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Cisco IOS Software Releases 12.0 S

CNS Flow-Through Provisioning

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CNS Flow-Through Provisioning

Table Of Contents

CNS Flow-Through Provisioning

Feature Overview

Configurations

Unique IDs

Management Point

Point-to-Point Event Bus

Benefits

Restrictions

Related Features and Technologies

Related Documents

Supported Platforms

Supported Standards, MIBs, and RFCs

Prerequisites

Configuration Tasks

Configuring the CNS Configuration Agent (required)

Configuring the CNS Event Agent (required)

Configuring the Remote Router (optional)

Initial Configuration

Incremental Configuration

Verifying CNS Flow-Through Provisioning (optional)

Troubleshooting Tips

Configuration Examples

Cisco Configuration Express File Using T1 over HDLC Protocol Example

T1 Configuration Template Example

Voice Configuration Template Example

Remote Router Example

Serial-Interface Configuration Example

Command Reference

cns config cancel

cns config connect-intf

cns config initial

cns config notify

cns config partial

cns event

cns id

cns inventory

cns mib-access encapsulation

cns notifications encapsulation

config-cli

debug cns config

debug cns event

debug cns management

debug cns xml-parser

line-cli

show cns config connections

show cns config outstanding

show cns config stats

show cns event connections

show cns event stats

show cns event subject

Glossary


CNS Flow-Through Provisioning


Feature History

Release
Modification

12.2(2)T

This feature was introduced on all platforms.

12.2(2)XB

This feature was implemented on Cisco IAD2420 series IADs.

12.2(8)T

This feature was implemented on Cisco 2600 series and Cisco 3600 series routers.

12.0(22)S

Support for this feature was integrated.

12.2(26)S

Support for the cns config notify command was integrated.

The following commands are described in this document but are not supported in Cisco IOS Release 12.0(22)S and 12.0(26)S:

cns inventory

cns notifications encapsulation

cns mib-access encapsulation

debug cns management


This document describes the CNS Flow-Through Provisioning feature in Cisco IOS Release 12.0(26)S and includes the following sections:

Feature Overview

Supported Platforms

Supported Standards, MIBs, and RFCs

Prerequisites

Configuration Tasks

Configuration Examples

Command Reference

Glossary

Feature Overview

Cisco Networking Services (CNS) Flow-Through Provisioning provides the infrastructure for automated configuration of large numbers of network devices. Based on CNS event and config agents, it eliminates the need for an onsite technician to initialize the device. The result is an automated workflow from initial subscriber-order entry through Cisco manufacturing and shipping to final device provisioning and subscriber billing. This focuses on a root problem of today's service-provider and other similar business models: use of human labor in activating service.

To achieve such automation, CNS Flow-Through Provisioning relies on standardized configuration templates that you create. However, the use of such templates requires a known fixed hardware configuration, uniform for all subscribers. There is no way to achieve this without manually prestaging each line card or module within each chassis. While the inventory within a chassis is known at time of manufacture, controlling which line cards or modules are in which slots thereafter is labor-intensive and error-prone.

To overcome these difficulties, CNS Flow-Through Provisioning defines a new set of Cisco IOS commands—the cns commands. When a remote router is first powered on, these commands do the following:

1. To each router interface in turn, applies a preset temporary bootstrap configuration that pings the CNS configuration engine, until a ping is successful and the connecting interface thus determined.

2. Connects, by way of software called a CNS agent, to a CNS configuration engine housed in a Cisco IE2100 device.

3. Passes to the CNS configuration engine a device-unique ID, along with a human-readable description of the router's line-card or module inventory by product number and location, in XML format.

In turn, the configuration engine does the following:

1. Locates in an LDAP directory, based on the device IDs, a predefined configuration template for the main chassis and subconfiguration template for each line card or module.

2. Substitutes actual slot numbers from the chassis inventory for the template's slot-number parameters, thus resolving the templates into subscriber-specific configurations that match the true line-card or module slot configuration.

3. Downloads this initial configuration to the target router. The CNS agent directly applies the configuration to the router.

Figure 1 shows the CNS Flow-Through Provisioning architecture.

Figure 1 CNS Flow-Through Provisioning Architecture

Configurations

CNS Flow-Through Provisioning involves three different types of configuration on the remote router:

Bootstrap configuration

You specify the preset bootstrap configuration on which this solution depends as part of your order from Cisco using Cisco Configuration Express, an existing service integrated with the Cisco.com order-entry tool. You specify a general-subscriber nonspecific bootstrap configuration that provides connectivity to the CNS configuration engine. Cisco then applies this configuration to all the devices of that order in a totally automated manufacturing step. This configuration runs automatically on power-on.

Initial configuration

The CNS configuration engine downloads an initial configuration, once only, to replace the temporary bootstrap configuration. You can either save or not save it in the router's nonvolatile NVRAM memory:

If you save the configuration, the bootstrap configuration is overwritten.

If you do not save the configuration, the download procedure repeats each time that the router powers off and then back on. This enables the router to update to the current Cisco IOS configuration without intervention.

Incremental (partial) configuration

On subsequent reboot, incremental or partial configurations are performed to update the configuration without the network having to shut down. Such configurations can be delivered either in a push operation that you initiate or a pull operation on request from the router.

Unique IDs

Key to this solution is the capability to associate, with each device, a simple, manageable, and unique ID that is compatible with your systems for order entry, billing, provisioning, and shipping and can also link your order-entry system to the Cisco order-fulfillment system. Such an ID must have the following characteristics:

Be available from manufacturing as part of order fulfillment

Be recordable on the shipping carton and chassis

Be available to the device's Cisco IOS software

Be modifiable after the device is first powered up

Be representative of both a specific chassis and a specific entry point into your network

To define such an ID, CNS Flow-Through Provisioning equips the CNS agent with a new set of commands—the cns commands—with which you specify how configurations should be done and, in particular, how the system defines unique IDs. You enable the Cisco IOS software to auto-discover the unique ID according to directions that you specify and information that you provide, such as chassis serial number, MAC address, IP address, and several other possibilities. The cns commands are part of the bootstrap configuration of the manufactured device, specified to Cisco Configuration Express at time of order.

Within this scope, Configuration Express and the cns commands also allow you to define custom asset tags to your own specifications, which are serialized during manufacture and automatically substituted into the unit's bootstrap configuration.

Cisco appends tags to the carton for all the various types of IDs supported by the cns commands, so that these values can be bar-code read at shipping time and fed back into your systems. Alternatively, these IDs are also available through a direct XML-software interface between your system and the Cisco order-status engine, eliminating the need for bar-code reading. The CNS agent also provides a feedback mechanism whereby the remote device can receive XML events or commands to modify the device's ID, in turn causing that same device to broadcast an event indicating the old/new IDs.

Management Point

On most networks, a small percentage of individual remote routers get configured locally. This can potentially be a serious problem, not only causing loss of synchronization across your network but also opening your system to the possibility that an automatic reconfiguration might conflict with an existing configuration and cause a router to become unusable or even to lose contact with the network.

To address this problem, you can designate a management point in your network, typically on the Cisco IE2100 CNS configuration engine, and configure it to keep track of the configurations on all remote routers.

To enable this solution, configure the CNS agent to publish an event on the CNS event bus whenever any change occurs to the running configuration. This event indicates exactly what has changed (old/new), eliminating the need for the management point to perform a highly unscalable set of operations such as Telnetting into the device, applying a script, reading back the entire running configuration, and determining the difference between old and new configurations. Additionally, you can arrange for SNMP notification traps of configuration changes occurring through the SNMP MIB set.

Point-to-Point Event Bus

Today's business environment requires that you be able to ensure your customers a level of service not less than what they are actually paying for. Toward this end, you activate service-assurance applications that broadcast small poll/queries to the entire network while expecting large responses from a typically small subset of devices according to the criteria of the query.

For these queries to be scalable, it is necessary for the replying device to bypass the normal broadcast properties of the event bus and instead reply on a direct point-to-point channel. While all devices need the benefit of the broadcasted poll so that they can all be aware of the query to which they may need to reply, the devices do not need to be aware of each others' replies. Massive copying and retransmission of device query replies, as part of the unnecessary reply broadcast, is a serious scalability restriction.

