the maximum transit time between the two end machines. However, in networks consisting of hundreds or even thousands of nodes, every machine would need to be reconfigured with new values. With local acknowledgment for LLC2 enabled, the LLC2 session between the two end nodes would not be end-to-end, but instead, would terminate at two local routers. Figure 3 shows the LLC2 session with the 37x5 ending at Router A and the LLC2 session with the 3x74 ending at Router B. Both Router A and Router B execute the full LLC2 protocol as part of local acknowledgment for LLC2.

Figure 3 LLC2 Session with Local Acknowledgment

With local acknowledgment for LLC2 enabled in both routers, Router A acknowledges frames received from the 37x5. The 37x5 still operates as if the acknowledgments it receives are from the 3x74. Router A looks like the 3x74 to the 37x5. Similarly, Router B acknowledges frames received from the 3x74. The 3x74 operates as if the acknowledgments it receives are from the 37x5. Router B looks like the 3x74 to 37x5. The end stations do not time out and lose sessions because the frames no longer have to travel the WAN backbone networks to be acknowledged. Instead, they are locally acknowledged by routers,

Enabling local acknowledgment for LLC2 has the following advantages:

Local acknowledgment for LLC2 solves the T1 timer problem without having to change any configuration on the end nodes. The end nodes are unaware that the sessions are locally acknowledged. In networks consisting of hundreds or even thousands of machines, this is a definite advantage. All the frames acknowledged by the Cisco IOS software appear to the end hosts to be coming from the remote IBM machine. In fact, by looking at a trace from a protocol analyzer, one cannot say whether a frame was acknowledged by the local router or by a remote IBM machine. The MAC addresses and the RIFs generated by the Cisco IOS software are identical to those generated by the remote IBM machine. The only way to find out whether a session is locally acknowledged is to use either a show local-ack command or a show source-bridge command on the router.

All the supervisory (RR, RNR, REJ) frames that are locally acknowledged go no farther than the router. Without local acknowledgment for LLC2, every frame traverses the backbone. With local acknowledgment, only data (I-frames) traverse the backbone, resulting in less traffic on the backbone network. For installations in which customers pay for the amount of traffic passing through the backbone, this could be a definite cost-saving measure. A simple protocol exists between the two peers to bring up or down a TCP session.

To configure a remote source-route bridge to use IP encapsulation over a TCP connection, perform the tasks in the following sections:

Enabling LLC2 Local Acknowledgment Between Two Remote Peer Bridges

Enabling SRB on the Appropriate Interfaces

Enabling LLC2 Local Acknowledgment Between Two Remote Peer Bridges

In our implementation, whenever you connect Token Rings using non-Token Ring media, you must treat that non-Token Ring media as a virtual ring by assigning it to a ring group. Every router with which you wish to exchange Token Ring traffic must be a member of this same ring group. For more information about defining a ring group, see the "Define a Ring Group in SRB Context" section of the "Configuring Source-Route Bridging" chapter.

To enable LLC2 local acknowledgment, use the following command in global configuration mode:

Command
Purpose

Router(config)# source-bridge remote-peer ring-group tcp ip-address local-ack

Enables LLC2 local acknowledgment on a per-remote-peer basis.


Use one instance of the source-bridge remote-peer command for each interface you configure for RSRB.

Enabling SRB on the Appropriate Interfaces

To enable SRB on an interface, use the following command in interface configuration mode:

Command
Purpose

Router(config-if)# source-bridge local-ring bridge-number target-ring

Enables local SRB on a Token Ring interface.


The value of the target ring parameter you specify should be the ring group number.

For an example of how to configure RSRB with local acknowledgment, see the "RSRB with Local Acknowledgment Example" section.

Enabling Local Acknowledgment and Passthrough

To configure some sessions on a few rings to be locally acknowledged while the remaining sessions are passed through, use the following command in global configuration mode:

Command
Purpose

Router(config)# source-bridge passthrough ring-group

Configures the Cisco IOS software for passthrough.


