Cisco IOS Terminal Services Command Reference, Release 12.2
Commands TR through XR
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translate lat

Table Of Contents

translate lat

translate lat (virtual access interfaces)

translate tcp

translate tcp (virtual access interfaces)

translate x25

translate x25 (virtual access interfaces)

transport input

transport output

transport preferred

ttycap

txspeed

where

x25 subaddress

x28

x3

xremote

xremote lat

xremote tftp buffersize

xremote tftp host

xremote tftp retries

xremote xdm


translate lat

To translate a connection request to another protocol connection type when receiving a local-area transport (LAT) request, use the translate lat command in global configuration mode. To remove or change the translation request, use the no form of this command.

translate lat incoming-service-name [incoming-options] protocol outgoing-address [outgoing-options] [global-options]

no translate lat incoming-service-name [incoming-options] protocol outgoing-address [outgoing-options] [global-options]

Syntax Description

incoming-service-name

A LAT service name. When used on the incoming portion of the command, incoming-service-name is the name of the service that users specify when trying to make a translated connection. This name can match the name of the final destination resource, but is not required to. This argument is useful when making remote translated connections.

incoming-options

(Optional) An incoming connection request option. For LAT, the only option currently supported is:

unadvertised—Prevents service advertisements from being broadcast to the network. This keyword can be useful, for example, when you define translations for many printers, and you do not want these services advertised to other LAT terminal servers. (VMS systems will be able to connect to the service even though it is not advertised.)

protocol outgoing-address

A protocol name followed by an address or host name. Protocol translation choices are: ppp, slip, tcp, and x25.


Note The host name is resolved to an address during configuration, unless you are translating to TCP and use the host-name keyword, which allows the host name to be resolved at connection time instead of configuration time. See Table 39 for more information about the host-name keyword.


Additional keywords that can be entered with the protocol are as follows:

autocommand—Specifies an EXEC command for an outgoing connection. The command executes upon connection to a host. You can issue any EXEC command and any switch or host name as an argument to the autocommand command. If the string following autocommand has one or more spaces as part of the string, you must place quotation marks (" ") around the string.

 

If you want to enable AppleTalk Remote Access (ARA) on an outgoing connection, specify the autocommand arap keywords. These keywords are necessary for ARA because ARA does not use addressing, and this option permits you to invoke the ARA string.

virtual-templateAssociates a virtual template with a virtual access interface. See the translate lat (virtual access interfaces) command description for more information.

outgoing-options

(Optional) Outgoing connection request options. Choices depend upon the protocol or command entered. See Table 37, Table 38, Table 39, and Table 40 for more information.

global-options

(Optional) One or more of the following translation options can be used by any connection type:

access-class number—Allows the incoming call to be used by source hosts that match the access list parameters. The argument number is an integer previously assigned to an access list. Standard access list numbers are in the range from1 to 99; expanded standard access lists numbers are in the range 1300 to 1999.

local—Allows Telnet protocol negotiations to not be translated.

login—Requires that the user log in before the outgoing connection is made. This type of login is specified on the virtual terminal lines with the login command.

max-users number—Limits the number of simultaneous users of the translation to number (an integer you specify).

quiet—Suppresses printing of user-information messages.


Defaults

No default translation parameters

Command Modes

Global configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

10.0

This command was introduced.

12.1

The no-reset permanent virtual circuits (PVC) subkeyword was added to support outgoing PVCs.


Usage Guidelines

You define protocol translation connections by supplying a protocol keyword and the address, host name, or service name. A LAT protocol translation command can be as simple as the following example:

Router(config)# translate lat LAT-1 X.25 1236672

However, the Cisco IOS software provides a broad range of options that support protocol translations in many networking environments. Table 37, Table 38, Table 39, and Table 40 list the translate lat translation options by protocol.

You can also use the Cisco IOS command-line interface to help you understand how these keywords are entered. In global configuration mode, begin entering the translate command and add a question mark at each portion of the command to display the options available. Some examples follow:

Router(config)# translate lat ?

  WORD  LAT service name

Router(config)# translate lat LSVC ?

  autocommand       Associate a command with a translation on this connections
  lat               DEC LAT protocol
  ppp               Virtual async PPP
  slip              Virtual async SLIP
  tcp               TCP/IP Telnet
  unadvertised      Prevent service advertisements from being broadcast to the
                    network
  virtual-template  Associate a virtual template with virtual access interface 
  x25               X.25

Router(config)# translate lat LSVC tcp ?

  Hostname or A.B.C.D  IP address


Router(config)# translate lat LSVC tcp 1.1.1.1 ?

  access-class      Allow access list parameters to be used by source hosts
  binary            Negotiate Telnet binary mode on the connection
  host-name         Store the host name rather than its IP address
  local             Allow Telnet protocol negotiations not to be translated
  login             Require that the user log in before the outgoing connection
                    is made
  max-users         Limit the number of simultaneous users of the translation
  multibyte-IAC     Always treat multiple IACs as telnet command
  port              Port Number
  quiet             Suppress printing of user-information messages
  source-interface  Specify source interface
  stream            Treat telnet escape characters as data

Note If you plan to translate to X.25 on a permanent virtual circuit (PVC), see the description for the translate x25 command for important configuration notes.


Table 37 LAT-to-PPP Outgoing Translation Options 

Outgoing PPP Translation

ppp {ip-address | ip-pool [scope-name name]}

Translates from LAT to virtual asynchronous PPP. Supply an IP address as a standard, four-part dotted decimal IP address.

The ip-pool keyword obtains an IP address from a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) proxy client or a local pool. If the optional scope-name keyword is not specified, the address is obtained from a DHCP proxy client. If the scope-name keyword is specified, the IP address is obtained from the specified local pool. The scope-name keyword can specify a range of IP addresses.

Outgoing PPP Connection Request Options

Add any of the following keywords to configure PPP connection requests:

authentication {pap | chap}—Sets Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) or Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) authentication for PPP on virtual asynchronous interfaces. If you specify both keywords, order is significant; the system will try to use the first authentication type, then the second.

header-compressionImplements header compression on IP packets only.

ipx loopback number—Specifies the loopback interface to be created and permits clients running IPX-PPP to connect through virtual terminal lines on the router. A loopback interface must have been created and configured with a Novell IPX network number before IPX-PPP can work on the virtual terminal line. The virtual terminal line is assigned to the loopback interface.

keepalive number-of-seconds—Specifies the interval at which keepalive packets are sent on Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) and PPP virtual asynchronous interfaces. By default, keepalive packets are enabled and sent every 10 seconds. To shut off keepalive packets, use a value of 0. The active keepalive interval is 1 through 32,767 seconds. When you do not change from the default of 10, the keepalive interval does not appear in more system:running-config or show translate command output.

mtu bytes—Sets the interface maximum transmission unit (MTU) of packets that the virtual asynchronous interface supports. The default MTU is 1500 bytes on a virtual asynchronous interface. The acceptable range is from 64 to 1,000,000 bytes.

routing—Permits routing updates between connections. This keyword is required if the destination device is not on a subnet connected to one of the interfaces on the router.

use-tacacs—Uses TACACS to verify PPP authentications for CHAP or PAP on virtual asynchronous interfaces.


Table 38 LAT-to-SLIP Outgoing Translation Options 

Outgoing SLIP Translation

slip {ip-address| ip-pool [scope-name name]}

Translates from LAT to virtual asynchronous SLIP. Supply an IP address as a standard, four-part dotted decimal IP address.

The ip-pool keyword obtains an IP address from a DHCP proxy client or a local pool. If the optional scope-name keyword is not specified, the address is obtained from a DHCP proxy client. If the scope-name keyword is specified, the IP address is obtained from the specified local pool. The scope-name keyword can specify a range of IP addresses.


Note The slip argument applies only to outgoing connections; SLIP is not supported on incoming protocol translation connections.


Outgoing SLIP Connection Request Options

Add any of the following keywords to configure SLIP connection requests:

header-compression [passive]—Implements header compression on IP packets only. The passive keyword permits compression on outgoing packets only if incoming TCP packets on the same virtual asynchronous interface are compressed. The default (without the passive keyword) permits compression on all traffic.

ipx loopback number—Specifies the loopback interface to be created and permits clients running IPX-PPP to connect through virtual terminal lines on the router. A loopback interface must have been created and configured with a Novell IPX network number before IPX-PPP can work on the virtual terminal line. The virtual terminal line is assigned to the loopback interface.

keepalive number-of-seconds—Specifies the interval at which keepalive packets are sent on SLIP and PPP virtual asynchronous interfaces. By default, keepalive packets are enabled and sent every 10 seconds. To shut off keepalive packets, use a value of 0. The active keepalive interval is 1 through 32,767 seconds. When you do not change from the default of 10, the keepalive interval does not appear in more system:running-config or show translate command output.

mtu bytes—Sets the interface MTU of packets that the virtual asynchronous interface supports. The default MTU is 1500 bytes on a virtual asynchronous interface. The acceptable range is from 64 to 1,000,000 bytes.

routing—Permits routing updates between connections. This keyword is required if the destination device is not on a subnet connected to one of the interfaces on the router.


Table 39 LAT-to-TCP Outgoing Options 

Outgoing TCP Translation

tcp ip-address

Translates LAT to TCP/IP Telnet. Supply an IP address as a standard, four-part dotted decimal IP address, the name of an IP host that can be resolved by the DNS, or explicit specification in an ip host command (refer to the description for the host-name keyword in the "Outgoing TCP Connection Request Options" section).

Outgoing TCP Connection Request Options

Any of the following optional keywords can be used to configure TCP connection requests:

binary—Negotiates Telnet binary mode on the connection.

host-name—Stores the host name rather than its IP address, thereby allowing the host name to be resolved at connection time instead of configuration time. There is also a rotor keyword suboption that you can use to modify the behavior of the host-name keyword by allowing one of the IP addresses defined by the ip host configuration command to be chosen randomly. If one address fails, another one will be tried, and so on until all address choices are exhausted. You can use the rotor keyword, therefore, to provide basic load sharing of the IP destinations.

multibyte-IAC—Always treat multiple Interpret as Command (IAC) escape character codes as a Telnet command.

port number—For outgoing connections, enter the number of the port to match. The default is port 23 (Telnet).

source-interface—Specifies the source address used for Telnet connections initiated by the router.

stream—Performs stream processing, which enables a raw TCP stream with no Telnet control sequences. A stream connection does not process or generate any Telnet options, and also prevents Telnet processing of the data stream. This keyword might be useful for connections to ports running the UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program (UUCP) or other non-Telnet protocols, or to ports connected to printers. For ports connected to printers using Telnet, the stream keyword prevents some of the problems associated with using Telnet for printers, such as unusual events happening to carriage returns or line feeds and echoing of data back to VMS systems.


Table 40 LAT-to-X.25 Outgoing Translation Options 

Outgoing X.25 Translation

x25 x.121-address

Translates LAT to the X.25 protocol. Supply an X.121 address that conforms to the specifications provided in the CCITT 1984 Red Book, or the name of an X.25 host that can be resolved by the DNS, or explicit specification in an x25 host command.

The address number generally consists of a portion that is administered by the public data network (PDN) and a portion that is locally assigned. You must be sure that the numbers that you assign agree with the addresses assigned to you by the X.25 service provider. The X.121 addresses generally will be subaddresses of the X.121 address for the X.25 network interface.

Outgoing X.25 Connection Request Options

Any of the following optional keywords can be used to configure X.25 connection requests:

cud c-u-data—Sends the specified X.25 Call User Data (CUD) text as part of an outgoing call request after the protocol identification bytes.

no-reverse—Specifies that outgoing calls not request the X.25 reverse charge facility, when the interface default is that all outgoing calls are reverse charged.

profile profile—Sets the X.3 packet assembler/disassembler (PAD) parameters as defined in the profile created by the x29 profile command.

pvc number [interface serial number | packetsize in-size out-size | windowsize in-size out-size | no-reset]—Specifies that the outgoing connection is actually a PVC. The number argument specifies the virtual circuit channel number of the connection, which must be less than the virtual circuits assigned to the switched virtual circuit (SVC).Only one session is allowed per PVC. Use the following optional keywords to further define the connection:

interface serial number—Specifies a PVC interface on which to set up the PVC connection.

packetsize in-size out-size—Specifies the input packet size (in-size) and output packet size (out-size) for the PVC. Valid packet size values are: 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024, 2048, and 4096.

windowsize in-size out-size—Specifies the packet count for input windows (in-size) and output windows (out-size) for the outgoing translation. Values of in-size and out-size range from 1 to 127 and must not be greater than the value set for the x25 modulo command. You must specify the same value for in-size and out-size.

no-reset—Causes the Cisco router to send a no Reset packet request at startup of a TCP or LAT to permanent virtual circuit (PVC) translation session.

reverse—Provides reverse charging for X.25 on a per-call rather than a per-interface basis. Requests reverse charges on a specified X.121 address, even if the serial interface is not configured to request reverse charge calls.

use-map—Applies x25 map pad command entry options (such as CUD and idle) and facilities (such as packet in, packet out, win in, and win out) to the outgoing protocol translation call. When the use-map keyword is specified on the translate command, the Destination address and optional PAD Protocol Identification (PID), CUD, and facilities are checked against a configured list of x25 map pad entries. If a match is found, the map entry PID, CUD, and facilities are applied to the outgoing protocol translation call. The X.25 map facilities applied to the outgoing translation can be displayed with the show translation command throughout the duration of the translation session.