To address this scalability problem, the CNS event bus has a point-to-point connection feature that communicates directly back to the poller station.

Benefits

Automated Configuration

CNS Flow-Through Provisioning simplifies installation by moving configuration requirements to the CNS configuration engine and allowing the Cisco IOS configuration to update automatically. The registrar uses popular industry standards and technologies such as XML, ADSI/Active Directory, HTTP/Web Server, ASP, and Publish-Subscribe Event Bus. The CNS configuration agent enables the CNS configuration engine to configure remote routers in a plug-and-play manner.

Unique IP Addresses and Host Name

CNS Flow-Through Provisioning uses DNS reverse lookup to retrieve the host name by passing the IP address, then assigns the IP address and optionally the host name to the remote router. Both IP address and host name are thus guaranteed to be unique.

Reduced Technical Personnel Requirements

CNS Flow-Through Provisioning permits remote routers to be installed by a person with limited or no technical experience. Because configuration occurs automatically on connection to the network, a network engineer or technician is not required for installation.

Rapid Deployment

Because a person with limited or no technical experience can install a remote router immediately without any knowledge or use of Cisco IOS software, the router can be sent directly to its final premises and be brought up without technician deployment.

Direct Shipping

Routers can be shipped directly to the remote end-user site, eliminating warehousing and manual handling. Configuration occurs automatically on connection to the network.

Remote Updates

CNS Flow-Through Provisioning automatically handles configuration updates, service additions, and deletions. The CNS configuration engine performs a push operation to send the information to the remote router.

Security

Event traffic to and from the remote router is opaque to unauthorized listeners or intruders to your network. CNS agents leverage the latest security features in Cisco IOS software.

Restrictions

Remote Router

The remote router must run a Cisco IOS image that supports CNS configuration agent and CNS event agent. These include the following:

Cisco IOS Release 12.0(18)ST or later release

Cisco IOS Release 12.2(4)T or later release

Ports must be prepared on the remote router for connection to the network.

CNS Configuration Engine

The CNS configuration engine must be Cisco Intelligence Engine 2100 series running software version 1.3.

The configuration engine must have access to an information database of attributes for building a configuration. This database can reside on the Cisco IE2100 itself.

Configuration templates must be prepared on the CNS configuration engine before installation of the remote router.

The user of CNS Flow-Through Provisioning and the CNS configuration engine must be familiar with designing network topologies, designing configuration templates, and using the CNS configuration engine.

Commands not Supported in Cisco IOS Release 12.0(26)S

The following commands are described in this document but are not supported in Cisco IOS Release 12.0(26)S:

cns inventory

cns notifications encapsulation

cns mib-access encapsulation

debug cns management

Remote Routers

You must ensure that the remote router is configured using Cisco Configuration Express.

Related Features and Technologies

Simple Network-Enabled Auto-Provisioning for Cisco IAD2420 Series IADs

CNS Flow-Through Provisioning expands on Simple Network-Enabled Auto-Provisioning.

Cisco Intelligence Engine 2100 Series

CNS Flow-Through Provisioning requires the CNS IE2100 series product.

Related Documents

CNS Agents

CNS Configuration Agent, Cisco IOS Release 12.2(2)T, available online at
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/software/ios122/122newft/122t/122t2/ftcns

CNS Event Agent, Cisco IOS Release 12.2(2)T, available online at
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/software/ios122/122newft/122t/122t2/ftcns

CNS Configuration Engine

Cisco Intelligence Engine 2100 Configuration Registrar Manual, Cisco Release 1.1 or higher, available online at
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/rtrmgmt/ie2100/cnfg_reg/

IP and ATM Configuration

Cisco IOS IP Configuration Guide, Cisco IOS Release 12.2, available online at
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/software/ios122/122cgcr/fipr_c/index.htm

The section on configuring ATM in Cisco IOS Wide-Area Networking Configuration Guide, Cisco IOS Release 12.2, available online at
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/software/ios122/122cgcr/fwan_c/index.htm

IAD and Router Hardware and Software

Cisco IAD2420 series hardware and software documents, available online at
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/access/iad/iad2420/index.htm

Cisco 2600 series hardware and software documents, available online at
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/access/acs_mod/cis2600/hw_inst/index.htm

Cisco 3600 series hardware and software documents, available online at
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/access/acs_mod/cis3600/hw_inst/index.htm

Cisco Configuration Express

Information on Cisco Configuration Express, available online at
http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/779/servpro/operate/ce/

CNS Flow-Through Provisioning on Cisco IAD2420 Series IADs

Simple Network-Enabled Auto-Provision for Cisco IAD2420 Series IADs, Cisco IOS Release 12.2(2)XB, available online at
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/software/ios122/122newft/122limit/122x/122xb/122xb_2/

Cisco IOS Software

Cisco IOS Release 12.2 documentation for your router, available online at
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/software/ios122/122cgcr/index.htm

Router Platform Documentation

Configuration guides for your router, available online starting from
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/access/acs_mod/index.htm

Supported Platforms

Cisco 1700 series routers

Cisco 2600 series routers

Cisco 3600 series routers

Cisco 7200 series routers

Cisco 7500 series routers

Cisco 10000 Performance Routing Engine (PRE) 1 Linecards

Cisco 10700 series routers

Cisco 12000 series routers

Cisco 12000 series Gigabit Route Processor (GRP)

Cisco 12000 series Performance Route Processor (PRP)

Determining Platform Support Through Cisco Feature Navigator

Cisco IOS software is packaged in feature sets that support specific platforms. To get updated information regarding platform support for this feature, access Cisco Feature Navigator. Cisco Feature Navigator dynamically updates the list of supported platforms as new platform support is added for the feature.

Cisco Feature Navigator is a web-based tool that enables you to determine which Cisco IOS software images support a specific set of features and which features are supported in a specific Cisco IOS image. You can search by feature or release. Under the release section, you can compare releases side by side to display both the features unique to each software release and the features in common.

To access Cisco Feature Navigator, you must have an account on Cisco.com. If you have forgotten or lost your account information, send a blank e-mail to cco-locksmith@cisco.com. An automatic check will verify that your e-mail address is registered with Cisco.com. If the check is successful, account details with a new random password will be e-mailed to you. Qualified users can establish an account on Cisco.com by following the directions at http://www.cisco.com/register/.

Cisco Feature Navigator is updated regularly when major Cisco IOS software releases and technology releases occur. For the most current information, go to the Cisco Feature Navigator home page at the following URL:
http://www.cisco.com/go/fn/

Availability of Cisco IOS Software Images

Platform support for particular Cisco IOS software releases is dependent on the availability of the software images for those platforms. Software images for some platforms may be deferred, delayed, or changed without prior notice. For updated information about platform support and availability of software images for each Cisco IOS software release, refer to the online release notes or, if supported, Cisco Feature Navigator.

Supported Standards, MIBs, and RFCs

Standards

No new or modified standards are supported by this feature.

MIBs

No new or modified MIBs are supported by this feature.


Note CNS Flow-Through Provisioning provides two access mechanisms for accessing MIBs: a nongranular mechanism using SNMP encapsulation and a granular mechanism using XML encapsulation. These mechanisms enable you to access the MIBS currently available in the remote router. The MIBS currently available depend on the router platform and Cisco IOS release.


To obtain lists of supported MIBs by platform and Cisco IOS release, and to download MIB modules, go to the Cisco MIB website on Cisco.com at the following URL:
http://www.cisco.com/public/sw-center/netmgmt/cmtk/mibs.shtml

RFCs

No new or modified RFCs are supported by this feature.

Prerequisites

Do the following before using CNS Flow-Through Provisioning:

Configure the remote router to support the CNS configuration agent and the CNS event agent. For more information, see the CNS agent documentation listed in the "Related Documents" section.

Configure a transport protocol on the remote router that is compatible with the remote router's external interface. Table 1 lists the supported transport protocols that can be used depending on the router interface.

Create the configuration template in the CNS configuration-engine provisioning database. (This is best done by a senior network designer.)

