Table Of Contents
The L2TP security feature allows the security features of IP Security (IPSec) to protect the Layer 2 Tunnel Protocol (L2TP) virtual private dialup network (VPDN) tunnel and the PPP sessions within the tunnel. Without L2TP security, only a one-time, optional mutual authentication is performed during tunnel setup, with no authentication of subsequent data packets or control messages.
The enhanced protection provided by L2TP security increases the integrity and confidentiality of tunneled PPP sessions. The security features of IPSec and Internet Key Exchange (IKE) include confidentiality, integrity checking, replay protection, authentication, and key management. Traditional routing protocols such as Routing Information Protocol (RIP), Open Shortest Path First (OSPF), and Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) will run transparently because a real PPP interface is associated with the secure tunnel.
Configuration information is included in the "Configuring Additional VPDN Features" module in the Cisco IOS VPDN Configuration Guide, Release 12.4T, at the following URL:
This section documents modified commands.
crypto map (global IPSec)
To enter crypto map configuration mode and create or modify a crypto map entry, to create a crypto profile that provides a template for configuration of dynamically created crypto maps, or to configure a client accounting list, use the crypto map command in global configuration mode. To delete a crypto map entry, profile, or set, use the no form of this command.
crypto map map-name seq-num [ipsec-manual]
crypto map map-name seq-num [ipsec-isakmp] [dynamic dynamic-map-name] [discover] [profile profile-name]
crypto map map-name [client-accounting-list aaalist]
crypto map map-name seq-num [gdoi]
no crypto map map-name seq-num
Note Issue the crypto map map-name seq-num command without a keyword to modify an existing crypto map entry.
No crypto maps exist.
Peer discovery is not enabled.
Use this command to create a new crypto map entry, to create a crypto map profile, or to modify an existing crypto map entry or profile.
After a crypto map entry has been created, you cannot change the parameters specified at the global configuration level because these parameters determine which of the configuration commands are valid at the crypto map level. For example, after a map entry has been created using the ipsec-isakmp keyword, you cannot change it to the option specified by the ipsec-manual keyword; you must delete and reenter the map entry.
After you define crypto map entries, you can assign the crypto map set to interfaces using the crypto map (interface IPSec) command.
Crypto Map Functions
Crypto maps provide two functions: filtering and classifying traffic to be protected and defining the policy to be applied to that traffic. The first use affects the flow of traffic on an interface; the second affects the negotiation performed (via IKE) on behalf of that traffic.
IPSec crypto maps define the following:
•What traffic should be protected
•To which IPSec peers the protected traffic can be forwarded—these are the peers with which an SA can be established
•Which transform sets are acceptable for use with the protected traffic
•How keys and SAs should be used or managed (or what the keys are, if IKE is not used)
Multiple Crypto Map Entries with the Same Map Name Form a Crypto Map Set
A crypto map set is a collection of crypto map entries, each with a different seq-num argument but the same map-name argument. Therefore, for a given interface, you could have certain traffic forwarded to one IPSec peer with specified security applied to that traffic and other traffic forwarded to the same or a different IPSec peer with different IPSec security applied. To accomplish differential forwarding you would create two crypto maps, each with the same map-name argument, but each with a different seq-num argument. Crypto profiles must have unique names within a crypto map set.
The number you assign to the seq-num argument should not be arbitrary. This number is used to rank multiple crypto map entries within a crypto map set. Within a crypto map set, a crypto map entry with a lower seq-num is evaluated before a map entry with a higher seq-num; that is, the map entry with the lower number has a higher priority.
For example, consider a crypto map set that contains three crypto map entries: mymap 10, mymap 20, and mymap 30. The crypto map set named "mymap" is applied to serial interface 0. When traffic passes through serial interface 0, the traffic is evaluated first for mymap 10. If the traffic matches any access list permit statement entry in the extended access list in mymap 10, the traffic will be processed according to the information defined in mymap 10 (including establishing IPSec SAs when necessary). If the traffic does not match the mymap 10 access list, the traffic will be evaluated for mymap 20, and then mymap 30, until the traffic matches a permit entry in a map entry. (If the traffic does not match a permit entry in any crypto map entry, it will be forwarded without any IPSec security.)