Examples

The following example illustrates incoming LAT to outgoing TCP translations. The unadvertised keyword prevents broadcast of service advertisements to other servers in the network. Outgoing translated packets are sent to IP host Host1, TCP port 4005.

translate lat pt-printer1 unadvertised tcp Host1 port 4005

The following example translates LAT on an incoming line to SLIP on an outgoing line. It uses header compression only if incoming TCP packets on the same interface are compressed.

translate lat Service1 slip 10.0.0.4 header-compression

The following example first shows how to disable keepalive packets on a PPP line using the translate lat command, then shows translated session output from the show translate EXEC command indicating keepalive packets have been turned off.

translate lat Service2 ppp 172.21.2.2 keepalive 0
.
.
.
Router# show translate

Translate From: LAT Service2
          To:   PPP 172.21.2.2 keepalive 0 
          0/0 users active, 0 peak, 0 total, 0 failures

Related Commands

Command
Description

show translate

Displays configured translation sessions.

translate tcp

Translates a TCP connection request automatically to another outgoing protocol connection.

translate x25

Translates an X.25 connection request automatically to another outgoing protocol connection.

x29 access-list

Limits access to the access server from certain X.25 hosts.

x29 profile

Creates a PAD profile script for use by the translate command.


translate lat (virtual access interfaces)

When receiving a local-area transport (LAT) connection request to a service name, to set up the Cisco router to automatically translate the request to another outgoing protocol connection type, use the translate lat command in global configuration mode. To remove or change the translation request, use the no form of this command.

The command syntax that follows shows how to apply a virtual interface template in place of outgoing translate options. If you are using virtual templates for protocol translation, all outgoing options are defined in the virtual interface template. Table 41 lists all outgoing options and their corresponding interface configuration commands.

translate lat incoming-service-name [incoming-options] virtual-template number [global-options]

no translate lat incoming-service-name [incoming-options] virtual-template number [global-options]

Syntax Description

incoming-service-name

A LAT service name. When used on the incoming portion of the translate lat command, service-name is the name of the service that users specify when trying to make a translated connection. This name can match the name of the final destination resource, but this match is not required. Such matches can be useful when making remote translated connections.

incoming-options

(Optional) An incoming connection request option. For LAT, the only keyword currently supported is:

unadvertised—Prevents service advertisements from being broadcast to the network. This keyword can be useful, for example, when you define translations for many printers, and you do not want these services advertised to other LAT terminal servers. (VMS systems will be able to connect to the service even though it is not advertised.)

virtual-template number

Applies the virtual interface template specified by the number argument in place of outgoing options.

global-options

(Optional) Translation options that can be used by any connection type and can be one or more of the following:

access-class number—Allows the incoming call to be used by source hosts that match the access list parameters. The argument number is an integer previously assigned to an access list. Standard access list numbers are in the range from1 to 99; expanded standard access lists numbers are in the range 1300 to 1999.

max-users number—Limits the number of simultaneous users of the translation to number (an integer you specify).

local—Allows Telnet protocol negotiations to not be translated.

login—Requires that the user log in before the outgoing connection is made. This type of login is specified on the virtual terminal lines with the login command.

quiet—Suppresses printing of user-information messages.


Defaults

No default translation parameters

Command Modes

Global configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

10.0

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

You define the protocol translation connections by choosing a protocol keyword and supplying the appropriate address, host name, or service name. The protocol connection information is followed by optional features for that connection, as appropriate. For example, the binary keyword is only appropriate with TCP/IP connections. The global options, in general, apply to all the connection types, but there are exceptions.

Rather than specifying outgoing translation options in the translate command, configure these options as interface configuration commands under the virtual interface template, then apply the virtual interface template to the translate command. Table 41 maps outgoing translate command options to interface commands you can configure in the virtual interface template.

Table 41 Mapping Outgoing translate lat Options to Interface Commands 

translate lat Command Options
Corresponding Interface Configuration Command

ip-pool

peer default ip address {ip-address | dhcp | pool [poolname]}

header-compression

ip tcp header compression [on | off | passive]

routing

ip routing or ipx routing

mtu

mtu

keepalive

keepalive

authentication {chap | pap}

ppp authentication {chap | pap}

ppp use-tacacs

ppp use-tacacs

ipx loopback

ipx ppp-client loopback number


Examples

The following example configures PPP tunneling from a PC across a LAT network. The remote PC is given the IP address 10.12.118.12 when it dials in. The unadvertised keyword prevents broadcast of service advertisements to other servers.

interface Virtual-Template1
 ip unnumbered Ethernet0
 peer default ip address 10.12.118.12
 ppp authentication chap
!
translate lat pt-printer1 unadvertised virtual-template 1 

Related Commands

Command
Description

show translate

Displays configured translation sessions.

translate tcp

Translates a TCP connection request automatically to another outgoing protocol connection.

translate x25

Translates an X.25 connection request automatically to another outgoing protocol connection.

x29 access-list

Limits access to the access server from certain X.25 hosts.

x29 profile

Creates a PAD profile script for use by the translate command.


translate tcp

To translate a connection request to another protocol connection type when receiving a TCP connection request to a particular destination address or host name, use the translate tcp command in global configuration mode. To remove or change the translation request, use the no form of this command.

translate tcp incoming-address [incoming-options] protocol outgoing-address [outgoing-options] [global-options]

no translate tcp incoming-address [incoming-options] protocol outgoing-address [outgoing-options] [global-options]

Syntax Description

incoming-address

Standard IP address in standard, four-part dotted decimal notation. The IP address cannot be in use by other routers, and it should be on a connected subnet.

incoming-options

(Optional) An incoming connection request option. Choices are as follows:

binary—Negotiates Telnet binary mode on the Telnet connection. (This was the default in previous versions of the protocol translation software and is set automatically when you enter a translate command in the previous format.)

port number—The number of the port to match for incoming connections. The default is port 23 (Telnet). For outgoing connections, enter the number of the port to use. The default is port 23.

printer—Supports local-area transport (LAT) and X.25 printing over a TCP network among multiple sites. This keyword causes the protocol translation software to delay the completion of an incoming Telnet connection until after the outgoing protocol connection (to LAT or X.25) has been successfully established. An unsuccessful outgoing connection attempt results in the TCP connection to the router being refused, rather than being accepted and then closed, which is the default behavior. Note that using this keyword will force the global quiet keyword to be applied to the translation.

stream—Performs stream processing, which enables a raw TCP stream with no Telnet control sequences. A stream connection does not process or generate any Telnet options, and also prevents Telnet processing of the data stream. This keyword might be useful for connections to ports running the UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program (UUCP) or other non-Telnet protocols, or to ports connected to printers. For ports connected to printers using Telnet, the stream keyword prevents some of the problems associated with using Telnet for printers, such as unusual events happening to carriage returns or line feeds and echoing of data back to VMS systems.

protocol outgoing-address

A protocol name followed by an address or host name. Protocol translation choices are: lat, ppp, slip, and x25.

Additional keywords that can be entered with the protocol are as follows:

autocommand—Specifies an EXEC command for an outgoing connection. The command executes upon connection to a host. You can issue any EXEC command and any switch or host name as an argument to the autocommand keyword. If the string following autocommand has one or more spaces as part of the string, you must place quotation marks (" ") around the string. If you want to enable AppleTalk Remote Access (ARA) on an outgoing connection, specify the autocommand arap keywords. These keywords are necessary for ARA because ARA does not use addressing, and this option permits you to invoke the ARA string.

virtual-templateAssociates a virtual template with a virtual access interface. See the translate tcp (virtual access interfaces) command description for more information.

outgoing-options

(Optional) Outgoing connection request options. Choices depend upon the protocol or command entered. See Table 42, Table 43, Table 44, and Table 45 for more information.

global-options

(Optional) One or more of the following translation options can be used by any connection type:

access-class number—Allows the incoming call to be used by source hosts that match the access list parameters. The argument number is an integer previously assigned to an access list. Standard access list numbers are in the range from1 to 99; expanded standard access lists numbers are in the range 1300 to 1999.

local—Allows Telnet protocol negotiations to not be translated.

login—Requires that the user log in before the outgoing connection is made. This type of login is specified on the virtual terminal lines with the login command.

max-users number—Limits the number of simultaneous users of the translation to number (an integer you specify).

quiet—Suppresses printing of user-information messages.

swap—Valid for TCP-to-X.25 translations only, and allows X.3 parameters to be set on the router by the host originating the X.25 call, or by an X.29 profile. This configuration enables incoming and outgoing X.25 connections to be swapped so that the device is treated like a PAD when it accepts a call. By default, the router functions like a PAD for calls that it initiates, and like an X.25 host for calls it accepts. The swap keyword allows connections from an X.25 host that wants to connect to the router, and then treats it like a PAD.


Defaults

No default translation parameters

Command Modes

Global configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

10.0

This command was introduced.

12.1

The no-reset permanent virtual circuits (PVCs) subkeyword was added to support outgoing PVCs.


Usage Guidelines

You define protocol translation connections by supplying a protocol keyword and the address, host name, or service name. A TCP protocol translation command can be as simple as the following example:

Router(config)# translate tcp 10.1.1.1 X.25 1236672

However, the Cisco IOS software provides a broad range of options that support protocol translations in many networking environments. Table 42, Table 43, Table 44, and Table 45 list the translate tcp translation options by protocol.

You can also use the Cisco IOS command-line interface to help you understand how these keywords are entered. In global configuration mode, begin entering the translate command and add a question mark at each portion of the command to display the options available. Some examples follow:

Router(config)# translate tcp ?

  Hostname or A.B.C.D  IP address


Router(config)# translate tcp 1.1.1.1 ?

  autocommand       Associate a command with a translation on this connections
  binary            Negotiate Telnet binary mode on the connection
  lat               DEC LAT protocol
  port              Port Number
  ppp               Virtual async PPP
  printer           Enable non-interactive (implies global quiet)
  slip              Virtual async SLIP
  stream            Enable stream processing
  tcp               TCP/IP Telnet
  virtual-template  Associate a virtual template with virtual access interface 
  x25               X.25


Router(config)# translate tcp 1.1.1.1 lat LAT-1 ?

  access-class  Allow access list parameters to be used by source hosts
  local         Allow Telnet protocol negotiations not to be translated
  login         Require that the user log in before the outgoing connection is
                made
  max-users     Limit the number of simultaneous users of the translation
  node          LAT node name
  port          LAT port name
  quiet         Suppress printing of user-information messages
  unadvertised  Prevent service advertisements from being broadcast to the
                network


Note If you plan to translate to X.25 on a permanent virtual circuit (PVC), see the description for the translate x25 command for important configuration notes.


Table 42 TCP-to-LAT Outgoing Options 

Outgoing LAT Translation

lat service-name

Translates TCP to the LAT protocol.The software must learn the service name through LAT service advertisements before it can use the service.

Outgoing LAT Connection Request Options

Any of the following optional keywords can be used to configure LAT connection requests:

node name—Connects to the specified node that offers a LAT service. By default, the connection is made to the highest-rated node that offers the service.

port name—Destination LAT port name in the format of the remote system. This parameter is usually ignored in most time-sharing systems, but is used by terminal servers that offer reverse-LAT services.

unadvertised—Prevents LAT service advertisements from being broadcast to the network.


Table 43 TCP-to-PPP Outgoing Options 

Outgoing PPP Translation

ppp {ip-address | ip-pool [scope-name name]}

Translates from TCP to virtual asynchronous PPP. Supply an IP address as a standard, four-part dotted decimal IP address.

The ip-pool keyword obtains an IP address from a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) proxy client or a local pool. If the scope-name keyword is not specified, the address is obtained from a DHCP proxy client. If the scope-name keyword is specified, the IP address is obtained from the specified local pool. The scope-name keyword can specify a range of IP addresses.