Table 1 Router Interface and Transport Protocols Required by CNS Flow-Through Provisioning

 
Transport Protocol
Router Interface
SLARP
ATM InARP
PPP (IPCP)

T1

Yes

Yes

Yes

ADSL

No

Yes

Yes

Serial

Yes

No

Yes


Configuration Tasks

The CNS Flow-Through Provisioning feature allows the remote router to be connected and configured automatically. Cisco Configuration Express loads a minimal set of Cisco IOS configuration commands for the router in the startup-configuration file in the NVRAM, either at the manufacturer or at your premises. The router is ready to be installed on premises with no further configuration.

If you wish to change the configuration or install a custom configuration, see the following sections for configuration tasks. Each task in the list is identified as either required or optional.

Configuring the CNS Configuration Agent (required)

Configuring the CNS Event Agent (required)

Configuring the Remote Router (optional)

Verifying CNS Flow-Through Provisioning (optional)

Configuring the CNS Configuration Agent (required)

The CNS configuration engine uses templates to build a configuration file. Each parameter in the template must have a directory-customized schema attribute associated.


Tip For additional information on using the CNS configuration engine, refer to Configuration Registrar Administration, available online at
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/rtrmgmt/ie2100/cnfg_reg/rel_1_0/crmanual/


To create a template in the CNS configuration engine through the Edit Template graphical user interface (GUI), follow these steps:

Step 1 

Associate each remote router object in the CNS configuration engine with one specific template (you may apply one template to multiple router objects).

Step 2 

Enter the value in the Edit Parameter GUI of the CNS configuration engine. (The template is not interactive.) If no value is assigned for an attribute, the attribute value in the configuration file is empty.

Configuring the CNS Event Agent (required)

For an event to be initiated between the remote router and the CNS configuration engine, the CNS event agent must configure a connection. To configure the CNS event agent to do so, use the following command in global configuration mode:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

Router(config)# cns event
{hostname | ip-address}
[encrypt] [port-number] [backup]
[
init-retry retry-count]
[
keepalive seconds retry-count]
[
source ip-address] [force-fmt1]]

Configures the CNS event gateway, which provides CNS event services to Cisco IOS clients.

Note The encrypt keyword is not yet supported.

Configuring the Remote Router (optional)

Your remote router arrives from the factory with a bootstrap configuration. Upon initial power-on, the router automatically pulls from the CNS configuration engine a full initial configuration, although you can optionally arrange for this manually as well. After initial configuration, you can optionally arrange for periodic incremental (partial) configurations for synchronization purposes.

Initial Configuration

Initial configuration of the remote router occurs automatically when the router is initialized on the network. Optionally, you can perform this configuration manually.

CNS Flow-Through Provisioning assigns the remote router a unique IP address or host name. After resolving the IP address (using SLARP, ATM InARP, or PPP protocols), the system optionally uses DNS reverse lookup to assign a host name to the router and invokes the CNS agent to download the initial configuration from the CNS configuration engine.

To manually perform an initial configuration, use the following commands in global configuration mode:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

Router(config)# cns config connect-intf 
interface-prefix [ping-interval seconds] 
[retries number]

Specifies the interface for connecting to the CNS configuration engine.

Step 2 

Router(config-cns-conn-if)# config-cli ... 
or 
Router(config-cns-conn-if)# line-cli

config-cli followed by commands that, used as is, configure the interface. Or line-cli followed by a command to configure modem lines to enable dialout and, after that, commands to configure the modem dialout line.

Step 3 

Router(config-cns-conn-if)# exit

Returns to global configuration mode.

Step 4 

Router(config)# hostname name

Specifies, to the CNS configuration engine, the host name for the remote router.

Step 5 

Router(config)# ip route network-number

Establishes a static route to the CNS configuration engine, whose IP address is network-number.

Step 6 

Router(config)# cns id interface num 
{dns-reverse | ipaddress | mac-address} 
[event] 
or 
Router(config)# cns id {hardware-serial | 
hostname | string string} [event]

Sets the unique event-id or config-id router ID. The ID defaults to the remote router's host name.

Step 7 

Router(config)# cns config initial 
{hostname | ip-address} 
[encrypt] [port-number] [event] 
[no-persist] [page page] 
[source ip-address] [syntax-check]

Starts the CNS configuration agent, connects to the CNS configuration engine, and initiates an initial configuration. You can use this command only before the system boots for the first time.

Note The encrypt keyword is not yet supported.


Caution If you write the new configuration to NVRAM by omitting the no-persist keyword, the original bootstrap configuration is overwritten.

 

Step 8 

Router(config)# cns mib-access 
encapsulation {snmp | xml [size bytes]}

Specifies whether CNS should use granular (XML) or nongranular (SNMP) encapsulation to access MIBs.

Step 9 

Router(config)# cns notifications 
encapsulation {snmp | xml}

Specifies whether CNS notifications should be sent using nongranular (SNMP) or granular (XML) encapsulation.

Step 10 

Router(config)# cns inventory 
[config | event]

Enables the CNS inventory agent—that is, sends an inventory of the router's line cards and modules to the CNS configuration agent.

Configuring the Remote Router with a Full Configuration—Example

The following example shows initial configuration on a remote router. The remote router's host name is the unique ID. The CNS configuration engine IP address is 172.28.129.22.

Router(config)# cns config connect-intf serial ping-interval 1 retries 1
Router(config-cns-conn-if)# config-cli ip address negotiated
Router(config-cns-conn-if)# config-cli encapsulation ppp
Router(config-cns-conn-if)# config-cli ip directed-broadcast
Router(config-cns-conn-if)# config-cli no keepalive
Router(config-cns-conn-if)# config-cli no shutdown
Router(config-cns-conn-if)# exit
Router(config)# hostname RemoteRouter
RemoteRouter(config)# ip route 172.28.129.22 255.255.255.0 11.11.11.1
RemoteRouter(config)# cns id Ethernet 0 ipaddress
RemoteRouter(config)# cns config initial 10.1.1.1 no-persist
RemoteRouter(config)# cns mib-access encapsulation xml
RemoteRouter(config)# cns notifications encapsulation xml
RemoteRouter(config)# cns inventory config

Incremental Configuration

Incremental or partial configuration allows the remote router to be incrementally configured after its initial configuration. You must perform these configurations manually through the CNS configuration engine. The registrar allows you to change the configuration templates, edit parameters, and submit the new configuration to the router without a software or hardware restart.

To perform an incremental (partial) configuration, configure the CNS event agent—see the "Configuring the CNS Event Agent (required)" section—and then use the following command in global configuration mode:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

Router(config)# cns config partial 
{hostname | ip-address} [encrypt] 
[port-number] [source ip-address]

Starts the CNS configuration agent, which provides CNS configuration services to Cisco IOS clients.

Note The encrypt keyword is not yet supported.

Configuring the Remote Router with an Incremental Configuration—Example

The following example shows incremental (partial) configuration on a remote router. The CNS configuration engine IP address is 172.28.129.22 and the port number is 80.

Router(config)# cns config partial 172.28.129.22 80

Verifying CNS Flow-Through Provisioning (optional)

Command
Purpose
Router# show cns config connections

Displays the status of the CNS event agent connection.

Router# show cns config outstanding

Displays information about incremental (partial) CNS configurations that have started but not yet completed.

Router# show cns config stats

Displays statistics about the CNS configuration agent.

Router# show cns event connections

Displays the status of the event agent connection.

Router# show cns event stats

Displays statistics about the event agent connection.

Router# show cns event subject

Displays a list of subjects about the event agent connection.

Troubleshooting Tips

Command
Purpose
Router# debug cns config

Displays information on CNS configurations.

Router# debug cns event

Displays information on CNS events.

Router# debug cns management

Displays information on CNS management.

Router# debug cns xml-parser

Displays information on the XML parser.

Router# cns config cancel

Cancels an incremental (partial) CNS configuration.

Router(config)# cns config notify

Detects CNS configuration changes and send an event containing the previous and current configurations.