Configuring Direct Frame Relay Encapsulation Between RSRB Peers

You can configure direct Frame Relay encapsulation to allow the RSRB peers to send RSRB protocol packets on a Frame Relay PVC. This configuration eliminates the overhead introduced by TCP/IP encapsulated Frame Relay packets.

Figure 4 illustrates direct Frame Relay encapsulation between RSRB peers.

Figure 4 RSRB Direct Frame Relay Encapsulation

The RSRB direct encapsulation design can use RFC 1490 format or Cisco Frame Relay encapsulation for routed packets.

To configure RSRB direct Frame Relay encapsulation, use the following commands in interface configuration mode:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

Router(config-if)# source-bridge remote-peer ring-group frame-relay interface name [mac-address] [dlci-number] [lf size]

Specifies the serial interface on which Frame Relay is configured.

Step 2 

Router(config-if)# frame-relay map rsrb dlci-number

Specifies the DLCI number onto which the RSRB traffic is to be mapped.


Note Direct encapsulation over Frame Relay is supported only for an encapsulation type of cisco, configured using the encapsulation frame-relay command.


Establishing SAP Prioritization

The SAP prioritization feature allows you to use SAP priority lists and filters to specify the priority of one protocol over another across an RSRB or SDLLC WAN.

Defining a SAP Priority List

To establish a SAP priority list, use the following commands in interface configuration mode:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

Router(config-if)# sap-priority-list number queue-keyword [dsap ds] [ssap ss] [dmac dm] [smac sm]

Defines the priority list.

Step 2 

Router(config-if)# sap-priority list-number

Defines the priority on an interface.

Step 3 

Router(config-if)# priority-group list-number

Applies the priority list to an interface.

Defining SAP Filters

You can define SAP filters and NetBIOS filters on Token Ring and Ethernet interfaces.

To filter by local service access point (LSAP) address on the RSRB WAN interface, use the following global configuration commands, as needed:

Command
Purpose

Router(config)# rsrb remote-peer ring-group tcp ip-address lsap-output-list access-list-number

Filters by LSAP address (TCP encapsulation).

Router(config)# rsrb remote-peer ring-group fst ip-address lsap-output-list access-list-number

Filters by LSAP address (FST encapsulation).

Router(config)# rsrb remote-peer ring-group interface name lsap-output-list access-list-number

Filters by LSAP address (direct encapsulation).


To filter packets by NetBIOS station name on an RSRB WAN interface, use one of the following global configuration commands, as needed:

Command
Purpose

Router(config)# rsrb remote-peer ring-group tcp ip-address netbios-output-list name

Filters by NetBIOS station name (TCP encapsulation).

Router(config)# rsrb remote-peer ring-group fst ip-address netbios-output-list name

Filters by NetBIOS station name (FST encapsulation).

Router(config)# rsrb remote-peer ring-group interface type netbios-output-list host

Filters by NetBIOS station name (direct encapsulation).


RSRB Network Tuning Configuration Task List

The following sections describe how to configure features that enhance network performance by reducing the number of packets that traverse the backbone network:

Prioritizing Traffic Based on SNA Local LU Addresses

Enabling Class of Service

Assigning a Priority Group to an Input Interface

Configuring the Largest Frame Size

Configuring the Largest Frame Size

Prioritizing Traffic Based on SNA Local LU Addresses

You can prioritize Systems Network Architecture (SNA) traffic on an interface configured for either serial tunnel (STUN) or RSRB communication. The SNA local logical unit (LU) address prioritization feature allows SNA traffic to be prioritized according to the address of the LUs on the FID2 transmission headers. Currently, only dependent LUs are supported. The prioritization takes place on LU-LU traffic between an SNA Node type 5 or Node type 4, and Node type 2.

Figure 5 shows how SNA local address prioritization can be used.