Outgoing PPP Connection Request Options

Any of the following optional keywords can be used to configure PPP connection requests:

authentication {pap | chap}—Sets Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) or Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) authentication for PPP on virtual asynchronous interfaces. If you specify both keywords, order is significant; the system will try to use the first authentication type, then the second.

header-compression [passive]—Implements header compression on IP packets only. The passive keyword permits compression on outgoing packets only if incoming TCP packets on the same virtual asynchronous interface are compressed. The default (without the passive keyword) permits compression on all traffic.

ipx loopback number—Specifies the loopback interface to be created and permits clients running IPX-PPP to connect through virtual terminal lines on the router. A loopback interface must have been created and configured with a Novell IPX network number before IPX-PPP can work on the virtual terminal line. The virtual terminal line is assigned to the loopback interface.

keepalive number-of-seconds—Specifies the interval at which keepalive packets are sent on Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) and PPP virtual asynchronous interfaces. By default, keepalive packets are enabled and sent every 10 seconds. To shut off keepalive packets, use a value of 0. The active keepalive interval is 1 through 32,767 seconds. When you do not change from the default of 10, the keepalive interval does not appear in more system:running-config or show translate command output.

mtu bytes—Sets the interface maximum transmission unit (MTU) of packets that the virtual asynchronous interface supports. The default MTU is 1500 bytes on a virtual asynchronous interface. The acceptable range is from 64 to 1,000,000 bytes.

routing—Permits routing updates between connections. This keyword is required if the destination device is not on a subnet connected to one of the interfaces on the router.

use-tacacs—Uses TACACS to verify PPP authentications for CHAP or PAP on virtual asynchronous interfaces.


Table 44 TCP-to-SLIP Outgoing Options 

Outgoing SLIP Translation

slip {ip-address | ip-pool [scope-name name]}

Translates from TCP to virtual asynchronous SLIP. Supply an IP address as a standard, four-part dotted decimal IP address.

The ip-pool keyword obtains an IP address from a DHCP proxy client or a local pool. If the optional scope-name keyword is not specified, the address is obtained from a DHCP proxy client. If the scope-name keyword is specified, the IP address is obtained from the specified local pool. The scope-name keyword can specify a range of IP addresses.


Note The slip keyword applies only to outgoing connections; SLIP is not supported on incoming protocol translation connections.


Outgoing SLIP Connection Request Options

Any of the following optional keywords can be used to configure SLIP connection requests:

header-compression [passive]—Implements header compression on IP packets only. The passive keyword permits compression on outgoing packets only if incoming TCP packets on the same virtual asynchronous interface are compressed. The default (without the passive keyword) permits compression on all traffic.

ipx loopback number—Specifies the loopback interface to be created and permits clients running IPX-PPP over X.25 to connect through virtual terminal lines on the router. A loopback interface must have been created and configured with a Novell IPX network number before IPX-PPP can work on the virtual terminal line. The virtual terminal line is assigned to the loopback interface.

keepalive number-of-seconds—Specifies the interval at which keepalive packets are sent on SLIP and PPP virtual asynchronous interfaces. By default, keepalive packets are enabled and sent every 10 seconds. To shut off keepalive packets, use a value of 0. The active keepalive interval is 1 through 32,767 seconds. When you do not change from the default of 10, the keepalive interval does not appear in more system:running-config or show translate command output.

mtu bytes—Sets the interface MTU of packets that the virtual asynchronous interface supports. The default MTU is 1500 bytes on a virtual asynchronous interface. The acceptable range is from 64 to 1,000,000 bytes.

routing—Permits routing updates between connections. This keyword is required if the destination device is not on a subnet connected to one of the interfaces on the router.


Table 45 TCP-to-X.25 Outgoing Options 

Outgoing X.25 Translation

x25 x.121-address

Translates TCP to the X.25 protocol. Supply an X.121 address that conforms to the specifications provided in the CCITT 1984 Red Book, or the name of an X.25 host that can be resolved by the DNS, or explicit specification in an x25 host command.

The address number generally consists of a portion that is administered by the public data network (PDN) and a portion that is locally assigned. You must be sure that the numbers that you assign agree with the addresses assigned to you by the X.25 service provider. The X.121 addresses generally will be subaddresses of the X.121 address for the X.25 network interface.

Outgoing X.25 Connection Request Options

Any of the following optional keywords can be used to configure X.25 connection requests:

cud c-u-data—Sends the specified X.25 Call User Data (CUD) text as part of an outgoing call request after the protocol identification bytes.

no-reverse—Specifies that outgoing calls not request the X.25 reverse charge facility, when the interface default is that all outgoing calls are reverse charged.

profile profile—Sets the X.3 packet assembler/disassembler (PAD) parameters as defined in the profile created by the x29 profile command.

pvc number [interface serial number | packetsize in-size out-size | windowsize in-size out-size | no-reset]—Specifies that the outgoing connection is actually a PVC. The number argument specifies the virtual circuit channel number of the incoming connection, which must be less than the virtual circuits assigned to the switched virtual circuit (SVC).Only one session is allowed per PVC. Use the following optional keywords to further define the connection:

interface serial number—Specifies a PVC interface on which to set up the PVC connection.

packetsize in-size out-size—Specifies the input packet size (in-size) and output packet size (out-size) for the PVC. Valid packet size values are: 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024, 2048, and 4096.

windowsize in-size out-size—Specifies the packet count for input windows (in-size) and output windows (out-size) for the outgoing translation. Values of in-size and out-size range from 1 to 127 and must not be greater than the value set for the x25 modulo command. You must specify the same value for in-size and out-size.

no-reset—Causes the Cisco router to send a no Reset packet request at startup of a TCP or LAT to PVC translation session.

reverse—Provides reverse charging for X.25 on a per-call rather than a per-interface basis. Requests reverse charges on a specified X.121 address, even if the serial interface is not configured to request reverse charge calls.

use-map—Applies x25 map pad command entry options (such as CUD and idle) and facilities (such as packet in, packet out, win in, and win out) to the outgoing protocol translation call. When the use-map keyword is specified on the translate command, the Destination address and optional PAD Protocol Identification (PID), CUD, and facilities are checked against a configured list of x25 map pad command entries. If a match is found, the map entry PID, CUD, and facilities are applied to the outgoing protocol translation call. The X.25 map facilities applied to the outgoing translation can be displayed with the show translation command throughout the duration of the translation session.


Examples

The following example illustrates the use of the TCP incoming protocol printer keyword for an incoming TCP connection:

translate tcp 172.19.32.250 printer x25 5678

The following example permits clients running IPX-PPP to connect through the device virtual terminal lines to a server running PPP:

interface loopback0
  no ip address
  ipx network 544
  ipx sap-interval 2000
!
translate tcp 172.21.14.67 port 1234 ppp 10.0.0.2 ipx loopback0 

Related Commands

Command
Description

show translate

Displays configured translation sessions.

translate lat

Translates a LAT connection request automatically to another outgoing protocol connection.

translate x25

Translates an X.25 connection request automatically to another outgoing protocol connection.

x29 access-list

Limits access to the access server from certain X.25 hosts.

x29 profile

Creates a PAD profile script for use by the translate command.


translate tcp (virtual access interfaces)

When receiving a TCP connection request to a particular destination address or host name, to set up the Cisco router to automatically translate the request to another outgoing protocol connection type, use the translate tcp command in global configuration mode. To remove or change the translation request, use the no form of this command.

The command syntax that follows shows how to apply a virtual interface template in place of outgoing translate options. If you are using virtual templates for protocol translation, all outgoing options are defined in the virtual interface template.

translate tcp incoming-address [incoming-options] virtual-template number [global-options]

no translate tcp incoming-address [incoming-options] virtual-template number [global-options]

Syntax Description

incoming-address

TCP/IP Telnet and a standard IP address or host name. The ip-address argument is a standard, four-part dotted decimal IP address or the name of an IP host that can be resolved by the Domain Name System (DNS) or explicit specification in an ip host command.

incoming-options

(Optional) Incoming connection request options. These arguments can have the following values:

binary—Negotiates Telnet binary mode on the Telnet connection. (This was the default in previous versions of the Cisco IOS software and is set automatically when you enter a translate command in the old format.)

port number—For incoming connections, enter the number of the port to match. The default is port 23 (Telnet). For outgoing connections, enter the number of the port to use. The default is port 23.

printer—Supports LAT and X.25 printing over a TCP network among multiple sites. This keyword causes the protocol translation software to delay the completion of an incoming Telnet connection until after the outgoing protocol connection (to LAT or X.25) has been successfully established. An unsuccessful outgoing connection attempt results in the TCP connection to the router being refused, rather than being accepted and then closed, which is the default behavior. Note that using this keyword will force the global quiet keyword to be applied to the translation.

stream—Performs stream processing, which enables a raw TCP stream with no Telnet control sequences. A stream connection does not process or generate any Telnet options, and also prevents Telnet processing of the data stream. This keyword might be useful for connections to ports running the UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program (UUCP) or other non-Telnet protocols, or to ports connected to printers. For ports connected to printers using Telnet, the stream keyword prevents some of the problems associated with using Telnet for printers, such as unusual events happening to carriage returns or line feeds and echoing of data back to VMS systems.

virtual-template number

Applies the virtual interface template specified by the number argument in place of outgoing options.

global-options

(Optional) One or more of the following translation options can be used by any connection type:

access-class number—Allows the incoming call to be used by source hosts that match the access list parameters. The argument number is an integer previously assigned to an access list. Standard access list numbers are in the range from1 to 99; expanded standard access lists numbers are in the range 1300 to 1999.

 

local—Allows Telnet protocol negotiations to not be translated.

login—Requires that the user log in before the outgoing connection is made. This type of login is specified on the virtual terminal lines with the login command.

max-users number—Maximum number of simultaneous users of the translation.

quiet—Suppresses printing of user-information messages.

swap—Valid for TCP-to-X.25 translations only, and allows X.3 parameters to be set on the router by the host originating the X.25 call, or by an X.29 profile. This configuration enables incoming and outgoing X.25 connections to be swapped so that the device is treated like a PAD when it accepts a call. By default, the router functions like a PAD for calls that it initiates, and like an X.25 host for calls it accepts. The swap keyword allows connections from an X.25 host that wants to connect to the router, and then treats it like a PAD.


Defaults

No default translation parameters

Command Modes

Global configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

10.0

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

You define the protocol translation connections by choosing a protocol keyword and supplying the appropriate address, host name, or service name. The protocol connection information is followed by optional features for that connection, as appropriate. For example, the binary keyword is only appropriate with TCP/IP connections. The global options, in general, apply to all the connection types, but there are exceptions.

Examples

The following example illustrates the use of the TCP incoming printer keyword for an incoming TCP connection:

interface Virtual-Template1
 ip unnumbered Ethernet0
 peer default ip address 10.12.108.1
 ppp authentication chap

translate tcp 172.19.32.250 printer Virtual-Template1

Related Commands

Command
Description

show translate

Displays configured translation sessions.

translate tcp

Translates a TCP connection request automatically to another outgoing protocol connection.

translate x25

Translates an X.25 connection request automatically to another outgoing protocol connection.

x29 access-list

Limits access to the access server from certain X.25 hosts.

x29 profile

Creates a PAD profile script for use by the translate command.


translate x25

To translate a connection request to another protocol connection type when receiving an X.25 connection request to a particular destination address or host name, use the translate x25 command in global configuration mode. To remove or change the translation request, use the no form of this command.

translate x25 incoming-address [incoming-options [pvc number [pvc-options]]] protocol outgoing-address [outgoing-options] [global-options]

no translate x25 incoming-address [incoming-options [pvc number [pvc-options]]] protocol outgoing-address [outgoing-options] [global-options]

Syntax Description

incoming-address

An X.25 and X.121 address that conform to specifications provided in the CCITT 1984 Red Book.

This address generally consists of a portion that is administered by the PDN and a portion that is locally assigned. You must be sure that the numbers that you assign agree with the addresses assigned to you by the X.25 service provider. The X.121 addresses generally will be subaddresses of the X.121 address for the X.25 network interface. Typically, the interface address will be a 12-digit number. Any additional digits are interpreted as a subaddress. The PDN still routes these calls to the interface, and the Cisco IOS software is responsible for interpreting the extra digits.

Do not use the same address on the interface and for translation.

incoming-options

(Optional) An incoming connection request option. Choices are as follows:

accept-reverse—Accepts reverse charged calls on an X.121 address even if the serial interface is not configured to accept reverse charged calls.

cud c-u-data—Specifies the Call User Data (CUD) field to match in the X.25 Incoming Call packet. If not configured, the CUD in the Incoming Call packet must be blank.

 

idle minutes—Specifies the number of minutes the virtual circuit is idle. This keyword enables the protocol translation function to clear a switched virtual circuit after a set period of inactivity, where minutes is the number of minutes in the period. Calls either originated or terminated are cleared. The maximum value of minutes is 255. The default value of minutes is zero.