Configuration Examples

This section provides the following configuration examples:

Cisco Configuration Express File Using T1 over HDLC Protocol Example

T1 Configuration Template Example

Voice Configuration Template Example

Remote Router Example

Serial-Interface Configuration Example

Cisco Configuration Express File Using T1 over HDLC Protocol Example

The following example shows use of the Cisco Configuration Express file to configure the remote router before delivery to its final premises. In the example, 172.28.129.22 is the IP address of the CNS configuration engine.

!cns configure and event agents
cns config initial 172.28.129.22 no-persist
	 	cns event 172.28.129.22

    	!T1 configuration 
    	controller t1 0
      framing esf
      linecode b8zs
      channel-group 0 timeslots 1-24 speed 64

	cns id s0:0 ipaddress

  	!Assign IP addr to s0:0
  	interface s0:0
  	ip address slarp retry 2

  	!IP static route
  	ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 s0:0
      end	

T1 Configuration Template Example

The following example shows use of the T1 configuration template to build the configuration for use on T1.

hostname ${LDAP://this:attrName=IOShostname}
enable password ${LDAP://this:attrName=IOSpassword}
controller T1 0
clock source ${LDAP://this:attrName=IOST1-clocksource}
linecode ${LDAP://this:attrName=IOST1-line}
framing ${LDAP://this:attrName=IOST1-framing}
channel-group ${LDAP://this:attrName=IOST1-channel-group} timeslots 
${LDAP://this:attrName=IOST1-timeslots} speed ${LDAP://this:attrName=IOST1-speed}

Voice Configuration Template Example

The following example shows use of the voice configuration template to build the configuration for using voice.

voice-port 1/1
codec ${LDAP://this:attrName=IOSvoice-port1}
dial-peer voice 1 pots
application ${LDAP://this:attrName=IOSdial-peer1}
port 1/1

Remote Router Example

The following example shows a remote router configuration.

Current configuration: 1659 bytes
!
version 12.2
no service pad
service timestamps debug uptime
service timestamps log uptime
no service password-encryption
!
hostname tira-24V
!
!
network-clock base-rate 64k
ip subnet-zero
ip cef
!
ip audit notify log
ip audit po max-events 100
!
class-map match-any voice
match access-group 100
!
!
policy-map qos
class voice
priority percent 70
voice service voip
h323
!
no voice confirmation-tone
voice-card 0
!
!
controller T1 0
framing sf
linecode ami
!
controller T1 1
mode cas
framing esf
linecode b8zs
ds0-group 0 timeslots 1 type e&m-immediate-start
ds0-group 1 timeslots 2 type e&m-immediate-start
!
!
interface Ethernet0
ip address 10.1.1.2 255.255.0.0
!
interface Serial0
bandwidth 1536
ip address 11.11.11.1 255.255.255.0
no ip mroute-cache
load-interval 30
clockrate 148000
!
ip classless
ip route 223.255.254.254 255.255.255.0 1.3.0.1
!
no ip http server
ip pim bidir-enable
!
access-list 100 permit udp any range 16384 32767 any
access-list 100 permit tcp any any eq 1720
call rsvp-sync
!
voice-port 1:0
timeouts wait-release 3
!
voice-port 1:1
timeouts wait-release 3
!
!
mgcp profile default
!
dial-peer cor custom
!
dial-peer voice 1000 pots
destination-pattern 1000
port 1:0
forward-digits 0
!
dial-peer voice 1001 pots
destination-pattern 1001
no digit-strip
port 1:1
forward-digits 0
!
dial-peer voice 2000 voip
destination-pattern 2000
session target ipv4:11.11.11.2
codec g711ulaw
!
dial-peer voice 2001 voip
destination-pattern 2001
session target ipv4:11.11.11.2
signal-type ext-signal
codec g711ulaw
!
!
line con 0
line aux 0
line 2 3
line vty 0 4

Serial-Interface Configuration Example

The following example shows configuration of a serial interface to connect to and download a configuration from a Cisco IE2100 CNS configuration engine. The IE2100 IP address is 10.1.1.1. The gateway IP address to reach the 10.1.1.0 network is 11.11.11.1. The CNS default ID is the host name, so that cns id command is not needed. However, the hostname command is key to retrieving the configuration file on the CNS configuration engine.

This configuration auto-tries every serial interface on the remote router in turn, applies the config-cli commands to that interface, and tries to ping the address in the cns config initial cli. When it succeeds, it performs a normal initial configuration.

Initial basic configuration (serial interface) PPP
cns config connect-intf serial ping-interval 1 retries 1
config-cli ip address negotiated
config-cli encapsulation ppp
config-cli ip directed-broadcast
config-cli no keepalive
config-cli no shutdown
exit
hostname 26ML
ip route 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0 11.11.11.1
cns config initial 10.1.1.1 no-persist
cns inventory config
Initial basic configuration (serial interface) HDLC
cns config connect-intf serial ping-interval 1 retries 1
config-cli ip address slarp retry 1
config-cli no shutdown
exit
hostname tira-36V
ip route 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0 11.11.11.1
cns config initial 10.1.1.1 no-persist
cns inventory config
Incremental configuration (serial interface)
cns config partial 10.1.1.1
cns event 10.1.1.1

Command Reference

This section documents new and modified commands used with the CNS Flow-Through Provisioning feature. All other commands used with this feature are documented in the Cisco IOS command reference publications.

cns config cancel

cns config connect-intf

cns config notify

cns config initial

cns event

cns id

cns inventory

cns mib-access encapsulation

cns notifications encapsulation

cns config partial

config-cli

debug cns config

debug cns event

debug cns management

debug cns xml-parser

line-cli

show cns config connections

show cns config outstanding

show cns config stats

show cns event connections

show cns event stats

show cns event subject

cns config cancel

To cancel an incremental (partial) Cisco Networking Services (CNS) configuration, use the cns config cancel command in privileged EXEC mode.

cns config cancel queue-id

Syntax Description

queue-id

Queue identifier of the configuration to be cancelled. To display a list of outstanding configurations, use the show cns config outstanding command.


Defaults

No default behavior or values.

Command Modes

Privileged EXEC

Command History

Release
Modification

12.2(8)T

This command was introduced on Cisco 2600 series and Cisco 3600 series routers.

12.0(22)S

This command was integrated.


Usage Guidelines

Incremental (partial) configurations take place in two steps:

1. The configuration agent receives the partial configuration. It checks the configuration commands for syntax, publishes the success or failure of the read and syntax-check operation to the sync-status subject "cisco.cns.config.sync-status," and stores the configuration.

2. The configuration agent receives a second event message directing it to either apply or cancel the stored configuration.

Use the cns config cancel command in error scenarios where the second event message is not received and you need to remove the configuration from the list of outstanding configurations. Currently the maximum number of outstanding configurations is one.

Examples

The following example cancels the configuration whose queue-id is 1:

Router# show cns config outstanding
The outstanding configuration information:
queue id   identifier       config-id
1          identifierREAD   config_idREAD

Router# cns config cancel 1

Router# show cns config outstanding
The outstanding configuration information:
queue id   identifier       config-id

Related Commands

Command
Description

cns config partial

Starts the CNS configuration agent, which provides CNS configuration services to Cisco IOS clients.

cns event

Configures the CNS event gateway, which provides CNS event services to Cisco IOS clients.

show cns config connections

Displays the status of the CNS event agent connection.

show cns config outstanding

Displays information about incremental CNS configurations that have started but not yet completed.


cns config connect-intf

To specify the interface for connecting to the Cisco Networking Services (CNS) configuration engine, use the cns config connect-intf command in global configuration mode. To disable this interface for the connection, use the no form of this command.

cns config connect-intf interface-prefix [ping-interval seconds] [retries number]

no cns config connect-intf interface-prefix

Syntax Description

interface-prefix

Interface prefix for the connecting interface.

ping-interval seconds

Interval between successive ping attempts. Values are from 1 to 30 seconds. The default is 10 seconds.

retries number

Number of times that a ping will be retried. Values are from 1 to 30 seconds. The default is 5 seconds.


Defaults

The ping interval defaults to 10 seconds.

The number of retries defaults to 5.

Command Modes

Global configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

12.2(8)T

This command was introduced on Cisco 2600 series and Cisco 3600 series routers.

12.0(22)S

This command was integrated.