Figure 5 SNA Local Address Prioritization

In Figure 5, the IBM mainframe is channel-attached to a 3x75 FEP, which is connected to a cluster controller via RSRB. Multiple 3270 terminals and printers, each with a unique local LU address, are then attached to the cluster controller. By applying SNA local LU address prioritization, each LU associated with a terminal or printer can be assigned a priority; that is, certain users can have terminals that have better response time than others, and printers can have lowest priority.


Note Both local acknowledgment and TCP priority features for STUN or RSRB must be turned on for SNA local address prioritization to take effect.


With the SNA local LU address prioritization feature, you can establish queueing priorities based on the address of the logical unit. To prioritize traffic, use the following commands in global configuration mode:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

Router(config)# locaddr-priority-list list-number address-number queue-keyword [dsap ds] [dmac dm] [ssap ss] [smac sm]

Maps LUs to TCP port numbers.

Step 2 

Router(config)# priority-list list-number protocol protocol-name queue-keyword

Sets the queueing priority of TCP port numbers.

Enabling Class of Service

To prioritize SNA traffic across the SNA backbone network, you can enable the class of service feature. This feature is useful only between FEP-to-FEP (PU 4-to-PU 4) communication across the non-SNA backbone. It allows important FEP traffic to flow on high-priority queues.

To enable class of service, IP encapsulation over a TCP connection and LLC2 local acknowledgment must be enabled.

To enable class of service, use the following command in global configuration mode:

Command
Purpose

Router(config)# source-bridge cos-enable

Enables class-of-service.


Assigning a Priority Group to an Input Interface

To assign a priority group to an input interface, use the following command in interface configuration mode:

Command
Purpose

Router(config-if)# locaddr-priority list-number

Assigns a priority group to an input interface.


Configuring the Largest Frame Size

You can configure the largest frame size that is used to communicate with any peers in the ring group.

Generally, the router and the LLC2 device with which it communicates should support the same maximum SDLC I-frame size. The larger this value, the more efficiently the line is used, thus increasing performance.

Faster screen updates to 3278-style terminals often result by configuring the Token Ring FEP to send as large an I-frame as possible and then allowing the Cisco IOS software to segment the frame into multiple SDLC I-frames.

After you configure the Token Ring FEP to send the largest possible I-frame, configure the software to support the same maximum I-frame size. The default is 516 bytes and the maximum value is 8144 bytes.

To configure the largest frame size, use the following command in global configuration mode:

Command
Purpose

Router(config)# source-bridge largest-frame ring-group size

Specifies the largest frame size used to communicate with any peers in the ring group.


Monitoring and Maintaining the RSRB Network

To display a variety of information about the RSRB network, use one or more of the following commands in privileged EXEC mode:

Command
Purpose

Router# show controllers token

Displays internal state information about the Token Ring interfaces in the system.

Router# show interfaces

Provides high-level statistics about the state of source bridging for a particular interface.

Router# show local-ack

Shows the current state of any current local acknowledgment for both LLC2 and SDLLC connections.


In addition to the EXEC-mode commands to maintain the RSRB network, you can use the following command in global configuration mode:

Command
Purpose

Router(config)# source-bridge tcp-queue-max number

Limits the size of the backup queue for RSRB to control the number of packets that can wait for transmission to a remote ring before they start being discarded.


RSRB Configuration Examples

The following sections provide RSRB configuration examples:

RSRB Direct Frame Relay Encapsulation Example

RSRB Using IP Encapsulation over a TCP Connection Example

RSRB/TCP Fast-Switching Configuration Example

RSRB Using IP Encapsulation over an FST Connection Example

RSRB Using All Types of Transport Methods Example

RSRB with Local Acknowledgment Example

RSRB with Local Acknowledgment and Passthrough Example

Local Acknowledgment for LLC2 Example

IP for Load Sharing over RSRB Example

Configuring Priority for Locally Terminated Token Ring Interfaces in RSRB Example