 

printer—Supports local-area transport (LAT) and TCP printing over an X.25 network among multiple sites. Provides an "interlock mechanism" between the acceptance of an incoming X.25 connection and the opening of an outgoing LAT or TCP connection. This keyword causes the Cisco IOS software to delay the call confirmation of an incoming X.25 call request until after the outgoing protocol connection (to TCP or LAT) has been successfully established. An unsuccessful outgoing connection attempt to the router results in the incoming X.25 connection being refused, rather than being accepted and then closed, which is the default behavior. Note that using this keyword will force the global quiet keyword to be applied to the translation.

 

profile profile—Sets the X.3 packet assembler/disassembler (PAD) parameters as defined in the profile created by the x29 profile command.

pvc number [interface serial number | packetsize in-size out-size | windowsize in-size out-size ]—Specifies that the outgoing connection is actually a PVC. The number argument specifies the virtual circuit channel number of the connection, which must be less than the virtual circuits assigned to the switched virtual circuit (SVC).Only one session is allowed per PVC. Use the following optional keywords to further define the connection:

interface serial number—Specifies a PVC interface on which to set up the PVC connection.

 

packetsize in-size out-size—Specifies the input packet size (in-size) and output packet size (out-size) for the PVC. Valid packet size values are as follows: 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024, 2048, and 4096.

windowsize in-size out-size—Specifies the packet count for input windows (in-size) and output windows (out-size) for the outgoing translation. Values of in-size and out-size range from 1 to 127 and must not be greater than the value set for the x25 modulo command. You must specify the same value for in-size and out-size.

protocol outgoing-address

A protocol name followed by an address or host name. Protocol translation choices are lat, ppp, slip, and tcp.


Note The host name is translated to an address during configuration, unless you are translating to TCP and use the host-name keyword, which allows the host name to be resolved at connection time instead of configuration time. See Table 49 for more information about the host-name keyword.


 

Additional keywords that can be entered with the protocol are as follows:

autocommand—Specifies an EXEC command for an outgoing connection. The command executes upon connection to a host. You can issue any EXEC command and any switch or host name as an argument to the autocommand keyword. If the string following autocommand has one or more spaces as part of the string, you must place quotation marks (" ") around the string. If you want to enable AppleTalk Remote Access (ARA) on an outgoing connection, specify the autocommand arap keywords. These keywords are necessary for ARA because ARA does not use addressing, and this option permits you to invoke the ARA string.

virtual-templateAssociates a virtual template with a virtual access interface. See the translate x25 (virtual access interfaces) command description for more information.

outgoing-options

(Optional) Outgoing connection request option. Choices depend upon the protocol or command entered. See Table 46,Table 47, Table 48, and Table 49 for a list of outgoing protocol translation options.

global-options

(Optional) One or more of the following translation options can be used by any connection type:

access-class number—Allows the incoming call to be used by source hosts that match the access list parameters. The argument number is an integer previously assigned to an access list. Standard access list numbers are in the range from1 to 99; expanded standard access lists numbers are in the range 1300 to 1999.

local—Allows Telnet protocol negotiations to not be translated.

login—Requires that the user log in before the outgoing connection is made. This type of login is specified on the virtual terminal lines with the login command.

max-users number—Limits the number of simultaneous users of the translation to number (an integer you specify).

quiet—Suppresses printing of user-information messages.

swap—Valid for X.25-to-TCP translations only, and allows X.3 parameters to be set on the router by the host originating the X.25 call, or by an X.29 profile. This configuration enables incoming and outgoing X.25 connections to be swapped so that the device is treated like a PAD when it accepts a call. By default, the router functions like a PAD for calls that it initiates, and like an X.25 host for calls it accepts. The swap keyword allows connections from an X.25 host that wants to connect to the router, and then treats it like a PAD.


Defaults

No default translation parameters.

Command Modes

Global configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

10.0

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

You define protocol translation connections by supplying a protocol keyword and the address, host name, or service name. An X.25 protocol translation command can be as simple as the following example:

Router(config)# translate X.25 1236672 tcp 1.1.1.1

However, the Cisco IOS software provides a broad range of options that support protocol translations in many networking environments. Table 46, Table 47, Table 48, and Table 49 lists the translate x25 translation options by protocol.

You can also use the Cisco IOS command-line interface to help you understand how these keywords are entered. In global configuration mode, begin entering the translate command and add a question mark at each portion of the command to display the options available. Some examples follow:

Router(config)# translate x25 ?

  WORD  X.121 Address pattern

Router(config)# translate x25 66666 ?

  accept-reverse    Accept reverse charge on a per-call basis
  autocommand       Associate a command with a translation on this connections
  cud               Specify the Call User Data (CUD)
  idle              Specify VC idle timer
  lat               DEC LAT protocol
  ppp               Virtual async PPP
  printer           Enable non-interactive (implies global quiet)
  profile           Use a defined X.3 profile
  pvc               An incoming connection is actually a PVC
  slip              Virtual async SLIP
  tcp               TCP/IP Telnet
  virtual-template  Associate a virtual template with virtual access interface 
  x25               X.25

Router(config)# translate x25 66666 tcp 1.1.1.1 ?

  access-class      Allow access list parameters to be used by source hosts
  binary            Negotiate Telnet binary mode on the connection
  host-name         Store the host name rather than its IP address
  local             Allow Telnet protocol negotiations not to be translated
  login             Require that the user log in before the outgoing connection
                    is made
  max-users         Limit the number of simultaneous users of the translation
  multibyte-IAC     Always treat multiple IACs as telnet command
  port              Port Number
  quiet             Suppress printing of user-information messages
  source-interface  Specify source interface
  stream            Treat telnet escape characters as data
  swap              Allow X.3 parameters to be set on the protocol translator
                    by the host originating the X.25 call

Table 46 X.25-to-LAT Outgoing Options 

Outgoing LAT Translation

lat service-name

Translates X.25 to the LAT protocol.The software must learn the service name through LAT service advertisements before it can use the service.

Outgoing LAT Connection Request Options

Any of the following optional keywords can be used to configure LAT connection requests:

node name—Connects to the specified node that offers a LAT service. By default, the connection is made to the highest-rated node that offers the service.

port name—Destination LAT port name in the format of the remote system. This parameter is usually ignored in most time-sharing systems, but is used by terminal servers that offer reverse-LAT services.

unadvertised—Prevents LAT service advertisements from being broadcast to the network.


Table 47 X.25-to-PPP Outgoing Options 

Outgoing PPP Translation

ppp {ip-address | ip-pool [scope-name name]}

Translates from X.25 to virtual asynchronous PPP. Supply an IP address as a standard, four-part dotted decimal IP address.

The ip-pool keyword obtains an IP address from a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) proxy client or a local pool. If the optional scope-name keyword is not specified, the address is obtained from a DHCP proxy client. If the scope-name keyword is specified, the IP address is obtained from the specified local pool. The scope-name keyword can specify a range of IP addresses.

Outgoing PPP Connection Request Options

Any of the following optional keywords can be used to configure PPP connection requests:

authentication {pap | chap}—Sets Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) or Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) authentication for PPP on virtual asynchronous interfaces. If you specify both options, order is significant; the system will try to use the first authentication type, then the second.

header-compressionConfigures header compression on IP packets only.

ipx loopback number—Specifies the loopback interface to be created and permits clients running IPX-PPP over X.25 to connect through virtual terminal lines on the router. A loopback interface must have been created and configured with a Novell IPX network number before IPX-PPP can work on the virtual terminal line. The virtual terminal line is assigned to the loopback interface.

keepalive number-of-seconds—Specifies the interval at which keepalive packets are sent on Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) and PPP virtual asynchronous interfaces. By default, keepalive packets are enabled and sent every 10 seconds. To shut off keepalive packets, use a value of 0. The active keepalive interval is 1 through 32,767 seconds. When you do not change from the default of 10, the keepalive interval does not appear in more system:running-config or show translate command output.

mtu bytes—Sets the interface MTU of packets that the virtual asynchronous interface supports. The default MTU is 1500 bytes on a virtual asynchronous interface. The acceptable range is from 64 to 1,000,000 bytes.

routing—Permits routing updates between connections. This option is required if the destination device is not on a subnet connected to one of the interfaces on the router.

use-tacacs—Uses TACACS to verify PPP authentications for CHAP or PAP on virtual asynchronous interfaces.


Table 48 X.25-to-SLIP Outgoing Options 

Outgoing SLIP Translation

slip {ip-address | ip-pool [scope-name name]}

Translates from X.25 to virtual asynchronous SLIP. Supply an IP address as a standard, four-part dotted decimal IP address.

The ip-pool keyword obtains an IP address from a DHCP proxy client or a local pool. If the optional scope-name keyword is not specified, the address is obtained from a DHCP proxy client. If the scope-name keyword is specified, the IP address is obtained from the specified local pool. The scope-name keyword can specify a range of IP addresses.


Note The slip argument applies only to outgoing connections; SLIP is not supported on incoming protocol translation connections.


Outgoing SLIP Connection Request Options

Any of the following optional keywords can be used to configure SLIP connection requests:

header-compression [passive]—Implements header compression on IP packets only. The passive keyword permits compression on outgoing packets only if incoming TCP packets on the same virtual asynchronous interface are compressed. The default (without the passive keyword) permits compression on all traffic.

ipx loopback number—Specifies the loopback interface to be created and permits clients running IPX-PPP over X.25 to connect through virtual terminal lines on the router. A loopback interface must have been created and configured with a Novell IPX network number before IPX-PPP can work on the virtual terminal line. The virtual terminal line is assigned to the loopback interface.

keepalive number-of-seconds—Specifies the interval at which keepalive packets are sent on SLIP and PPP virtual asynchronous interfaces. By default, keepalive packets are enabled and sent every 10 seconds. To shut off keepalive packets, use a value of 0. The active keepalive interval is 1 through 32,767 seconds. When you do not change from the default of 10, the keepalive interval does not appear in more system:running-config or show translate command output.

mtu bytes—Sets the interface MTU of packets that the virtual asynchronous interface supports. The default MTU is 1500 bytes on a virtual asynchronous interface. The acceptable range is from 64 to 1,000,000 bytes.

routing—Permits routing updates between connections. This keyword is required if the destination device is not on a subnet connected to one of the interfaces on the router.


Table 49 X.25-to-TCP Outgoing Options 

Outgoing TCP Translation

tcp ip-address

Translates X.25 to TCP/IP Telnet. Supply an IP address as a standard, four-part dotted decimal IP address, or the name of an IP host that can be resolved by the DNS, or explicit specification in an ip host command (refer to the description for the host-name keyword in the "Outgoing TCP Connection Request Options" section).

Outgoing TCP Connection Request Options

Any of the following optional keywords can be used to configure TCP connection requests:

binary—Negotiates Telnet binary mode on the connection.

host-name—Stores the host name rather than its IP address, thereby allowing the host name to be resolved at connection time instead of configuration time. There is also a rotor keyword suboption that you can use to modify the behavior of the host-name keyword by allowing one of the IP addresses defined by the ip host configuration command to be chosen randomly. If one address fails, another one will be tried, and so on until all address choices are exhausted. You can use the rotor keyword, therefore, to provide basic load sharing of the IP destinations.

multibyte-IAC—Always treat multiple Interpret as Command (IAC) escape character codes as a Telnet command.

port number—For incoming connections, enter the number of the port to match. The default is port 23 (Telnet).

source-interface—Specifies the source address used for Telnet connections initiated by the router.

stream—Performs stream processing, which enables a raw TCP stream with no Telnet control sequences. A stream connection does not process or generate any Telnet options, and also prevents Telnet processing of the data stream. This option might be useful for connections to ports running UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program (UUCP) or other non-Telnet protocols, or to ports connected to printers. For ports connected to printers using Telnet, the stream keyword prevents some of the problems associated with using Telnet for printers, such as unusual events happening to carriage returns or line feeds and echoing of data back to VMS systems.


Protocol Translation and X.25 PVCs Functional Description

This section describes how the protocol translator works with X.25 PVCs. It will help you understand the overall behavior of incoming and outgoing X.25 PVCs associated with a translate command, enabling you to correctly configure protocol translator PVCs for your application.

Configuring X.25 PVCs

When the translate x25 command is configured with a PVC, an attempt is made to create the PVC. The following conditions can cause this attempt to fail:

The PVCs assignment of the X.25 interface does not include the PVC number in the translate x25 command.

The PVC number in the translate x25 command is already in use.

An X.25 destination in a translate x25 command is routed to X.25 over TCP/IP (XOT), Connection Mode Network Service (CMNS), or Annex G, which do not support translated PVCs.

PVC numbers must be unique across an X.25 connection; however, PVC 1 on Serial 1/0 is different (and therefore unique) from PVC 1 on Serial 2/1.