Usage Guidelines

Use this command to connect to the CNS configuration engine using a specific type of interface. You must specify the interface type but need not specify the interface number; the router's bootstrap configuration finds the connecting interface, regardless of the slot in which the card resides or the modem dialout line for the connection, by trying different candidate interfaces or lines until it successfully pings the registrar.

Enter this command to enter connect-interface-config (config-cns-conn-if) submode. Then use one of the following bootstrap-configuration commands to connect to the registrar for initial configuration:

config-cli followed by commands that, used as is, configure the interface.

line-cli followed by a command to configure modem lines to enable dialout and, after that, commands to configure the modem dialout line.

The config-cli command accepts the special directive character "&" which acts as a placeholder for the interface name. When the configuration is applied, the & is replaced with the interface name. Thus, for example, if we are able to connect using FastEthernet0/0, the command
config-cli ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 &
generates the command
ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 FastEthernet0/0.

Similarly, the command
config-cli cns id & ipaddress
generates the command
cns id FastEthernet0/0 ipaddress

Examples

The following example enters config-cns-conn-if submode, connects to a configuration engine using an async interface, and issues a number of commands:

Router(config)# cns config connect-intf Async
Router(config-cns-conn-if)# config-cli encapsulation ppp
Router(config-cns-conn-if)# config-cli ip unnumbered FastEthernet0/0
Router(config-cns-conn-if)# config-cli dialer rotary-group 0
Router(config-cns-conn-if)# line-cli modem InOut
Router(config-cns-conn-if)# line-cli ...<other line commands>...
Router(config-cns-conn-if)# exit

These commands result in the following configuration being applied:

line 65
modem InOut
.
.
.
interface Async65
encapsulation ppp
dialer in-band
dialer rotary-group 0

Related Commands

Command
Description

cns config cancel

Cancels an incremental two-phase synchronization configuration.

cns config initial

Starts the CNS configuration agent and initiates an initial configuration.

cns config notify

Detects CNS configuration changes and sends an event containing the previous and current configuration.

cns config partial

Starts the CNS configuration agent, which provides CNS configuration services to Cisco IOS clients.


cns config initial

To start the Cisco Networking Services (CNS) configuration agent and initiate an initial configuration, use the cns config initial command in global configuration mode. To remove the existing cns config initial command from the router's running configuration, use the no form of this command.

cns config initial {hostname | ip-address} [encrypt] [port-number] [event] [no-persist]
[
page page] [source ip-address] [syntax-check]

no cns config initial {hostname | ip-address}

Syntax Description

hostname

Host name of the configuration engine.

ip-address

IP address of the CNS configuration engine.

encrypt

(Optional) Uses an encrypted link to the event gateway.

Note The encrypt keyword is not yet supported.

port-number

(Optional) Port number of the configuration service. The value is from 0 to 65535. The default is 80 with no encryption and 443 with encryption.

event

(Optional) Uses the event agent to report errors.

no-persist

(Optional) Does not save the configuration to NVRAM. Omitting this keyword causes the configuration to be saved to NVRAM.


Caution If you write the new configuration to NVRAM by omitting this keyword, the original bootstrap configuration is overwritten.

 

page page

(Optional) Web page where the configuration is located. The default is /cns/Config.

source ip-address

(Optional) IP address to use for source of this device.

syntax-check

(Optional) Turns on syntax checking.


Defaults

The port number defaults to 80 with no encryption and 443 with encryption.

The page defaults to /cns/Config.

Command Modes

Global configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

12.2(2)T

This command was introduced.

12.2(2)XB

This command was integrated on Cisco IAD2420 series IADs.

12.2(8)T

This command was integrated on Cisco 2600 series and Cisco 3600 series routers.

12.0(22)S

This command was integrated.


Usage Guidelines

This command must be in the remote router's bootstrap configuration. Use it to pull the initial configuration for a router at its first bootup. The router's bootstrap configuration contains the information necessary to connect to the CNS configuration engine to retrieve the initial configuration.

Examples

The following example shows how to use the CNS configuration engine at 172.28.129.22 to set the initial CNS configuration and to not write the configuration to NVRAM:

Router(config)# cns config initial 172.28.129.22 no-persist

Related Commands

Command
Description

cns config cancel

Cancels an incremental two-phase synchronization configuration.

cns config connect-intf

Specifies the interface for connecting to the CNS configuration engine.

cns config notify

Detects CNS configuration changes and sends an event containing the previous and current configuration.

cns config partial

Starts the CNS configuration agent, which provides CNS configuration services to Cisco IOS clients.

cns event

Configures the CNS event gateway, which provides CNS event services to Cisco IOS clients.


cns config notify

To detect Cisco Networking Services (CNS) configuration changes and send an event containing the previous and current configurations, use the cns config notify command in global configuration mode. To disable event notification, use the no form of this command.

cns config notify {all | diff} [interval minutes] [no-cns-events]

no cns config notify {all | diff}

Syntax Description

all

Captures all configuration commands for the config-changed event output.

diff

Captures commands that change configuration for the config-changed event output.

interval minutes

(Optional) Maximum time in minutes before a config-changed event is sent. The default is 5 minutes. If you enter the end command, the config-changed event is sent immediately.

no-cns-events

(Optional) Disables event notification for configurations applied by the CNS configuration agent. No CNS events for the configuration are sent.


Defaults

The interval defaults to 5 minutes.

Command Modes

Global configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

12.2(8)T

This command was introduced on Cisco 2600 series and Cisco 3600 series routers.

12.0(26)S

This command was integrated.


Examples

The following example detects configuration changes for all configuration commands:

Router(config)# cns config notify all

Related Commands

Command
Description

cns config cancel

Cancels an incremental two-phase synchronization configuration.

cns config connect-intf

Specifies the interface for connecting to the CNS configuration engine.

cns config initial

Starts the CNS configuration agent and initiates an initial configuration.

cns config partial

Starts the CNS configuration agent, which provides CNS configuration services to Cisco IOS clients.


cns config partial

To start the Cisco Networking Services (CNS) configuration agent, which provides CNS configuration services to Cisco IOS clients, use the cns config partial command in global configuration mode. To shut down the partial configuration agent, use the no form of this command.

cns config partial {hostname | ip-address} [encrypt] [port-number] [source ip-address]

no cns config partial {hostname | ip-address} [port-number]

Syntax Description

hostname

Host name of the configuration engine.

ip-address

IP address of the CNS configuration engine.

encrypt

(Optional) Enables encryption for the event gateway connection.

Note The encrypt keyword is not yet supported.

port-number

(Optional) Port number of the configuration service. The value is from 0 to 65535. The default is 80 with no encryption and 443 with encryption.

source ip-address

(Optional) IP address to use for source of this device.


Defaults

The port number defaults to 80 with no encryption and 443 with encryption.

Command Modes

Global configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

12.2(2)T

This command was introduced.

12.2(2)XB

This command was introduced on Cisco IAD2420 series IADs.

12.2(8)T

This command was integrated on Cisco 2600 series and Cisco 3600 series routers.

12.0(22)S

This command was integrated.


Usage Guidelines

Use this command to start the partial configuration agent process. Configuration data can be pushed to the partial configuration agent or pulled from the CNS configuration engine by the partial configuration agent.

In the push model, the event message delivers the configuration data to the partial configuration agent.

In the pull model, the event message triggers the partial configuration agent to pull the configuration data from the CNS configuration engine. The event message contains information about the CNS configuration engine and not the actual configuration data. The host name or IP address is the address of the CNS configuration engine from which the configuration is pulled.

Examples

The following example starts the partial configuration process using the CNS configuration engine at 172.28.129.22 and port number 80:

Router(config)# cns config partial 172.28.129.22 80

Related Commands

Command
Description

cns config cancel

Cancels an incremental two-phase synchronization configuration.

cns config notify

Detects CNS configuration changes and sends an event containing the previous and current configuration.

cns event

Configures the CNS event gateway, which provides CNS event services to Cisco IOS clients.

show cns config outstanding

Displays information about incremental CNS configurations that have started but not yet completed.

show cns config stats

Displays statistics about the CNS configuration agent.


cns event

To configure the Cisco Networking Services (CNS) event gateway, which provides CNS event services to Cisco IOS clients, use the cns event command in global configuration mode. To remove the specified event gateway from the gateway list, use the no form of this command.

cns event {hostname | ip-address} [encrypt] [port-number] [backup] [init-retry retry-count] [keepalive seconds retry-count] [source ip-address] [force-fmt1]

no cns event {hostname | ip-address} [port-number]

Syntax Description

hostname

Host name of the event gateway.

ip-address

IP address of the event gateway.

encrypt

(Optional) Enables encryption for the event gateway connection.