RSRB Direct Frame Relay Encapsulation Example

The following is the configuration file for direct Frame Relay encapsulation between RSRB peers:

source-bridge ring-group 200
source-bridge remote-peer 200 frame-relay interface serial0 30
!
interface serial 0
 mtu 3000
 no ip address
 encapsulation frame-relay
 clockrate 56000
 frame-relay lmi-type ansi
 frame-relay map rsrb 30
!
!
interface TokenRing 0
 ip address 10.10.10.1 255.255.255.0
 ring-speed 16
 multiring all
 source-bridge active 102 1 200
 source-bridge spanning

RSRB Using IP Encapsulation over a TCP Connection Example

Figure 6 illustrates two routers configured for RSRB using TCP as a transport. Each router has two Token Rings. They are connected by an Ethernet segment over which the source-route bridged traffic will pass. The first router configuration is a source-route bridge at address 131.108.2.29.

Figure 6 RSRB Using TCP as a Transport

Using TCP as the transport, the configuration for the source-route bridge at address 131.108.2.29 as depicted in Figure 6 is as follows:

source-bridge ring-group 5
source-bridge remote-peer 5 tcp 131.108.2.29
source-bridge remote-peer 5 tcp 131.108.1.27
!
interface ethernet 0
 ip address 131.108.4.4 255.255.255.0
!
interface tokenring 0
 ip address 131.108.2.29 255.255.255.0
 source-bridge 1000 1 5
 source-bridge spanning
!
interface tokenring 1
 ip address 131.108.128.1 255.255.255.0
 source-bridge 1001 1 5
 source-bridge spanning

The configuration of the source-route bridge at 131.108.1.27 is as follows:

source-bridge ring-group 5
source-bridge remote-peer 5 tcp 131.108.2.29
source-bridge remote-peer 5 tcp 131.108.1.27
!
interface ethernet 0
 ip address 131.108.4.5 255.255.255.0
!
interface tokenring 0
 ip address 131.108.1.27 255.255.255.0
 source-bridge 10 1 5
 source-bridge spanning
!
interface tokenring 1
 ip address 131.108.131.1 255.255.255.0
 source-bridge 11 1 5
 source-bridge spanning

RSRB/TCP Fast-Switching Configuration Example

The following configuration enables RSRB/TCP fast switching:

source-bridge ring group 100

RSRB Using IP Encapsulation over an FST Connection Example

Figure 7 shows two routers connecting IBM hosts on Token Rings through an Ethernet backbone.

Figure 7 RSRB Using FST as a Transport

This configuration example enables IP encapsulation over an FST connection. In this configuration, the source-bridge fst-peername global configuration command is used to provide an IP address for the local router. The source-bridge ring-group global configuration command is used to define a ring group. The source-bridge remote peer command with the fst option is used to associate the remote peer's IP address with the router's ring group and specify the remote peer's remote source-route bridging protocol version number. Because all FST peers support version 2 RSRB, the version keyword is always specified.

The configuration of the source-route bridge at 131.108.2.29 is as follows:

source-bridge fst-peername 131.108.2.29
source-bridge ring-group 5
source-bridge remote-peer 5 fst 131.108.1.27
!
interface ethernet 0
 ip address 131.108.4.4 255.255.255.0
!
interface tokenring 0
 ip address 131.108.2.29 255.255.255.0
 source-bridge 1000 1 5
 source-bridge spanning
!
interface tokenring 1
 ip address 131.108.128.1 255.255.255.0
 source-bridge 1001 1 5
 source-bridge spanning

The configuration of the source-route bridge at 131.108.1.27 is as follows:

source-bridge fst-peername 131.108.1.27
source-bridge ring-group 5
source-bridge remote-peer 5 fst 131.108.2.29
!
interface ethernet 0
 ip address 131.108.4.5 255.255.255.0
!
interface tokenring 0
 ip address 131.108.1.27 255.255.255.0
 source-bridge 10 1 5
 source-bridge spanning
!
interface tokenring 1
 ip address 131.108.131.1 255.255.255.0
 source-bridge 11 1 5
 source-bridge spanning

RSRB Using All Types of Transport Methods Example

Figure 8 shows a router configured for RSRB using all types of transport methods.