If, once the translate x25 command is accepted, the X.25 interface on which the PVC is created goes down, the PVC enters an inactive state, the TCP or LAT connection is terminated, but the existing PAD context remains inactive.

An incoming TCP or LAT connection associated with a down outgoing PVC (displaying a "P/Inactive message") will be rejected by the protocol translator.

If any X.25 traffic is received while the corresponding TCP or LAT connection is terminated, and if a Data packet is received in state D1, a Reset with a diagnostic message will be displayed, similar to the following:

20:17:11.809: Serial2: X.25 O D1 Reset (5) 8 lci 4
20:17:11.809: Cause 29, Diag 113 (Network out of order (PVC)/Remote network problem)
 

The number of outgoing and incoming protocol translation PVCs is limited only by the number of virtual terminal lines supported on the Cisco router. Remember that each protocol translation session uses a virtual terminal line, which lowers the number of virtual terminal lines available for Telnet sessions.

By default, the Cisco router sends a Reset packet with the cause "PVC Network Operational" and diagnostic "Maintenance action" messages at the start of a TCP or LAT to PVC translation session, to announce that the connection is established and that the PVC is able to handle data traffic. To suppress the PVC Reset packet at TCP or LAT session startup, configure the no-reset outgoing PVC keyword as shown in the following example:

translate tcp 192.168.22.102 port 5 x25 333 pvc 5 no-reset profile tcl

Changing or Removing a translate Command PVC Configuration

Removing a translate command with an outgoing PVC specified is allowed only when there no active connection is associated with the outgoing PVC. An attempt to remove an active translation results in the following message:

Translate: Can't delete/add entry - Connection(s) are currently active

For example, if PVC 5 is assigned to a translate command as shown in the following example:

translate tcp 10.0.155.61 port 5 x25 5 pvc 5 interface Serial2/0

And you want PVC 5 to be assigned under an X.25 interface instead of the translate command, as shown in the following example:

interface serial2/0
  x25 pvc 5 int s4/0 pvc 25

Perform the following steps to configure this reassignment:


Step 1 Check whether a PVC is associated with a serial connection using the show x25 EXEC command, as follows:

Router# show x25 vc 5

PVC 5, State:D1, Interface:Serial2/0
   Started ...

   Line:230 vty 4  Location:Host:nmos3m1
    connected to PAD <--> X25

Step 2 If the PVC is associated with a TCP connection, terminate the connection by disconnecting the TCP session or by using the clear line EXEC command as shown in the following example:

Router# clear line vty 4

Step 3 Enter configuration mode, delete the translate command, and reassign PVC 5 to an interface:

Router(config)# no translate tcp 10.0.155.61 port 5 x25 5 pvc 5 interface Serial2/0
Router(config)# interface serial2/0
Router(config-if)# x25 pvc 5 int s4/0 pvc 25

If you want to modify the translate command and change the PVC number from 5 to 12, follow steps 1 and 2, and modify the translate command with PVC 12, as follows:

Router(config)# translate tcp 10.0.155.61 port 12 x25 12 pvc 12 interface Serial2/0


Understanding the X.25 Address and the PVC Interface Option on a translate Command

The protocol translator locates the X.121 destination address in the X.25 route table to determine the interface on which to establish the PVC. A more up-to-date, simpler approach uses the translate command with the interface keyword, which ignores the status of the interface by avoiding referencing the X.25 route table.

For example, instead of configuring an x25 route command for each translated PVC, and entering a long X.121 address on the translate command, as shown this example:

x25 route ^32785223344502 interface Serial1/5
translate tcp 10.0.155.61 port 2502 x25 32785223344502 pvc 1

You can simply enter one translate command that links the IP port number with the X.121 address and specifies the interface on which to establish the PVC, as follows:

translate tcp 10.0.155.61 port 2502 x25 2502 pvc 1 interface Serial 1/5

This is the recommended approach and should be adopted in place of translate commands that cause the destination address to be looked up in the route table.

Examples

The following example shows how to use the translate global configuration command to translate from an X.25 PAD to a LAT device on Network A. It is applied to Router-A. The configuration example includes an access list that limits remote LAT access through Router-A to connections from PAD-C. This example typifies the use of access lists in the Cisco IOS software. The first two lines define the scope of access-list 1. The first line specifies that access list 1 will permit all calls from X.121 address 44444. The caret symbol (^) specifies that the first number 4 is the beginning of the address number.The second line of the definition explicitly denies calls from any other number. (Refer to the appendix "Regular Expressions" in the Cisco IOS Terminal Services Configuration Guide, Release 12.2, for details concerning the use of special characters in defining X.121 addresses.)

! Define X25 access list to only allow pad-c.
x29 access-list 1 permit ^44444
x29 access-list 1 deny .*
!
! Set up translation.
translate x25 1111101 lat LAT-A access-class 1

The following example shows a simple X.25-to-TCP translate x25 command. Packets coming in X.25 address 652365123 arrive via PVC 1 and are translated to TCP packets and sent out IP address 172.16.1.1.

translate x25 652365123 pvc 1 tcp 172.16.1.1

The following example shows a more complex configuration that calls an X.29 profile and swaps the default PAD operation of the router to that of an X.25 host. The name of the profile is fullpackets.

x29 profile fullpackets 2:0 3:0 4:100 7:21
translate x25 217536124 profile fullpackets tcp Host1 port 4006 swap

The following example shows the use of the X.25 incoming protocol printer keyword for an incoming X.25 connection:

translate x25 55555 printer tcp 172.16.1.1

The following examples causes the protocol translator to try connecting to IP address 172.16.1.1 and if that failed, to try IP address 172.16.2.1, and so on through all IP addresses listed in the ip host command:

ip host my-hosts 172.16.1.1 172.16.2.1 172.16.3.1
translate x25 55555 tcp my-hosts host-name

The following example uses the rotor keyword to cause the protocol translator to randomly choose one of the IP address listed in the ip host command and if it fails to connect, to try another IP address, until all are exhausted:

ip host my-hosts 172.16.1.1 172.16.2.1 172.16.3.1
translate x25 55555 tcp my-hosts host1 rotor

The following example translates X.25 packets to PPP. It enables routing updates between the two connections:

translate x25 12345678 ppp 10.0.0.2 routing

The following example permits clients running ARA to connect through the virtual terminal lines of the device to an AppleTalk network:

appletalk routing
translate x25 12345678 autocommand arap
  arap enable
  arap dedicated
  arap timelimit 45
  arap warningtime 5
  arap noguest
  arap require-manual-password
  arap net-access-list 614

The following example specifies IP pooling from a DHCP server named D-Server1. It then specifies that incoming TCP traffic be translated to SLIP. The DHCP server will dynamically assign IP addresses on the outgoing sessions.

ip address-pool dhcp-proxy-client
ip dhcp-server D-Server1
translate x25 5467835 ppp ip-pool scope-name D-Server1

The following example specifies a local IP pool named Pool2 with IP addresses ranging from 172.18.10.10 to 172.18.10.110. It then specifies that incoming X.25 traffic be translated to PPP. The local IP pool Pool2 will be used to dynamically assign IP addresses on the outgoing sessions.

ip-pool Pool2 172.18.10.10 172.18.10.110
translate x25 1234567 ppp ip-pool scope-name Pool2

The following example shows how to set the idle timer. X.25 calls are cleared if they are idle for the configured time.

translate x25 1234 idle 2 lat Service3

Related Commands

Command
Description

show translate

Displays configured translation sessions.

translate lat

Translates a LAT connection request automatically to another outgoing protocol connection.

translate tcp

Translates a TCP connection request automatically to another outgoing protocol connection.

x29 access-list

Limits access to the access server from certain X.25 hosts.

x29 profile

Creates a PAD profile script for use by the translate command.


translate x25 (virtual access interfaces)

When receiving an X.25 connection request to a particular destination address, to set up the Cisco router to automatically translate the request to another outgoing protocol connection type, use the translate x25 command in global configuration mode. To remove or change the translation request, use the no form of this command.

The command syntax that follows shows how to apply a virtual interface template in place of outgoing translate x25 options. If you are using virtual templates for protocol translation, all outgoing options are defined in the virtual interface template. Table 50 lists all outgoing options and their corresponding interface configuration commands.

translate x25 incoming-address [incoming-options [pvc number [pvc-options]]] protocol outgoing-address [outgoing-options] virtual-template number [global-options]

no translate x25 incoming-address [incoming-options [pvc number [pvc-options]]] protocol outgoing-address [outgoing-options] virtual-template number [global-options]

Syntax Description

incoming-address

An X.25 and X.121 address that conform to specifications provided in the CCITT 1984 Red Book.

This address generally consists of a portion that is administered by the PDN and a portion that is locally assigned. You must be sure that the numbers that you assign agree with the addresses assigned to you by the X.25 service provider. The X.121 addresses generally will be subaddresses of the X.121 address for the X.25 network interface. Typically, the interface address will be a 12-digit number. Any additional digits are interpreted as a subaddress. The PDN still routes these calls to the interface, and the Cisco IOS software is responsible for interpreting the extra digits.

Do not use the same address on the interface and for translation.

incoming-options

(Optional) Incoming connection request keywords and arguments, as follows:

accept-reverse—Accepts reverse charged calls on an X.121 address even if the serial interface is not configured to accept reverse charged calls. This is an incoming option only.

cud c-u-data—Specifies the Call User Data (CUD) field to match in the X.25 Incoming Call packet. If not configured, the CUD in the Incoming Call packet must be blank.

 

printer—Supports LAT and TCP printing over an X.25 network among multiple sites. Provides an "interlock mechanism" between the acceptance of an incoming X.25 connection and the opening of an outgoing LAT or TCP connection. The printer keyword causes the protocol translation software to delay the call confirmation of an incoming X.25 call request until the outgoing protocol connection (to TCP or LAT) has been successfully established. An unsuccessful outgoing connection attempt to the router results in the incoming X.25 connection being refused, rather than being confirmed and then cleared, which is the default behavior. Note that using this keyword will force the global quiet keyword to be applied to the translation.

 

profile profile—Sets the X.3 PAD parameters as defined in the profile created by the x29 profile command.

 

pvc number [interface serial number | packetsize in-size out-size | windowsize in-size out-size ]—Specifies that the outgoing connection is actually a PVC. The number argument specifies the virtual circuit channel number of the connection, which must be less than the virtual circuits assigned to the switched virtual circuit (SVC).Only one session is allowed per PVC. Use the following optional keywords and arguments to further define the connection:

interface serial number—Specifies a PVC interface on which to set up the PVC connection.

 

packetsize in-size out-size—Specifies the input packet size (in-size) and output packet size (out-size) for the PVC. Valid packet size values are as follows: 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024, 2048, and 4096.

windowsize in-size out-size—Specifies the packet count for input windows (in-size) and output windows (out-size) for the outgoing translation. Values of in-size and out-size range from 1 to 127 and must not be greater than the value set for the x25 modulo command. You must specify the same value for in-size and out-size.

virtual-template number

Applies the virtual interface template specified by the number argument in place of outgoing options.

global-options

(Optional) Translation options that can be used by any connection type and can be one or more of the following:

access-class number—Allows the incoming call to be used by source hosts that match the access list parameters. The argument number is an integer previously assigned to an access list. Standard access list numbers are in the range from1 to 99; expanded standard access lists numbers are in the range 1300 to 1999.

local—Allows Telnet protocol negotiations to not be translated.

login—Requires that the user log in before the outgoing connection is made. This type of login is specified on the virtual terminal lines with the login command.

max-users number—Limits the number of simultaneous users of the translation to number (an integer you specify).

quiet—Suppresses printing of user-information messages.

swap—Valid for X.25-to-TCP translations only, and allows X.3 parameters to be set on the router by the host originating the X.25 call, or by an X.29 profile. This keyword allows incoming and outgoing X.25 connections to be swapped so that the device is treated like a PAD when it accepts a call. By default, the router functions like a PAD for calls that it initiates, and like an X.25 host for calls it accepts. The swap keyword allows connections from an X.25 host that wants to connect to the router, and then treats it like a PAD.


Defaults

No default translation parameters.

Command Modes

Global configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

10.0

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

You define the protocol translation connections by choosing a protocol keyword and supplying the appropriate address or service name. The protocol connection information is followed by optional features for that connection, as appropriate. The global options, in general, apply to all the connection types, but there are exceptions. The swap keyword, for example, is for X.25- to-TCP translations only. See the example for more explanations on how to enter this command.

Rather than specifying outgoing translation options in the translate command, configure these options as interface configuration commands under the virtual interface template, then apply the virtual interface template to the translate command. Table 50 maps outgoing translate command options to interface commands you can configure in the virtual interface template.