Dynamic Crypto Maps
Refer to the "Usage Guidelines" section of the crypto dynamic-map command for a discussion on dynamic crypto maps.
Crypto map entries that reference dynamic map sets should be the lowest priority map entries, allowing inbound SA negotiation requests to try to match the static maps first. Only after the request does not match any of the static maps do you want it to be evaluated against the dynamic map set.
If a crypto map entry references a dynamic crypto map set, make it the lowest priority map entry by giving the it the highest seq-num value of all the map entries in a crypto map set.
Create dynamic crypto map entries using the crypto dynamic-map command. After you create a dynamic crypto map set, add the dynamic crypto map set to a static crypto map set with the crypto map (global IPSec) command using the dynamic keyword.
TED is an enhancement to the IPSec feature. Defining a dynamic crypto map allows you to dynamically determine an IPSec peer; however, only the receiving router has this ability. With TED, the initiating router can dynamically determine an IPSec peer for secure IPSec communications.
Dynamic TED helps to simplify IPSec configuration on the individual routers within a large network. Each node has a simple configuration that defines the local network that the router is protecting and the IPSec transforms that are required.
Note TED helps only in discovering peers; otherwise, TED does not function any differently from normal IPSec. Thus, TED does not improve the scalability of IPSec (in terms of performance or the number of peers or tunnels).
Crypto Map Profiles
Crypto map profiles are created using the profile profile-name keyword and argument combination. Crypto map profiles are used as configuration templates for dynamically creating crypto maps on demand for use with the L2TP Security feature. The relevant SAs in the crypto map profile will be cloned and used to protect IP traffic on the L2TP tunnel.
Note The set peer and match address commands are ignored by crypto profiles and should not be configured in the crypto map definition.
The following example shows the minimum required crypto map configuration when IKE will be used to establish the SAs:crypto map mymap 10 ipsec-isakmpmatch address 101set transform-set my_t_set1set peer 10.0.0.1
The following example shows the minimum required crypto map configuration when the SAs are manually established:crypto transform-set someset ah-md5-hmac esp-descrypto map mymap 10 ipsec-manualmatch address 102set transform-set somesetset peer 10.0.0.5set session-key inbound ah 256 98765432109876549876543210987654set session-key outbound ah 256 fedcbafedcbafedcfedcbafedcbafedcset session-key inbound esp 256 cipher 0123456789012345set session-key outbound esp 256 cipher abcdefabcdefabcd
The following example configures an IPSec crypto map set that includes a reference to a dynamic crypto map set.
Crypto map "mymap 10" allows SAs to be established between the router and either (or both) of two remote IPSec peers for traffic matching access list 101. Crypto map "mymap 20" allows either of two transform sets to be negotiated with the remote peer for traffic matching access list 102.
Crypto map entry "mymap 30" references the dynamic crypto map set "mydynamicmap," which can be used to process inbound SA negotiation requests that do not match "mymap" entries 10 or 20. In this case, if the peer specifies a transform set that matches one of the transform sets specified in "mydynamicmap," for a flow permitted by the access list 103, IPSec will accept the request and set up SAs with the remote peer without previously knowing about the remote peer. If the request is accepted, the resulting SAs (and temporary crypto map entry) are established according to the settings specified by the remote peer.
The access list associated with "mydynamicmap 10" is also used as a filter. Inbound packets that match any access list permit statement in this list are dropped for not being IPSec protected. (The same is true for access lists associated with static crypto maps entries.) Outbound packets that match a permit statement without an existing corresponding IPSec SA are also dropped.crypto map mymap 10 ipsec-isakmpmatch address 101set transform-set my_t_set1set peer 10.0.0.1set peer 10.0.0.2crypto map mymap 20 ipsec-isakmpmatch address 102set transform-set my_t_set1 my_t_set2set peer 10.0.0.3crypto map mymap 30 ipsec-isakmp dynamic mydynamicmap!crypto dynamic-map mydynamicmap 10match address 103set transform-set my_t_set1 my_t_set2 my_t_set3
The following example configures TED on a Cisco router:crypto map testtag 10 ipsec-isakmp dynamic dmap discover
The following example configures a crypto profile to be used as a template for dynamically created crypto maps when IPSec is used to protect an L2TP tunnel:crypto map l2tpsec 10 ipsec-isakmp profile l2tp
The following example configures a crypto map for a GDOI group member:crypto map diffint 10 gdoiset group diffint
To enable the discovery of the path maximum transmission unit (MTU) for Layer 2 traffic, use the ip pmtu command in VPDN group, VPDN template, or pseudowire class configuration mode. To disable path MTU discovery, use the no form of this command.
no ip pmtu
This command has no arguments or keywords.