Note The encrypt keyword is not yet supported.

port-number

(Optional) Port number for the event gateway. The default is 11011 with no encryption or 11012 with encryption.

backup

(Optional) Indicates that this is the backup gateway. If omitted, indicates that this is the primary gateway. Before you can configure a backup gateway, you must already have configured a primary gateway. Optional keywords, if omitted, are set as for the primary gateway.

init-retry retry-count

(Optional) Number of retries during router bootup before the system switches to backup. The default is 3.

keepalive seconds retry-count

(Optional) Keep-alive timeout in seconds and retry count. The default for each is 0.

source ip-address

(Optional) IP address to use for source of this device.

force-fmt1

(Optional) Forces use of format 1 rather than format 2. If omitted, defaults to format 2.


Defaults

The event gateway port number default is 11011 with no encryption or 11012 with encryption.

The number of initial retries defaults to 3.

Keepalive defaults to 0 seconds and 0 retries.

The system uses format 2.

Command Modes

Global configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

12.2(2)T

This command was introduced.

12.2(2)XB

This command was integrated on Cisco IAD2420 series IADs.

12.2(8)T

This command was integrated on Cisco 2600 series and Cisco 3600 series routers.

12.0(22)S

This command was integrated.


Usage Guidelines

Use this command to select the IP address of an event and pass it as the unique CNS ID to the CNS configuration agent, which then pulls a new configuration to the router.

Unless you are using a bandwidth-constrained link, you should set a keepalive timeout and retry count. Doing so allows the management network to recover gracefully should a Cisco IE2100 configuration engine ever fail. Without the keepalive data, such a failure requires manual intervention on every device.

Specify format 1 only if you determine that format 2 does not work on your system. This is most likely to occur if your Cisco IE2100 CNS configuration engine is a very early release. Format 2 has a length field of 4 rather than 2 bytes, and can therefore handle events that are larger than 64k bytes.

Examples

The following example shows how to set the address of the primary CNS event gateway to the configuration engine software running on IP address10.1.2.3, port 11011, with a keepalive of 60 seconds and a retry count of 5:

Router(config)# cns event 10.1.2.3 11011 keepalive 60 5

Related Commands

Command
Description

cns id

Sets the unique event-id or config-id router identifier.


cns id

To set the unique event-id or config-id router identifier used by Cisco Networking Services (CNS) services, use the cns id command in global configuration mode. To set the identifier to the router's host name, use the no form of this command.

If ID Choice Is IP Address or MAC Address

cns id interface num {dns-reverse | ipaddress | mac-address} [event]

no cns id interface num {dns-reverse | ipaddress | mac-address} [event]

If ID Choice Is Anything Else

cns id {hardware-serial | hostname | string string} [event]

no cns id {hardware-serial | hostname | string string} [event]

Syntax Description

interface num

Type of interface—for example, Ethernet, Group-Async, Loopback, or Virtual-Template. In addition, the interface number. Indicates from which interface the IP or MAC address should be retrieved in order to define the unique ID.

dns-reverse

(Optional) Uses DNS reverse lookup to retrieve the host name and assign it as the unique ID.

ipaddress

(Optional) Uses the IP address specified in the interface num argument as the unique ID.

mac-address

(Optional) Uses the MAC address specified in the interface num argument as the unique ID.

event

(Optional) Sets this ID to be the event-id value, used to identify the router for CNS event services. If omitted, sets it to be the config-id value, used to identify the router for CNS configuration services.

hardware-serial

(Optional) Uses the hardware serial number as the unique ID.

hostname

(Optional) Uses the host name as the unique ID. This is the system default.

string string

(Optional) Uses an arbitrary text string—typically the host name—as the unique ID.


Defaults

The system defaults to the host name as the unique ID.

Event defaults to set the unique ID to be the config-id value.

Command Modes

Global configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

12.2(2)XB

This command was introduced on Cisco IAD2420 series IADs.

12.2(8)T

This command was integrated on Cisco 2600 series and Cisco 3600 series routers.

12.0(22)S

This command was integrated.


Usage Guidelines

Use this command to retrieve if necessary, set, and pass the unique ID to the CNS configuration agent, which then pulls the initial configuration template to the router during bootup.

You can set either or both of two IDs: the config-id value for CNS configuration services and the event-id value for CNS event services. To set both values, use the command twice.

To set the CNS event-id to the router's host name, use the no form of this command with the event keyword. To set the CNS config-id to the router's host name, use the no form of this command without the event keyword.

Examples

The following example shows the host name of the router being passed as the config-id value:

Router(config)# cns id hostname

The following example shows the hardware serial number of the router being passed as the event-id value.

Router(config)# cns id hardware-serial event

Related Commands

Command
Description

cns event

Configures the CNS event gateway, which provides CNS event services to Cisco IOS clients.


cns inventory

To enable the Cisco Networking Services (CNS) inventory agent—that is, to send an inventory of the router's line cards and modules to the CNS configuration engine—use the cns inventory command in global configuration mode. To disable the CNS inventory agent, use the no form of this command.

cns inventory [config | event]

no cns inventory [config | event [notify oir]]

Syntax Description

config

(Optional) Enables inventory-configuration events. Sends the inventory to the CNS configuration engine when the cns config initial command is used but before the configuration is downloaded from the registrar.

event

(Optional) Enables inventory events.

notify oir

(Optional) On Cisco 7200 and Cisco 12000 series routers, enables notifications to be sent out on the event bus when online insertion or removal (OIR) occurs.This XML event for OIR updates is sent with the subject "cisco.cns.inventory.oir." The removal OIR event has only the slot from which the card was removed.The insertion event has all available information about the card that has been inserted.


Defaults

Enables both inventory-configuration and inventory events

Command Modes

Global configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

12.2(8)T

This command was introduced on Cisco 2600 series and Cisco 3600 series routers.


Usage Guidelines

Use this command to notify the CNS configuration engine of changes to the router's port-adaptor and interface inventory.

Use the event keyword to query the inventory from the remote router using the event bus. An event needs to be sent with the subject "cisco.cns.inventory.get" to the cisco router; the payload of the event is ignored. On receiving this query, the inventory agent sends the inventory.

Examples

The following example shows enabling of the CNS inventory agent:

Router(config)# cns inventory

Related Commands

Command
Description

cns config initial

Starts the CNS configuration agent and initiates an initial configuration.


cns mib-access encapsulation

To specify whether Cisco Networking Services (CNS) should use granular (XML) or nongranular (SNMP) encapsulation to access MIBs, use the cns mib-access encapsulation command in global configuration mode. To disable the currently specified encapsulation, use the no form of this command.

cns mib-access encapsulation {snmp | xml [size bytes]}

no cns mib-access encapsulation {snmp | xml}

Syntax Description

snmp

Enables nongranular (SNMP) encapsulation for MIB access.

xml

Enables granular (XML) encapsulation for MIB access.

size bytes

(Optional) Maximum size in bytes for response events. The default is 3072.


Defaults

For XML encapsulation, a maximum size of 3072 bytes

Command Modes

Global configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

12.2(8)T

This command was introduced on Cisco 2600 series and Cisco 3600 series routers.


Examples

The following example specifies that XML be used to access MIBs:

Router(config)# cns mib-access encapsulation xml

Related Commands

Command
Description

cns notifications encapsulation

Specifies whether CNS notifications should be sent using nongranular (SNMP) or granular (XML) encapsulation.


cns notifications encapsulation

To specify whether Cisco Networking Services (CNS) notifications should be sent using nongranular (SNMP) or granular (XML) encapsulation, use the cns notifications encapsulation command in global configuration mode. To disable the currently specified encapsulation, use the no form of this command.

cns notifications encapsulation {snmp | xml}

no cns notifications encapsulation {snmp | xml}

Syntax Description

snmp

Uses nongranular (SNMP) encapsulation to send notifications.

xml

Uses granular (XML) encapsulation to send notifications.