Table 50 Mapping Outgoing translate x25 Options to Interface Commands 

translate x25 Command Options
Corresponding Interface Configuration Command

ip-pool

peer default ip address {ip-address | dhcp | pool [poolname]}

header-compression

ip tcp header compression [on | off | passive]

routing

ip routing or ipx routing

mtu

mtu

keepalive

keepalive

authentication {chap | pap}

ppp authentication {chap | pap}

ppp use-tacacs

ppp use-tacacs

ipx loopback

ipx ppp-client loopback number


Examples

The following example shows a virtual template with PPP encapsulation specified by default (not explicit). It also specifies CHAP authentication and an X.29 access list.

x29 access-list 1 permit ^5555
!
interface Virtual-Template1
 ip unnumbered Ethernet0
 peer default ip address 172.16.2.129
 ppp authentication chap
!
translate x25 5555667 virtual-template 1 access-class 1

Related Commands

Command
Description

interface virtual-template

Creates a virtual template interface that can be configured and applied dynamically in creating virtual access interfaces.

show translate

Displays configured translation sessions.

translate lat

Translates a LAT connection request automatically to another outgoing protocol connection type.

translate tcp

Translates a TCP connection request automatically to another outgoing protocol connection type.

x29 access-list

Limits access to the access server from certain X.25 hosts.

x29 profile

Creates a PAD profile script for use by the translate command.


transport input

To define which protocols to use to connect to a specific line of the router, use the transport input command in line configuration mode. To change or remove the protocol. use the no form of this command.

transport input {all | lat | mop | nasi | none | pad | rlogin | telnet | v120}

no transport input {all | lat | mop | nasi | none | pad | rlogin | telnet | v120}

Syntax Description

all

Selects all protocols.

lat

Selects the Digital LAT protocol and specifies both incoming reverse LAT and host-initiated connections.

mop

Selects Maintenance Operation Protocol (MOP).

nasi

Select NetWare Access Servers Interface (NASI) as the input transport protocol.

none

Prevents any protocol selection on the line. This makes the port unusable by incoming connections.

pad

Selects X.3 packet assembler/disassembler (PAD) incoming connections.

rlogin

Selects the UNIX rlogin protocol.

telnet

Specifies all types of incoming TCP/IP connections.

v120

Selects the V.120 protocol for incoming asynchronous connections over ISDN.


Defaults

No protocols allowed on the line (none).

Command Modes

Line configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

10.0

This command was introduced.

11.1

The none keyword was added and became the default. Before Cisco IOS Release 11.1, the default keyword was all.


Usage Guidelines

Cisco routers do not accept incoming network connections to asynchronous ports (TTY lines) by default. You must specify an incoming transport protocol or specify the transport input all command before the line will accept incoming connections. For example, if you are using your router as a terminal server to make console-port connections to routers or other devices, you will not be able to use Telnet to connect to these devices. You will receive the message "Connection Refused." This behavior is new as of Cisco IOS software Release 11.1. Previous to Release 11.1, the default was the transport input all command, and the all keyword restored pre-Cisco IOS software Release 11.0 defaults. If you are upgrading to Cisco IOS software Release 11.1(1) or later releases from earlier Cisco IOS software Releases, you must configure the transport input {protocol | all} command, or you will be locked out of your router.

You can specify one protocol, multiple protocols, all protocols, or no protocols. To specify multiple protocols, enter the keyword for each protocol, separated by a space.

This command can be useful in distributing resources among different types of users, or in making certain that only specific hosts can access a particular port. When using two-step protocol translation, the transport input command is useful in controlling exactly which protocols can be translated to other protocols.

Access lists for each individual protocol can be defined in addition to the allowances created by the transport input command. Any settings made with the transport input command override settings made with the transport preferred command.

Examples

The following example sets the incoming protocol to Telnet for virtual terminal lines 0 to 32:

line vty 0 32
 transport input telnet

Related Commands

Command
Description

transport output

Determines the protocols that can be used for outgoing connections from a line.

transport preferred

Specifies the transport protocol that the Cisco IOS software uses if the user does not specify one when initiating a connection.


transport output

To determine the protocols that can be used for outgoing connections from a line, use the transport output command in line configuration mode. To change or remove the protocol. use the no form of this command.

transport output {all | lat | mop | nasi | none | pad | rlogin | telnet | v120}

no transport output {all | lat | mop | nasi | none | pad | rlogin | telnet | v120}

Syntax Description

all

Selects all protocols.

lat

Selects the Digital LAT protocol, which is the protocol used most often to connect routers to Digital hosts.

mop

Selects Maintenance Operation Protocol (MOP).

nasi

Selects NetWare Access Server Interface (NASI) as the output transport protocol.

none

Prevents any protocol selection on the line. The system normally assumes that any unrecognized command is a host name. If the protocol is set to none, the system no longer makes that assumption. No connection will be attempted if the command is not recognized.

pad

Selects X.3 packet assembler/disassembler (PAD), used most often to connect routers to X.25 hosts.

rlogin

Selects the UNIX rlogin protocol for TCP connections. The rlogin setting is a special case of Telnet. If an rlogin attempt to a particular host has failed, the failure will be tracked, and subsequent connection attempts will use Telnet instead.

telnet

Selects the TCP/IP Telnet protocol. It allows a user at one site to establish a TCP connection to a login server at another site.

v120

Selects the V.120 protocol for outgoing asynchronous connections over ISDN.


Defaults

Telnet

Command Modes

Line configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

10.0

This command was introduced.

11.1

The following keywords were added:

all

lat

pad

rlogin

v120


Usage Guidelines

You can specify one protocol, multiple protocols, all protocols, or no protocols. To specify multiple protocols, enter the keyword for each protocol, separated by a space.

Any settings made with the transport output command override settings made with the transport preferred command.

Examples

The following example prevents any protocol selection:

transport output none

Related Commands

Command
Description

transport input

Defines which protocols to use to connect to a specific line of the router.

transport preferred

Specifies the transport protocol that the Cisco IOS software uses if the user does not specify one when initiating a connection.


transport preferred

To specify the transport protocol that the Cisco IOS software uses if the user does not specify one when initiating a connection, use the transport preferred command in line configuration mode. To change or remove the protocol. use the no form of this command.

transport preferred {all | lat | mop | nasi | none | pad | rlogin | telnet | v120}

no transport preferred {all | lat | mop | nasi | none | pad | rlogin | telnet | v120}

Syntax Description

all

Selects all recognized protocols.

lat

Selects the Digital LAT protocol, which is the protocol used most often to connect routers to Digital hosts.

mop

Selects Maintenance Operation Protocol (MOP).

nasi

Selects NetWare Access Server Interface (NASI) protocol.

none

Prevents any protocol selection on the line. The system normally assumes that any unrecognized command is a host name. If the protocol is set to none, the system no longer makes that assumption. No connection is attempted if the command is not recognized.

pad

Selects X.3 packet assembler/disassembler (PAD), used most often to connect routers to X.25 hosts.

rlogin

Selects the UNIX rlogin protocol for TCP connections. The rlogin setting is a special case of Telnet. If an rlogin attempt to a particular host has failed, the failure will be tracked, and subsequent connection attempts will use Telnet instead.

telnet

Selects the TCP/IP Telnet protocol. It allows a user at one site to establish a TCP connection to a login server at another site.

v120

Selects the asynchronous protocols over ISDN.


Defaults

Telnet

Command Modes

Line configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

10.0

This command was introduced.

11.1

The following keywords were added:

lat

pad

rlogin


Usage Guidelines

Specify the transport preferred none command to prevent errant connection attempts.

Any settings made with the transport input or transport output commands override settings made with the transport preferred command.

Examples

The following example sets the preferred protocol to Telnet on physical terminal line 1:

line tty 1
 transport preferred telnet

Related Commands

Command
Description

terminal transport preferred

Specifies the preferred protocol to use for the current session when a command does not specify one.

transport input

Defines which protocols to use to connect to a specific line of the router.

transport output

Determines the protocols that can be used for outgoing connections from a line.


ttycap

To define characteristics of a terminal emulation file, use the ttycap command in global configuration mode. To delete any named ttycap entry from the configuration file, the no form of this command.

ttycap ttycap-name termcap-entry

no ttycap ttycap-name

Syntax Description

ttycap-name

Name of a file. It can be up to 32 characters long and must be unique.

termcap-entry

Commands that define the ttycap. Consists of two parts. (See the "Usage Guidelines" section for details.)


Defaults

VT100 terminal emulation

Command Modes

Global configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

10.3

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

Use the show ttycap EXEC command to test for the availability of a ttycap.


Note Do not type a ttycap entry filename "default" or the Cisco IOS software will adopt the newly defined entry as the default.


The termcap-entry argument consists of two parts: a name portion and a capabilities portion.

The name portion is a series of names that can be used to refer to a specific terminal type. Generally, these names should represent commonly recognized terminal names (such as VT100 and VT200). Multiple names can be used. Each name is separated by a vertical bar symbol (|). The series is terminated by a colon symbol (:).

The following example illustrates a name specification for a VT100 termcap:

d0|vt100|vt100-am|vt100am|dec vt100:

The capabilities portion of the termcap entry consists of a sequence of termcap capabilities. These capabilities can include Boolean flags, string sequences, or numeric sequences. Each individual capability is terminated using a colon symbol (:). A Boolean flag can be set to true by including the two-character capability name in the termcap entry. The absence of any supported flag results in the flag being set to false.

The following is an example of a backspace Boolean flag:

bs:

A string sequence is a two-character capability name followed by an equal sign (=) and the character sequence.

The following example illustrates the capability for homing the cursor:

ho=\E[H:

The sequence \E represents the ESC character.

Control characters can be represented in string sequences by entering a two-character sequence starting with a caret symbol (^), followed by the character to be used as a control character.

The following example illustrates the definition of a control character.

bc=^h:

In this example, the backspace is entered into the termcap entry as the string sequence as the characters "^h."

A numeric sequence is a two-character capability name followed by a number symbol (#) and the number.

The following example represents the number of columns on a screen.

co#80:

Use the backslash symbol ( \ ) to extend the definition to multiple lines. The end of the ttycap termcap entry is specified by a colon terminating a line followed by an end-of-line character and no backslash.

For the definitions of supported Boolean-flag ttycap capabilities, see Table 51. For the definitions of supported string-sequence ttycap capabilities, see Table 52. For the definitions of supported number-sequence ttycap capabilities, see Table 53. For the definitions of supported color-sequence ttycap capabilities, see Table 54.

Table 51 Definitions of ttycap Capabilities: Boolean Flags

Boolean Flag
Description

am

Automatic margin

bs

Terminal can backspace with bs

ms

Safe to move in standout modes

nc

No currently working carriage return

xn

NEWLINE ignored after 80 columns (Concept)

xs

Standout not erased by overwriting (Hewlett-Packard)


Table 52 Definitions of ttycap Capabilities: String Sequences 

String Sequence
Description

AL

Add line below with cursor sequence

bc

Backspace if not ^h

bt

Backtab sequence

ce

Clear to end of line

cl

Clear screen, cursor to upper left

cm

Move cursor to row number and column number

cr

Carriage return sequence

cs

Change scrolling region

DL

Delete the line the cursor is on

ei

End insert mode

ho

Home, move cursor to upper left

ic

Character insert

im

Begin insert mode

is

Initialization string (typically tab stop initialization)

ll

Move cursor to lower left corner

md

Turn on bold (extra bright) character attribute

me

Turn off all character attributes

nd

Nondestructive space

nl

Newline sequence

pc

Pad character if not NULL

rc

Restore cursor position

rs

Resets terminal to known starting state

sc

Save cursor position

se

End standout mode (highlight)

so

Start standout mode (highlight)

ta

Tab

te

End programs that use cursor motion

ti

Initialization for programs that use cursor motion

uc

Underline character at cursor

ue

End underline mode

up

Move cursor up

us

Begin underline mode

vb

Visual bell

vs

Visual cursor

ve

Normal cursor


Table 53 Definitions of ttycap Capabilities: Number Sequences

Number Sequence
Description

li

Lines on the screen

co

Columns on the screen

sg

Standout glitch, number of spaces printed when entering or leaving standout display mode

ug

Underline glitch, number of spaces printed when entering or leaving underline mode


Table 54 Definitions of ttycap Capabilities: Color Sequences

Color Sequence
Description

x0

Black

x1

Blue

x2

Red or orange

x3

Pink or purple

x4

Green, which is the default color

x5

Turquoise

x6

Yellow

x7

Gray or white


The ttycap database uses these color sequences to translate IBM directives into screen drawing commands. These color sequences control only foreground terminal colors. They do not control background color, which is configured to black by default.