Path MTU discovery is disabled.
VPDN group configuration
VPDN template configuration
Pseudowire class configuration
When issued in VPDN group configuration mode, the ip pmtu command enables any tunnel associated with the specified virtual private dialup network (VPDN) group to participate in path MTU discovery.
When issued in pseudowire class configuration mode, the ip pmtu command enables any Layer 2 Tunnel Protocol Version 3 (L2TPv3) session derived from the specified pseudowire class configuration to participate in path MTU discovery.
Because path MTU checks decrease switching performance, this option is disabled by default.
When the ip pmtu command is enabled, the Don't Fragment (DF) bit in the Layer 2 encapsulation header is copied from the inner IP header to the encapsulation header.
The ip pmtu command enables the processing of Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) unreachable messages that indicate fragmentation errors in the IP backbone network carrying the tunneled traffic. If an IP packet is larger than the MTU of any interface it must pass through and the DF bit is set, the packet is dropped and an ICMP unreachable message is returned. The ICMP unreachable message indicates the MTU of the interface that was unable to forward the packet without fragmentation. This information allows the source host to reduce the size of the packet before retransmission to allow it to fit through that interface.
The following example configures a VPDN group named dial-in on a Layer 2 Tunnel Protocol (L2TP) tunnel server and uses the ip pmtu command to specify that tunnels associated with this VPDN group will participate in path MTU discovery:
Router(config)# vpdn-group dial-in
Router(config-vpdn-acc-in)# protocol l2tp
Router(config-vpdn-acc-in)# virtual-template 1!
Router(config-vpdn)# l2tp security crypto-profile l2tp
Router(config-vpdn)# no l2tp tunnel authentication
Router(config-vpdn)# lcp renegotiation on-mismatch
Router(config-vpdn)# ip pmtu
The following example shows how to enable the discovery of the path MTU for pseudowires that have been created from the pseudowire class named ether-pw:
Router(config)# pseudowire-class ether-pw
Router(config-pw)# ip pmtu
l2tp security crypto-profile
To configure IP Security (IPSec) protection of Layer 2 Tunnel Protocol (L2TP) sessions associated with a virtual private dialup network (VPDN) group, use the l2tp security crypto-profile command in VPDN group or VPDN template configuration mode. To disable IPSec protection for a VPDN group, use the no form of this command.
l2tp security crypto-profile profile-name [keep-sa]
no l2tp security crypto-profile
IPSec security is disabled.
IKE phase 1 SAs are destroyed on tunnel teardown.
VPDN group configuration
VPDN template configuration
This command was introduced.
This command was implemented on the Cisco 1760, Cisco AS5300, Cisco AS5400, and Cisco AS5800 platforms.
This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.
Enabling this command for a VPDN group ensures that no L2TP packets will be processed unless they have IPSec protection.
A crypto profile must be configured using the crypto map (global IPSec) command before it can be associated with a VPDN group using the l2tp security crypto-profile command. The profile-name argument must match the name of a profile configured using the crypto map command.
The keep-sa keyword can be used to prevent the destruction of IKE phase 1 SAs when the L2TP tunnel between the network access server (NAS) and tunnel server is considered permanent, and the IP addresses of the peer devices rarely change. This option is not useful with short-lived tunnels, such as those generated by client-initiated L2TP tunneling.
The following example configures VPDN group 1, associates it with the crypto profile named l2tp, and prevents the destruction of IKE phase 1 SAs on tunnel teardown:vpdn-group 1request-dialinprotocol l2tpdomain cisco.cominitiate-to ip 10.0.0.13local name LAC
l2tp security crypto-profile l2tp keep-sa