Figure 8 RSRB Using All Types of Transport Methods

The configuration for the network in Figure 8 is as follows:

source-bridge fst-peername 131.108.251.1
source-bridge ring-group 5
source-bridge remote-peer 5 interface serial0
source-bridge remote-peer 5 interface serial1
source-bridge remote-peer 5 interface Ethernet0 0000.0c00.1234
source-bridge remote-peer 5 tcp 131.108.251.1
source-bridge remote-peer 5 fst 131.108.252.4
source-bridge remote-peer 5 tcp 131.108.253.5
!
interface tokenring 0
 source-bridge 1 1 5
 source-bridge spanning
!
interface ethernet 0
 ip address 131.108.251.1 255.255.255.0

The two peers using the serial transport method only function correctly if routers at the other end of the serial line have been configured to use the serial transport. The peers must also belong to the same ring group.

RSRB with Local Acknowledgment Example

In Figure 9, a triangular configuration provides the maximum reliability with minimal cost, and one of the links is doubled to gain better bandwidth. In addition to IP and SRB traffic, AppleTalk is also routed between all the sites. In this configuration, all the sessions between Router C and Router D are locally acknowledged. All the sessions between Router C and Router E are not locally acknowledged and are configured for normal remote source-route bridging. This example shows that not every peer must be locally acknowledged and that local acknowledgment can be turned on or off at the customer's discretion.

Figure 9 RSRB with Local Acknowledgment—Simple Configuration

The configuration for each of the routers in Figure 9 follows.

Router C

appletalk routing
!
source-bridge ring-group 5
source-bridge remote-peer 5 tcp 132.21.1.1
source-bridge remote-peer 5 tcp 132.21.2.6 local-ack
source-bridge remote-peer 5 tcp 132.21.10.200
!
interface tokenring 0
 ip address 132.21.1.1 255.255.255.0
 source-bridge 1 1 5
 source-bridge spanning
 multiring all
!
interface ethernet 0
 ip address 132.21.4.25 255.255.255.0
 appletalk address 4.25
 appletalk zone Twilight
!
interface serial 0
 ip address 132.21.16.1 255.255.255.0
 appletalk address 16.1
 appletalk zone Twilight
!
interface serial 1
 ip address 132.21.17.1 255.255.255.0
 appletalk address 17.1
 appletalk zone Twilight
!
interface serial 2
 ip address 132.21.18.1 255.255.255.0
 appletalk address 18.1
 appletalk zone Twilight
!
 router igrp 109
 network 132.21.0.0
!
 hostname RouterC

Router D

appletalk routing
!
source-bridge ring-group 5
source-bridge remote-peer 5 tcp 132.21.1.1 local-ack
source-bridge remote-peer 5 tcp 132.21.2.6
source-bridge remote-peer 5 tcp 132.21.10.200
!
interface tokenring 0
 ip address 132.21.2.6 255.255.255.0
 source-bridge 2 1 5
 source-bridge spanning
 multiring all
!
interface ethernet 0
 ip address 132.21.5.1 255.255.255.0
 appletalk address 5.1
 appletalk zone Twilight
!
interface serial 0
 ip address 132.21.16.2 255.255.255.0
 appletalk address 16.2
 appletalk zone Twilight
!
interface serial 1
 ip address 132.21.19.1 255.255.255.0
 appletalk address 19.1
 appletalk zone Twilight
!
router igrp 109
 network 132.21.0.0
!
hostname RouterD