Examples

The following is an example of a ttycap file. Refer to the chapter "Configuring Dial-In Terminal Services" in the Cisco IOS Terminal Services Configuration Guide and the tn3270.examples file in the Cisco ftp@cisco.com directory for more examples.

ttycap ttycap1\
d0|vt100|vt100-am|vt100am|dec vt100:do=^J:co#80:li#24:\
cl=50^[[;H^[[2J:bs:am:cm=5^[[%i%d;%dH:nd=2^[[C:up=2^[[A:\
ce=3^[[K:so=2^[[7m:se=2^[[m:us=2^[[4m:ue=2^[[m:md=2^[[1m:\
me=2^[[m:ho=^[[H:xn:sc=^[7:rc=^[8:cs=^[[%i%d;%dr:

Related Commands

Command
Description

keymap-type

Specifies the keyboard map for a terminal connected to the line.

terminal-type

Specifies the type of terminal connected to a line.


txspeed

To set the terminal transmit speed (how fast the terminal sends information to the modem), use the txspeed command in line configuration mode. To return to the default setting, use the no form of this command.

txspeed bps

no txspeed

Syntax Description

bps

Baud rate, in bits per second (bps).


Defaults

9600 bps

Command Modes

Line configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

10.0

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

Set the speed to match the baud rate of whatever device you have connected to the port. Some baud rates available on devices connected to the port might not be supported on the router. The Cisco IOS software will indicate if the speed you select is not supported.


Note If the line was previously configured for automatic baud rate detection (autobaud), disable autobaud by entering the no autobaud command before entering the txspeed command to fix the speed of the port.


Examples

The following example sets the transmit speed for line 5 to 2400 bps:

line 5
 txspeed 2400

Related Commands

Command
Description

rotary-group

Sets the terminal receive speed (how fast the terminal receives information from the modem).

source template

Sets the flow control start character.

terminal txspeed

Sets the terminal transmit speed (how fast the terminal can send information) on the current line and session.


where

To list the open sessions, use the where command in EXEC mode.

where

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Command Modes

EXEC

Command History

Release
Modification

10.0

This command was introduced in a release prior to Cisco IOS Release 10.0.


Usage Guidelines

The where command displays all open sessions associated with the current terminal line.

The Ctrl^x, where, and resume commands are available with all supported connection protocols.

Examples

The following is sample output from the where command:

Router# where

Conn Host                 Address          Byte    Idle  Conn Name
   1 MATHOM               192.168.7.21         0       0  MATHOM
*  2 CHAFF                172.18.12.19       0       0  CHAFF 

The asterisk (*) indicates the current terminal session.

Table 55 describes the significant fields shown in the display.

Table 55 where Field Descriptions

Field
Description

Conn

Name or address of the remote host to which the connection is made.

Host

Remote host to which the router is connected through a Telnet session.

Address

IP address of the remote host.

Byte

Number of unread bytes for the user to see on the connection.

Idle

Interval, in minutes, since data was last sent on the line.

Conn Name

Assigned name of the connection.


Related Commands

Command
Description

show sessions

Displays information about open LAT, Telnet, or rlogin connections.


x25 subaddress

To append either a physical port number or a value specified for a line as a subaddress to the X.121 calling address, use the x25 subaddress command in line configuration mode. To disable subaddressing, the no form of this command.

x25 subaddress {line | number}

no x25 subaddress {line | number}

Syntax Description

line

Physical port number for the indicated line to be appended to the X.121 address as the subaddress.

number

Numeric variable assigned to a specific line.


Defaults

No default behavior or values.

Command Modes

Line configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

11.2 F

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

Use the x25 subaddress line command to create a unique X.121 calling address by adding either a physical port number or a numeric value for a line as a subaddress to the X.121 calling address.

Examples

The following example shows how to configure subaddressing on virtual terminal lines 10 through 20 by appending the line number as a subaddress to the X.121 calling address:

line vty 10 20
x25 subaddress line

The following example shows how to configure subaddressing on the first five TTY lines by appending the value 09 as a subaddress to the X.121 calling address of an X.28 connection originating on these lines:

line 1 5
x25 subaddress 9
autocommand x28

Related Commands

Command
Description

line

Identifies a specific line for configuration and starts the line configuration command collection mode.


x28

To enter X.28 mode and access an X.25 network or set X.3 packet assembler/disassembler (PAD) parameters, use the x28 command in EXEC mode. To exit X.28 mode, use the no form of this command.

x28 [escape character-string] [noescape] [nuicud] [profile file-name] [reverse] [verbose]

no x28 [escape character-string] [noescape] [nuicud] [profile file-name] [reverse] [verbose]

Syntax Description

escape character-string

(Optional) Specifies a character string to use to exit X.28 mode and return to EXEC mode. The character string can be any string of alphanumeric characters. The Ctrl key can be used in conjunction with the character string.

noescape

(Optional) Specifies that no escape character string is defined (user cannot return to EXEC mode). On the console line, the noescape option is ignored, and the default escape sequence is used (exit command).

nuicud

(Optional) Specifies the network user identification (NUI) data to not be placed in the NUI facility of the call request. Instead the data is placed in the Call User Data (CUD) area of the call request packet.

profile file-name

(Optional) Specifies using a user-configured profile of X.3 parameters. A profile is created with the x29 profile EXEC command.

reverse

(Optional) Specifies reverse charges for outgoing calls made from the local router to the destination device.

verbose

(Optional) Displays optional service signals such as the called DTE address, facility block, and CUD.


Defaults

Disabled. X.28 mode uses standard X.28 command syntax.

Command Modes

EXEC

Command History

Release
Modification

11.2 F

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

If both the escape and noescape options are not set, the default escape sequence is used (exit command).

X.28 mode is identified with an asterisk (*) router prompt. After you enter this mode, the standard X.28 user interface (with the exception of the escape sequence) is available. From this interface, you can configure a PAD device using X.3 parameters, or you can access an X.25 network.

In X.28 mode, you can set PAD command signals using standard or extended command syntax. For example, you can enter the clr command or clear command to clear a virtual call. A command specified with standard command syntax is merely an abbreviated version of the extended syntax version.

Table 56 lists the commands available in both standard and extended command syntax.

Table 56 Available PAD Command Signals 

Standard
Syntax
Extended
Syntax
Description

break

 

Simulate an asynchronous break.

call

 

Place a virtual call to a remote device.

clr

clear

Clear a virtual call.

command-signal1

 

Specifies a call request without using a standard X.28 command, which is entered with the following syntax: facilities-x121-addressDcall-user-data.

help

 

Display help information. (See Table 58.)

iclr

iclear

Request the remote device to clear the call.

int

interrupt

Send an Interrupt Packet.

par?
par

parameter
read

Display the current values of local parameters. (See Table 57.)

prof

profile file-name

Load a standard or a named profile.

reset

 

Reset the call.

rpar?

rread

Display the current values of remote parameters.

rset?

rsetread

Set and then read the values of remote parameters.

set

Change the values of local parameters. (See Table 57.)

set?

setread

Change and then read the values of parameters.

stat

status

Request the status of a connection.

selection pad

 

Set up a virtual call.

1 This is an example of issuing a call request command: the R,G23,P2-234234Duser1 command.


Table 57 lists the different types of parameters you can set using the set parameter-number:new-value PAD command signal from X.28 mode. Refer to the "X.3 PAD Parameters" appendix in the Cisco IOS Terminal Services Configuration Guide, Release 12.2 for more complete information about these parameters. See Table 36 in this publication for a list of ASCII characters.

Table 57 Supported X.3 PAD Parameters 

Parameter
Number
ITU-T Parameter Name
ITU-T X.3 and Cisco Values

1

PAD recall using a character

Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 126; X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 1.


Note Not supported by PAD EXEC user interface.


2

Echo

Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 1; PAD EXEC mode and X.28 PAD user emulation mode defaults: 1.

3

Selection of data forwarding character

Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 255; PAD EXEC mode default: 2 (CR); X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 126 (~).

4

Selection of idle timer delay

Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 255; PAD EXEC mode default: 1; X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 0.

5

Ancillary device control

Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 2; PAD EXEC mode default: 0; X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 1.

6

Control of PAD service signals

Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 255; PAD EXEC mode default: 0; X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 2.


Note Not supported by PAD EXEC user interface.


7

Action upon receipt of a BREAK signal

Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 31; PAD EXEC mode default: 4; X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 2.

8

Discard output

Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 1; PAD EXEC mode and X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 0.

9

Padding after Return

Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 255; PAD EXEC mode and X.28 PAD user emulation mode default:  0.

10

Line folding

Not supported.

11

DTE speed (binary speed of start-stop mode DTE)

Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 18; PAD EXEC mode and X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 14.

12

Flow control of the PAD by the start-stop DTE

Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 1; PAD EXEC mode default: 0; X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 1.

13

Line feed insertion (after a Return)

Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 7; PAD EXEC mode and X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 0.

14

Line feed padding

Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 255; PAD EXEC mode and X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 0.

15

Editing

Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 1; PAD EXEC mode and X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 0.

16

Character delete

Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 127; PAD EXEC mode and X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 127 (DEL).

17

Line delete

Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 127; PAD EXEC mode default: 21 (Ctrl-U); X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 24 (Ctrl-X).

18

Line display

Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 127; PAD EXEC mode and X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 18 (Ctrl-R).

19

Editing PAD service signals

Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 126; PAD EXEC mode default: 0; X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 2.


Note Not supported by PAD EXEC user interface.


20

Echo mask

Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 255; PAD EXEC mode and X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 0.


Note Not supported by PAD EXEC user interface.


21

Parity treatment

Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 4; PAD EXEC mode and X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 0.


Note For additional values that can be selected for parameter 21 and to select parity treatment to conform to the French Transpac public switched data network and its technical specification and utilization of networks standards (STUR), refer to the appendix "X.3 PAD Parameters" in the Cisco IOS Terminal Services Configuration Guide, Release 12.2.


22

Page wait

Not supported.



Note Abbreviated X.121 addresses are not supported. Such addresses start with a period, are alphanumeric, and are mapped to a full X.121 address by the PAD.


Table 58 lists the options for the X.28 help command.

Table 58 X.28 help Options 

Command
Description

help

Describes the help PAD command.

help command

Displays the list of available PAD command signals.

help parameter

Displays the list of available X.3 PAD parameters.

help parameter number

Displays the specified X.3 PAD parameter and its current value.

help list

Lists the available help subjects.

help profiles

Lists available profiles.

help profile name

Displays the specified parameter name and current value.

help any-PAD-command

Describes the specified PAD command signal.


You can issue call requests from X.28 mode without using standard X.28 commands by using the following command syntax:

facilities-x121-addressDcall-user-data

where:

facilities

Applies X.25 facilities to the outgoing call. The hyphen is mandatory.

x121-address

Specifies the address of the remote X.25 device.

D

Facility request code that specifies CUD for the outgoing call.

call-user-data

Specifies the data that accompanies the call request packet sent to the remote X.25 device.


The following rules apply to all call requests parsed in X.28 mode:

When an X.121 address specified using standard command syntax is followed by an optional CUD field, the call is placed to the X.121 address.

When standard command syntax is used, one or more facility request codes can be entered, followed by the code value. Additional facility request codes and values also can be entered. Separate each entry with a comma, followed by a dash. An X.121 address and optional CUD can follow this entry.

If an X.28 command is not entered, a call request is assumed.

Ensure that the call request begins with a facility code letter, and that it contains a hyphen (-) followed by a string of digits (the X.121 address). The call request can be terminated by an asterisk (*), a "P," or a "D," followed by some data.

When using extended command syntax is used, the call command uses the facility codes and X.121 address as its operand.

If facility codes are entered without an X.121 address, remember the codes for the next call. When a call is completed, forget the facility codes until they are once again set.

Table 59 shows examples of parsed call requests.

Table 59 Example X.28 Call Requests

Command
Description

123456789

Calls this X.121 address.

123456789*userdata

Calls this X.121 address, with specified data.

123456789Puserdata

Calls this X.121 address, with specified data.

123456789Duserdata

Calls this X.121 address, with specified data.

Nabcd-123456789

Calls this X.121 address, with NUI set to abcd.

Nabcd,R-123456789

Calls 123456789 with NUI of abcd, and with reverse charging.


Examples

The following example uses the ? command to display the optional X.28 keywords:

Router# x28 ?

  debug     Turn on Debug Messages for X28 Mode
  escape    Set the string to escape from X28 PAD mode
  noescape  Never exit x28 mode (use with caution)
  nuicud    All calls with NUI, are normal charge with the NUI placed in Call
            User Data
  profile   Use a defined X.3 Profile
  reverse   All calls default to reverse charge
  verbose   Turn on Verbose Messages for X28 Mode
  <cr>

After you are in X.28 mode, use the call PAD signal command to place a virtual call:

Router# x28

* call 123456

The following example enters X.28 mode with the x28 EXEC command and configures a PAD with the set X.3 parameter command. The set command sets the idle time delay to 40 seconds.