Router E

appletalk routing
!
source-bridge ring-group 5
source-bridge remote-peer 5 tcp 132.21.1.1
source-bridge remote-peer 5 tcp 132.21.2.6
source-bridge remote-peer 5 tcp 132.21.10.200
!
interface tokenring 0
 ip address 132.21.10.200 255.255.255.0
 source-bridge 10 1 5
 source-bridge spanning
 multiring all
!
interface ethernet 0
 ip address 132.21.7.1 255.255.255.0
 appletalk address 7.1
 appletalk zone Twilight
!
interface serial 0
 ip address 132.21.19.2 255.255.255.0
 appletalk address 19.2
 appletalk zone Twilight
!
interface serial 1
 ip address 132.21.17.2 255.255.255.0
 appletalk address 17.2
 appletalk zone Twilight
!
interface serial 2
 ip address 132.21.18.2 255.255.255.0
 appletalk address 18.2
 appletalk zone Twilight
!
 router igrp 109
 network 132.21.0.0
!
hostname RouterE

RSRB with Local Acknowledgment and Passthrough Example

Figure 10 shows two routers configured for RSRB with local acknowledgment and passthrough over the three serial lines that connect these routers. In the example, five Token Rings connect to each of these routers.

Figure 10 Network Topology for RSRB with Local Acknowledgment and Passthrough

The configuration files for each of these routers follows.

Router A

source-bridge ring-group 2048
source-bridge remote-peer 2048 tcp 159.76.1.250 local-ack version 2
source-bridge remote-peer 2048 tcp 159.76.7.250 version 2
source-bridge passthrough 1281
source-bridge passthrough 1282
source-bridge passthrough 1283
source-bridge passthrough 1284
!
interface tokenring 0
 ip address 159.76.7.250 255.255.255.0
 llc2 ack-max 1
 llc2 t1-time 1800
 llc2 idle-time 29000
 llc2 ack-delay-time 5
 source-bridge 1024 1 2048
 source-bridge spanning
 early-token-release
 multiring all
!
interface tokenring 1
 ip address 159.76.8.250 255.255.255.0
 clns-speed 4
 clns mtu 464
 source-bridge 1281 1 2048
 source-bridge spanning
 multiring all
!
interface tokenring 2
 ip address 159.76.9.250 255.255.255.0
 ring-speed 4
 clns mtu 4464
 source-bridge 1282 1 2048
 source-bridge spanning
 multiring all
!
interface tokenring 3
 ip address 159.76.10.250 255.255.255.0
 ring speed 4
 clns mtu 4464
 source-bridge 1283 1 2048 
 source-bridge spanning
 multiring all
!
interface tokenring 4
 ip address 159.78.11.250 255.255.255.0
 ring speed 4
 clns mtu 4464
 source-bridge 1284 1 2048
 source-bridge spanning
 multiring all
!
interface serial 0
 ip address 159.76.20.2 255.255.255.0
!
interface serial 1
 ip address 159.76.21.4 255.255.255.0
!
interface serial 2
 ip address 159.76.22.6 255.255.255.0
 shutdown
! interface serial 3
 no ip address 
 shutdown

Router B

source-bridge ring-group 2048
source-bridge remote-peer 2048 tcp 159.76.1.250 version 2
source-bridge remote-peer 2048 tcp 159.76.7.250 local-ack version 2
!
interface tokenring 0
 ip address 159.76.1.250 255.255.255.0
 llc2 ack-max 2
 llc2 t1-time 1900
 llc2 idle-time 29000
 llc2 ack-delay-time 5
 source-bridge 512 1 2048
 source-bridge spanning
 early-token-release
 multiring all
!
interface tokenring 1
 ip address 159.76.2.250 255.255.255.0
 ring-speed 16
 clns mtu 8136
!
 source-bridge 513 1 2048
 source-bridge spanning
 early-token-release
 multiring all
!
interface tokenring 2
 ip address 159.76.3.250 255.255.255.0
 ring speed 16
 clns mtu 8136
 source-bridge 514 1 2048
 source-bridge spanning
 early-token-release
 multiring all
!
interface tokenring 3
 ip address 159.76.4.250 255.255.255.0
 ring-speed 4
 clns mtu 4464
 source-bridge 519 2 2043
 source-bridge spanning
 multiring all
!
interface tokenring 4
 ip address 159.76.5.250 255.255.255.0
 ring-speed 4
 clns mtu 4464
 source-bridge 272 2 2048
 source-bridge spanning
 multiring all
!
interface serial 0
 ip address 159.76.20.1 255.255.255.0
! 
interface serial 1
 ip address 159.76.21.3 255.255.255.0
!
interface serial 2
 ip address 159.76.22.5 255.255.255.0
!
interface serial 3
 no ip address
 shutdown