Router# x28

* set 4:40

Related Commands

Command
Description

pad

Logs in to a PAD.


x3

To set X.3 packet assembler/disassembler (PAD) parameters, use the x3 command in EXEC mode.

x3 parameter:value

Syntax Description

parameter:value

Sets the PAD parameters. (See Table 57 in the x28 command description.)


Defaults

For outgoing connections, the X.3 parameters default to the following:

2:1, 3:2, 4:1, 7:4, 16:127, 17:21, 18:19

All other parameters default to zero, but can be changed using the /set switch keyword with either the resume command or the x3 command.

For incoming PAD connections, the software sends an X.29 SET PARAMETER packet to set only the following parameters:

2:0, 4:1, 7:21, 15:0

For a complete description of the X.3 PAD parameters, see the appendix titled "X.3 PAD Parameters" in the Cisco IOS Terminal Services Configuration Guide.

Command Modes

EXEC

Command History

Release
Modification

11.2

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

You can have several PAD connections open at the same time and switch between them. You can also exit a connection and return to the user EXEC prompt at any point.

To open a new connection, first suspend the current connection by pressing the escape sequence (Ctrl-Shift-6 then x [Ctrl^x] by default) to return to the system command prompt, then open the new connection with the pad command.

You can have several concurrent sessions open and switch between them. The number of PAD sessions that can be open is defined by the session-limit command.

To switch between sessions you must escape one session and resume a previously opened session. Use the Ctrl^x sequence to escape out of a connection, use the where EXEC command to check the connection number, and then use the resume command with the connection number to resume the suspended connection. These commands are available with all supported connection protocols.

You can issue any of the following commands to terminate a terminal session:

exit

quit

logout

To display information about packet transmission and X.3 PAD parameter settings, use the show x25 pad command.

Examples

The following example shows how to change a local X.3 PAD parameter from a remote X.25 host using X.29 messages, which is a secure way to enable a remote host to gain control of local PAD. The local device is named Router-A. The remote host is named Router-B. The parameters listed in the ParamsIn field are incoming parameters, which are sent by the remote PAD. The parameters listed in the ParamsOut field are parameters sent by the local PAD.

Router-A# pad 123456
Trying 123456...Open
 
Router-B> x3 2:0
Router-B>
Router-A# show x25 pad
 
tty0, connection 1 to host 123456
 
Total input: 12, control 3, bytes 35. Queued: 0 of 7 (0 bytes).
Total output: 10, control 3, bytes 64.
Flags: 1,   State: 3,   Last error: 1
 ParamsIn:  1:0, 2:0, 3:0, 4:0, 5:0, 6:0, 7:0,
    8:0, 9:0, 10:0, 11:0, 12:0, 13:0, 14:0, 15:0,
    16:0, 17:0, 18:0, 19:0, 20:0, 21:0, 22:0,
 ParamsOut:  1:1, 2:0, 3:2, 4:1, 5:1, 6:0, 7:21,
    8:0, 9:1, 10:0, 11:14, 12:1, 13:0, 14:0, 15:0,
    16:127, 17:21, 18:18, 19:0, 20:0, 21:0, 22:0,
Router-A#

Related Commands

Command
Description

resume (X.3 PAD)

Sets X.3 parameters for PAD connections.


xremote

To prepare the router for manual startup and initiate an XRemote connection, use the xremote command in EXEC mode. This command begins the instructions that prompt you through the connection.

xremote

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Defaults

Disabled

Command Modes

EXEC

Command History

Release
Modification

11.1

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

If you do not use a host computer that supports XDMCP or LAT, you must use manual session startup. Manual session startup involves the following steps:


Step 1 Enable XRemote manually on the router port.

Step 2 Connect to the host computer by using a telnet, lat, or rlogin command, then log in as usual.

Step 3 Set the location of the X display.

Step 4 Start client applications.

Step 5 Return to the EXEC prompt.

Step 6 Enter the xremote command to enable XRemote manually again on the server port.



Note In manual operation, the server and X terminal remain in XRemote mode until all clients disconnect or the access server receives a reset request from the X terminal. A session might terminate during startup because you invoked transient X clients that set some parameters (such as xset or xmodmap) and then disconnected. One session must always be open or the connection resets.


Refer to the Cisco IOS Terminal Services Configuration Guide for more information about how to establish XRemote sessions between servers.

Examples

The following example starts a manual XRemote session:

dialup> xremote
XRemote enabled; your display is dialup:2006
Start your clients and type XRemote again

The router replies with a message informing you of your X display location. Use this information to tell the XRemote host the location of your X display server. If no clients are found, you see the following message:

No X clients waiting - check that your display is darkstar:2006

The following example shows a connection from an X display terminal through a router to a host running client programs:

dialup> xremote

XRemote enabled; your display is dialup:2006
Start your clients and type XRemote again

dialup> telnet eureka
Trying EUREKA.NOWHERE.COM (722.18.1.55)... Open

SunOS UNIX (eureka)

login: deal
Password:

Last login: Fri Apr 1 17:17:46 from dialup.nowhere.com
SunOS Release (SERVER+FDDI+DBE.patched) #14: Fri Apr 8 10:37:29 PDT 1994

eureka% setenv DISPLAY dialup:2006
eureka% xterm &
[1] 15439

eureka% logout

[Connection to EUREKA closed by foreign host]

dialup> xremote
Entering XRemote

The following procedure shows how an XRemote connection is established for a configuration like the one shown in Figure 2. This example assumes that the administrator has set the display environment variable for the user to identify the X display terminal.


Step 1 From the PCX, MacX, or UNIX machine in Figure 2, the user connects to port 9003 on access server 1. If your administrator has configured a rotary number 7, the user connects to port 10007. For more information about rotary groups, refer to the Cisco IOS Dial Technologies Configuration Guide.

Step 2 Access server 1 connects the user to a modem.

Step 3 The modem calls access server 2.

Step 4 The user enters xremote at the access server 2 prompt.

Step 5 The user connects to the host from access server 2 using the telnet command.

Step 6 The user starts the X client program that will run on the host and display on the X display server (PCX, MacX, or UNIX host).

Step 7 The user escapes from the host back to the AccessServer2, or logs out if clients were run in the background, and enters the xremote command at the AccessServer2 prompt.

You can use the master indexes or search online to find documentation of related commands.


Figure 2 XRemote Session Between Servers

The following example shows how to make an XRemote connection between servers. The number 9016 in the first line of the display indicates a connection to individual line 16. If the administrator had configured a rotary connection, the user would enter 10000 plus the number of the rotary instead of 9016.

Router% telnet golden-road 9016

Trying 192.168.7.84 ...
Connected to golden-road.cisco.com.
Escape character is '^]'.

User Access Verification

Password:
Password OK

 --- Outbound XRemote service ---
Enter X server name or IP address: innerspace
Enter display number [0]:

 Connecting to tty16... please start up XRemote on the remote system 

atdt 13125554141
DIALING
RING
CONNECT 14400

User Access Verification
Username: deal
Password:
  Welcome to the cisco dial-up access server.

dialup> xremote
XRemote enabled; your display is dialup:2006
Start your clients and type XRemote again

dialup> telnet sparks
Trying SPARKS.NOWHERE.COM (172.18.1.55)... Open

SunOS UNIX (sparks)

login: deal
Password:
Last login: Fri Apr 1 17:17:46 from dialup.nowhere.com
SunOS Release (SERVER+FDDI+DBE.patched) #14: Fri Apr 8 10:37:29 PDT 1994

sparks% setenv DISPLAY dialup:2006
sparks% xterm &
[1] 15439

sparks% logout

[Connection to SPARKS closed by foreign host]

dialup> xremote
Entering XRemote

Related Commands

Command
Description

xremote lat

Initiates a DECwindow session over a LAT connection.

xremote xdm

Activates automatic session startup for an XRemote connection.


xremote lat

To initiate a DECwindow session over a local-area transport (LAT) connection, use the xremote lat command in EXEC mode.

xremote lat service

Syntax Description

service

Name of the desired LAT service.


Command Modes

EXEC

Command History

Release
Modification

11.2

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

If your host computer supports DECwindows login sessions, you can use automatic session startup to make an XRemote session connection. Once the system administrator at the remote host configures support for DECwindows over LAT, use the xremote lat EXEC command to initiate the connection. After you issue this command, the following events occur:

The XRemote font server down-line loads several initial fonts for the DECwindows login display.

The terminal displays the DIGITAL logo and DECwindows login box.

Log in to the host. Upon completion of login, more fonts are loaded, and the remote session begins.


Note Because of heavy font usage, DECwindows applications can take longer than expected to start when XRemote is used. Once the application starts, performance and access times should be as expected.


To exit XRemote sessions, you must quit all active X connections, usually with a command supported by your X client system. Usually when you quit the last connection (when all client processes are stopped), XRemote closes and you return to the EXEC prompt. However, your X client system determines how the session closes.

Examples

The following example begins connection with a LAT service named service1:

xremote lat service1

Related Commands

Command
Description

xremote

Prepares the router for manual startup and initiates an XRemote connection.

xremote xdm

Activates automatic session startup for an XRemote connection.


xremote tftp buffersize

To change the buffer size used for loading font files, use the xremote tftp buffersize command in global configuration mode. To restore the buffer size to the default value, use the no form of this command.

xremote tftp buffersize buffersize

no xremote tftp buffersize

Syntax Description

buffersize

Buffer size in bytes. This is a decimal number in the range from 4096 to 70000 bytes. The default is 70000.


Defaults

70000 bytes

Command Modes

Global configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

10.0

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

When the X terminal requests that a font file be loaded, the Cisco IOS software must first load the font file into an internal buffer before passing it to the X terminal. The default value of 70000 bytes is adequate for most font files, but the size can be increased as necessary for nonstandard font files.

The buffer size can be set as low as 4096 bytes and as large as the available memory on the router will allow. If you are using local-area transport (LAT) font access, you should not lower the buffer size below the default, because the font directory for all of the LAT fonts (created internally) requires 70000 bytes.

This command applies to both TFTP and LAT font access.

Examples

The following example sets the buffer size to 20000 bytes:

xremote tftp buffersize 20000

xremote tftp host

To add a specific Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) font server as a source of fonts for the terminal, use the xremote tftp host command in global configuration mode. To remove a font server from the list, use the no form of this command.

xremote tftp host host-name

no xremote tftp host host-name

Syntax Description

host-name

IP address or name of the host containing fonts.


Defaults

No TFTP font server is specified.

Command Modes

Global configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

10.0

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

Each time a new host name is entered, the list in the Cisco IOS software is updated. Font servers are queried in the order of their definition when the X terminal requests a font.

Examples

The following example sets the host named IBM-1 as an XRemote TFTP font server:

xremote tftp host IBM-1

The following example sets the host with IP address 10.0.0.7 as an XRemote TFTP font server:

xremote tftp host 10.0.0.7

xremote tftp retries

To specify the number of retries the font loader will attempt before declaring an error condition, use the xremote tftp retries command in global configuration mode. To restore the default retries number, use the no form of this command.

xremote tftp retries retries

no xremote tftp retries

Syntax Description

retries

(Optional) Number of retries. Acceptable values are decimal numbers in the range from 1 to 15.


Defaults

3 retries

Command Modes

Global configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

10.0

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

Under certain conditions, you might need to increase the number of retries, particularly if the font servers are known to be heavily loaded.

Examples

The following example sets the number of font loader retries to 5:

xremote tftp retries 5

xremote xdm

To activate automatic session startup for an XRemote connection, use the xremote xdm command in EXEC mode.

xremote xdm [host-name]

Syntax Description

host-name

(Optional) Host computer name or IP address.


Command Modes

EXEC

Command History

Release
Modification

11.2

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

If your host computer supports a server running X Display Manager Control Protocol (XDMCP) (such as the xdm program included in X11R4 or later), you can use automatic session startup to make an XRemote session connection using the xremote xdm EXEC command.

This command sends an XDMCP session startup request to the host computer. If you do not specify a host name or IP address, a broadcast message is sent to all hosts. The first host to respond by starting up a session is used.

The XRemote (the host) server and X terminal stay in XRemote mode until either the display manager terminates the session or the XRemote server receives a reset request from the X terminal.

To exit XRemote sessions, you must quit all active X connections, usually with a command supported by your X client system. Usually when you quit the last connection (all client processes are stopped), XRemote closes and you return to the EXEC prompt. However, your remote X client system determines how the session closes.

To terminate a session, disconnect from the device on the network using the command specific to that device. Then exit from the EXEC by using the exit command.

Examples

The following example starts a session with a remote host named host1:

xremote xdm host1

Related Commands

Command
Description

xremote

Prepares the router for manual startup and initiates an XRemote connection.

xremote lat

Initiates a DECwindow session over a LAT connection.