Local Acknowledgment for LLC2 Example

Figure 11 shows an IBM FEP located in San Francisco communicating with IBM 3174 cluster controller hosts in Sydney, Paris, and Los Angeles. The session between the FEP and the IBM 3174 system in Los Angeles is not locally terminated, because the distance is great enough to cause timeouts on the line. However, the sessions to Paris and Sydney are locally terminated.

Figure 11 RSRB with Local Acknowledgment—Complex Configuration

The configuration for each of these routers follows.

Router/Bridge 4 in San Francisco

source-bridge ring-group 100
! use direct encapsulation across serial link to Los Angeles
 source-bridge remote-peer 100 direct 131.108.32.2
 ! use fast sequenced transport with local termination to Paris
 source-bridge remote-peer 100 tcp 131.108.18.48 local-ack
 ! use tcp encapsulation with local termination to Sydney 
 source-bridge remote-peer 100 tcp 131.108.141.4 local-ack
 !
 interface tokenring 0
 ! source ring 1, bridge 4, destination ring 100
 source-bridge 1 4 100
 ! receive up to seven frames before sending an acknowledgment
 llc2 ack-max 7
 ! allow a 30 msec delay before I-frames must be acknowledged
 llc2 ack-delay-time 30
 !
 interface tokenring 1
 ! source ring 100, bridge 4, destination ring 1
 source-bridge 100 4 1

Router/Bridge 7 in Sydney

source-bridge ring-group 100
 ! use tcp encapsulation with local termination from Sydney 
 source-bridge remote-peer 100 tcp 131.108.6.88 local-ack
 interface tokenring 0
 ! source ring 1, bridge 7, destination ring 100
 source-bridge 1 7 100
 ! receive up to seven frames before sending an acknowledgment
 llc2 ack-max 7
 ! allow a 30 msec delay before I-frames must be acknowledged
 llc2 ack-delay-time 30
 !
 interface tokenring 1
 ! source ring 100, bridge 7, destination ring 1
 source-bridge 100 7 1

Router/Bridge 6 in Paris

source-bridge ring-group 100
 ! use fast sequenced transport with local termination from Paris
 source-bridge remote-peer 100 tcp 131.108.6.88 local-ack
 interface tokenring 0
 ! source ring 1, bridge 6, destination ring 100
 source-bridge 1 6 100
 ! receive up to seven frames before sending an acknowledgment
 llc2 ack-max 7
 ! allow a 30 msec delay before I-frames must be acknowledged
 llc2 ack-delay-time 30
 !
 interface tokenring 1
 ! source ring 100, bridge 6, destination ring 1
 source-bridge 100 6 1

Router/Bridge 5 in Los Angeles

source-bridge ring-group 100
 ! use direct encapsulation across serial link from Los Angeles
 source-bridge remote-peer 100 direct 131.108.6.88 

 interface tokenring 0
 ! source ring 1, bridge 5, destination ring 100
 source-bridge 1 5 100
 ! receive up to seven frames before sending an acknowledgment
 llc2 ack-max 7
 ! allow a 30 msec delay before I-frames must be acknowledged
 llc2 ack-delay-time 30
 !
 interface tokenring 1
 ! source ring 100, bridge 5, destination ring 1
 source-bridge 100 5 1

Note Both peers need to be configured for LLC2 local acknowledgment. If only one is so configured, undesirable results occur.


IP for Load Sharing over RSRB Example

As Figure 12 shows, two routers are connected by two serial lines. Each is configured as a basic remote dual-port bridge, but extended to include both reliability and IP load sharing. When both serial lines are up, traffic is split between them, effectively combining the bandwidth of the connections. If either serial line goes down, all traffic is routed to the remaining line with no disruption. This happens transparently with respect to the end connections, unlike other source-route bridges that would abort those connections.

Figure 12 RSRB—Simple Reliability

The sample configuration files that enable this configuration follow.

Configuration for Router/Bridge A

source-bridge ring-group 5
source-bridge remote-peer 5 tcp 204.31.7.1
source-bridge remote-peer 5 tcp 204.31.8.1
!
interface tokenring 0
 ip address 204.31.7.1 255.255.255.0
 source-bridge 1 1 5
 source-bridge spanning
 multiring all
!
interface serial 0
 ip address 204.31.9.1 255.255.255.0
!
interface serial 1
 ip address 204.31.10.1 255.255.255.0
!
 router igrp 109
 network 204.31.7.0
 network 204.31.9.0
 network 204.31.10.0
!
hostname RouterA

Configuration for Router/Bridge B

source-bridge ring-group 5
source-bridge remote-peer 5 tcp 204.31.7.1
source-bridge remote-peer 5 tcp 204.31.8.1
!
interface tokenring 0
 ip address 204.31.8.1 255.255.255.0
 source-bridge 2 1 5
 source-bridge spanning
 multiring all
!
interface serial 0
 ip address 204.31.9.2 255.255.255.0
!
interface serial 1
 ip address 204.31.10.2 255.255.255.0
!
 router igrp 109
 network 204.31.8.0
 network 204.31.9.0
 network 204.31.10.0
!
 hostname RouterB

Configuring Priority for Locally Terminated Token Ring Interfaces in RSRB Example

Figure 13 shows a network that uses RSRB to bridge Token Ring traffic.

Figure 13 RSRB Configuration Example

The configuration for each of the routers in Figure 13 follows.

Router/Bridge A

source-bridge ring-group 2624
source-bridge remote-peer 2624 tcp 1.0.0.1
source-bridge remote-peer 2624 tcp 1.0.0.2 local-ack priority
!
interface tokenring 0
 source-bridge 2576 8 2624
 source-bridge spanning
 multiring all
 locaddr-priority 1
!
interface ethernet 0
 ip address 1.0.0.1 255.255.255.0
 priority-group 1
!
locaddr-priority-list 1 02 high
locaddr-priority-list 1 03 high
locaddr-priority-list 1 04 medium
locaddr-priority-list 1 05 low
!
priority-list protocol ip high tcp 1996
priority-list protocol ip medium tcp 1987
priority-list protocol ip normal tcp 1988
priority-list protocol ip low tcp 1989

Router/Bridge B

source-bridge ring-group 2624
source-bridge remote-peer 2624 tcp 1.0.0.2
source-bridge remote-peer 2624 tcp 1.0.0.1 local-ack priority
!
interface tokenring 0
 source-bridge 2626 8 2624
 source-bridge spanning
 multiring all
 locaddr-priority 1
!
interface ethernet 0
 ip address 1.0.0.2 255.255.255.0
 priority-group 1
!
locaddr-priority-list 1 02 high
locaddr-priority-list 1 03 high
locaddr-priority-list 1 04 medium
locaddr-priority-list 1 05 low
!
priority-list protocol ip high tcp 1996
priority-list protocol ip medium tcp 1987
priority-list protocol ip normal tcp 1988
priority-list protocol ip low tcp 1989