Defaults

No default behavior or values.

Command Modes

Global configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

12.2(8)T

This command was introduced on Cisco 2600 series and Cisco 3600 series routers.


Examples

The following example enables notifications:

Router(config)# cns notifications encapsulation

Related Commands

Command
Description

cns mib-access encapsulation

Specifies whether CNS should use granular (XML) or nongranular (SNMP) encapsulation to access MIBs.


config-cli

To connect to the Cisco Networking Services (CNS) configuration engine using a specific type of interface, use the config-cli command in connect-interface-configuration mode.

config-cli

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Defaults

No default behavior or values.

Command Modes

Connect-interface-configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

12.2(8)T

This command was introduced on Cisco 2600 series and Cisco 3600 series routers.

12.0(26)S

Support for this feature was integrated.


Usage Guidelines

Begin by using the cns config connect-intf command to enter connect-interface-configuration (config-cns-conn-if) submode. Then use either this or its companion CNS bootstrap-configuration command to connect to the CNS configuration engine for initial configuration:

config-cli connects to the registrar using a specific type of interface. You must specify the interface type but need not specify the interface number; the router's bootstrap configuration finds the connecting interface, regardless of the slot in which the card resides, by trying different candidate interfaces until it can ping the configuration engine.

line-cli connects to the registrar using modem dialup lines.

Immediately after either of the commands, enter additional configuration commands as appropriate.

Examples

The following example enters config-cns-conn-if submode, connects to a configuration engine using an async interface, and issues a number of commands:

Router(config)# cns config connect-intf Async
Router(config-cns-conn-if)# config-cli encapsulation ppp
Router(config-cns-conn-if)# config-cli ip unnumbered FastEthernet0/0
Router(config-cns-conn-if)# config-cli dialer rotary-group 0
Router(config-cns-conn-if)# line-cli modem InOut
Router(config-cns-conn-if)# line-cli ...<other line commands>...
Router(config-cns-conn-if)# exit

These commands apply the following configuration:

line 65
modem InOut
.
.
.
interface Async65
encapsulation ppp
dialer in-band
dialer rotary-group 0

Related Commands

Command
Description

cns config connect-intf

Specifies the interface for connecting to the CNS configuration engine.

line-cli

Connects to the CNS configuration engine using a modem dialup line.


debug cns config

To display information on Cisco Networking Services (CNS) configurations, use the debug cns config command in privileged EXEC mode. To disable debugging, use the no form of this command.

debug cns config {agent | all | connection | notify}

no debug cns config {agent | all | connection | notify}

Syntax Description

agent

Displays debug messages related to the CNS configuration agent.

all

Displays all debug messages.

connection

Displays debug messages related to configuration connections.

notify

Displays debug messages related to CNS configurations.


Command Modes

Privileged EXEC

Command History

Release
Modification

12.2(8)T

This command was introduced on Cisco 2600 series and Cisco 3600 series routers.

12.0(26)S

Support for this feature was integrated.


Examples

The following example displays messages related to the CNS configurations:

Router# debug cns config all

00:04:09: config_id_get: entered
00:04:09: config_id_get: Invoking cns_id_mode_get()
00:04:09: config_id_get: cns_id_mode_get() returned INTERNAL
00:04:09: config_id_get: successful exit cns_config_id=minna1,cns_config_id_len=6
00:04:09: cns_establish_connect_intf(): The device is already connected with the config 
server
00:04:09: cns_initial_config_agent(): connecting with port 80
00:04:09: pull_config() entered
00:04:09: cns_config_id(): returning config_id=minna1
00:04:09: Message finished 150 readend
00:04:09: %CNS-4-NOTE: SUCCESSFUL_COMPLETION
-Process= "CNS Initial Configuration Agent", ipl= 0, pid= 82
00:04:10: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console

Related Commands

Command
Description

debug cns event

Displays information on CNS events.

debug cns management

Displays information on CNS management.

debug cns xml-parser

Displays information on the CNS XML parser.


debug cns event

To display information on Cisco Networking Services (CNS) events, use the debug cns event command in privileged EXEC mode. To disable debugging, use the no form of this command.

debug cns event {agent | all | connection | subscriber}

no debug cns event {agent | all | connection | subscriber}

Syntax Description

agent

Displays debug messages related to the event agent.

all

Displays all debug messages.

connection

Displays debug messages related to event connections.

subscriber

Displays debug messages related to subscribers.


Command Modes

Privileged EXEC

Command History

Release
Modification

12.2(8)T

This command was introduced on Cisco 2600 series and Cisco 3600 series routers.

12.0(26)S

Support for this feature was integrated.


Examples

The following example displays messages related to CNS events:

Router# debug cns event all

00:09:14: %CNS-4-NOTE: SUCCESSFUL_COMPLETION
-Process= "CNS Initial Configuration Agent", ipl= 0, pid= 82
00:09:14: event_agent():event_agent starting ..
00:09:14: event_agent_open_connection(): attempting socket connect to Primary Gateway
00:09:14: event_agent_open_connection():cns_socket_connect() succeeded:return_code=0
00:09:14: event_agent_open_connection():timeout_len=1:ka_total_timeout =0:
                   total_timeout=0
00:09:14: event_id_get: entered
00:09:14: event_id_get: Invoking cns_id_mode_get()
00:09:14: event_id_get: cns_id_mode_get() returned INTERNAL
00:09:14: event_id_get: successful exit cns_event_id=test1, cns_event_id_len=5
00:09:14: ea_devid_send(): devid sent DUMP OF DEVID MSG
82C920A0:                   00120000 00010774          .......t
82C920B0: 65737431 00000402 020000             est1.......     
00:09:14: event_agent_get_input(): cli timeout=0: socket:0x0
00:09:14: process_all_event_agent_event_items():process_get_wakeup(&major, &minor)=TRUE: 
major=0
test1#x2: minor=0x12D5D:
00:09:14: event_id_get: entered
00:09:14: event_id_get: Invoking cns_id_mode_get()
00:09:14: event_id_get: cns_id_mode_get() returned INTERNAL
00:09:14: event_id_get: successful exit cns_event_id=test1, cns_event_id_len=5
00:09:14: process_event_id_changed(): event_id = 'test1' old_event_id = 'test1'
00:09:14: event_id_get: entered
00:09:14: event_id_get: Invoking cns_id_mode_get()
00:09:14: event_id_get: cns_id_mode_get() returned INTERNAL
00:09:14: event_id_get: successful exit cns_event_id=test1, cns_event_id_len=5
00:09:14: process_event_id_changed(): event_id = 'test1' old_event_id = 'test1'
00:09:14: event_agent_get_input fd_isset_boolean = 0x1: sd=0x0
00:09:14: event_agent_get_input return_code=0x1:(FD_ISSET(sd, &rd_mask)) = TRUE
00:09:14: process_2_byte_length_format_msg():read the 2 length fields:bytes_read=0x4
00:09:14: process_gateway_ctrl_message():Version TLV set protocol_version_gateway=0x100
00:09:14: After: set_msg_protocol_format(): protocol_version_gateway=0x100  
msg_protocol_format=0x1
00:09:14: process_gateway_ctrl_message(): protocol_version_gateway=0x100
00:09:14: perform_post_msg_protocol_establishment_tasks():restart callback 0x80ACA35C 0x0
00:09:14: send_boot_event(): Boot Event Sent DUMP OF EVENT MSG
82C92A20:                   001D0019 53454E44          ....SEND
82C92A30: 3A636973 636F2E63 6E732E65 76656E74  :cisco.cns.event
82C92A40: 2E626F6F 7400                        .boot.          
00:09:14: 
validate_subject_name:event_agent=0x80AC4F0C:,subject_name=cisco.cns.config.load, len=22
00:09:14: ea_subscribe:subject_name=cisco.cns.config.load
00:09:14: validate_subject_name:event_agent=0x80AC4F0C:,subject_name=cisco.cns.exec.cmd, 
len=19
00:09:14: ea_subscribe:subject_name=cisco.cns.exec.cmd
00:09:14: 
validate_subject_name:event_agent=0x80AC4F0C:,subject_name=cisco.cns.config.reboot, len=24
00:09:14: ea_subscribe:subject_name=cisco.cns.config.reboot
00:09:14: 
validate_subject_name:event_agent=0x80AC4F0C:,subject_name=cisco.cns.config.load, len=22
00:09:14: ea_subscribe:subject_name=cisco.cns.config.load
00:09:14: validate_subject_name:event_agent=0x80AC4F0C:,subject_name=cisco.cns.exec.cmd, 
len=19
00:09:14: ea_subscribe:subject_name=cisco.cns.exec.cmd
00:09:14: 
validate_subject_name:event_agent=0x80AC4F0C:,subject_name=cisco.cns.config.reboot, len=24
00:09:14: ea_subscribe:subject_name=cisco.cns.config.reboot
00:09:14: process_all_event_agent_event_items():process_get_wakeup(&major, &minor)=TRUE: 
major=0x2: minor=0x12D5C:
00:09:14: add_subjectANDhandle_to_subject_table():p_subject_entry=0x82E3E838: 
p_subject_entry_list=0x82619CD8
00:09:14: create_user_descriptor():p_user_entry_list=0x829268A8: p_user_entry=0x82C561DC:
00:09:14: add_subjectANDhandle_to_subject_table():add 'user_entry' entry succeeded:user 
entry =0x82C92A28:queue_handle=0x82C913FC
00:09:14: process_event_agent_queue_item():socket_send() succeeded:bytes_sent=29:subject 
name=cisco.cns.config.load message length=29
00:09:14: add_subjectANDhandle_to_subject_table():p_subject_entry=0x82E3E888: 
p_subject_entry_list=0x82619CD8
00:09:14: create_user_descriptor():p_user_entry_list=0x82926838: p_user_entry=0x82C561DC:
00:09:14: add_subjectANDhandle_to_subject_table():add 'user_entry' entry succeeded:user 
entry =0x82C92A88:queue_handle=0x82C913FC
00:09:14: process_event_agent_queue_item():socket_send() succeeded:bytes_sent=26:subject 
name=cisco.cns.exec.cmd message length=26
00:09:14: add_subjectANDhandle_to_subject_table():p_subject_entry=0x82E3EEDC: 
p_subject_entry_list=0x82619CD8
00:09:14: create_user_descriptor():p_user_entry_list=0x829267C8: p_user_entry=0x82C561DC:
00:09:14: add_subjectANDhandle_to_subject_table():add 'user_entry' entry succeeded:user 
entry =0x82C92AF4:queue_handle=0x82C913FC
00:09:14: process_event_agent_queue_item():socket_send() succeeded:bytes_sent=31:subject 
name=cisco.cns.config.reboot message length=31
00:09:14: add_subjectANDhandle_to_subject_table():p_subject_entry=0x82E3E838: 
p_subject_entry_list=0x82619CD8
00:09:14: add_subjectANDhandle_to_subject_table():add 'user_entry' entry succeeded:user 
entry =0x82C92A28:queue_handle=0x82C913FC
00:09:14: add_subjectANDhandle_to_subject_table():p_subject_entry=0x82E3E888: 
p_subject_entry_list=0x82619CD8
00:09:14: add_subjectANDhandle_to_subject_table():add 'user_entry' entry succeeded:user 
entry =0x82C92A88:queue_handle=0x82C913FC
00:09:14: add_subjectANDhandle_to_subject_table():p_subject_entry=0x82E3EEDC: 
p_subject_entry_list=0x82619CD8
00:09:14: add_subjectANDhandle_to_subject_table():add 'user_entry' entry succeeded:user 
entry =0x82C92AF4:queue_handle=0x82C913FC
00:09:14: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console

Related Commands

Command
Description

debug cns config

Displays information on CNS configurations.

debug cns management

Displays information on CNS management.

debug cns xml-parser

Displays information on the CNS XML parser.


debug cns management

To display information on Cisco Networking Services (CNS) management, use the debug cns management command in privileged EXEC mode. To disable the currently specified debugging, use the no form of this command.

debug cns management {snmp | xml}

no debug cns management {snmp | xml}

Syntax Description

snmp

Displays debug messages related to nongranular (SNMP) encapsulated CNS-management events.

xml

Displays debug messages related to granular (XML) encapsulated CNS-management events.


Command Modes

Privileged EXEC

Command History

Release
Modification

12.2(8)T

This command was introduced on Cisco 2600 series and Cisco 3600 series routers.


Examples

The following example displays information about SNMP- and XML-encapsulated CNS-management events, including both MIB access and trap generation:

Router# debug cns management snmp
Router# debug cns management xml

Router# show debugging
CNS Management (SNMP Encapsulation) debugging is on
CNS Management (Encap XML) debugging is on

Router# show running-config | include cns
cns mib-access encapsulation snmp
cns mib-access encapsulation xml
cns notifications encapsulation snmp
cns notifications encapsulation xml
cns event 10.1.1.1 11011
Router# 
00:12:50: Enqueued a notification in notif_q
00:12:50: ea_produce succeeded Subject:cisco.cns.mibaccess:notification Message Length:385 
00:12:50: Trap sent via CNS Transport Mapping.
Router# 
00:13:31: Response sent via CNS Transport Mapping.
Router# 
00:14:38: Received a request
00:14:38: ea_produce succeeded Subject:cisco.cns.mibaccess:response Message Length:241

Related Commands

Command
Description

debug cns config

Displays information on CNS configurations.

cns event

Configures the CNS event gateway, which provides CNS event services to Cisco IOS clients.

debug cns xml-parser

Displays information on the CNS XML parser.

show debugging

Displays information about the types of debugging that are enabled for your router.

show running-config

Displays the current running configuration.


debug cns xml-parser

To display information on the Cisco Networking Services (CNS) XML parser, use the debug cns xml-parser command in privileged EXEC. mode. To disable debugging, use the no form of this command.

debug cns xml-parser

no debug cns xml-parser

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Command Modes

Privileged EXEC

Command History

Release
Modification

12.2(8)T

This command was introduced on Cisco 2600 series and Cisco 3600 series routers.

12.0(26)S

Support for this feature was integrated.


Examples

The following example displays information on the CNS XML parser:

Router# debug cns xml-parser

00:12:05: Registering tag <config-server>
00:12:05: Registering tag <server-info>
00:12:05: Registering tag <ip-address>
00:12:05: Registering tag <web-page>
00:12:05: Registering tag <config-event>
00:12:05: Registering tag <identifier>
00:12:05: Registering tag <config-id>
00:12:05: Registering tag <config-data>
00:12:05: Registering tag <cli>
00:12:05: Registering tag <error-info>
00:12:05: Registering tag <error-message>
00:12:05: Registering tag <line-number>
00:12:05: Registering tag <config-write>
00:12:05: Registering tag <exec-cmd-event>
00:12:05: Registering tag <identifier-exec>
00:12:05: Registering tag <event-response>
00:12:05: Registering tag <reply-subject>
00:12:05: Registering tag <server-response>
00:12:05: Registering tag <ip-address-exec>
00:12:05: Registering tag <port-number>
00:12:05: Registering tag <url>
00:12:05: Registering tag <cli-exec>
00:12:05: Registering tag <config-pwd>
00:12:06: Pushing tag <config-data> on to stack
00:12:06: open tag is <config-data>
00:12:06: Pushing tag <config-id> on to stack
00:12:06: open tag is <config-id>
00:12:06: Popping tag <config-id> off stack
00:12:06: close tag is </config-id>
00:12:06: Pushing tag <cli> on to stack
00:12:06: open tag is <cli>
00:12:06: Popping tag <cli> off stack
00:12:06: close tag is </cli>
00:12:06: Popping tag <config-data> off stack
00:12:06: close tag is </config-data>
00:12:06: %CNS-4-NOTE: SUCCESSFUL_COMPLETION
-Process= "CNS Initial Configuration Agent", ipl= 0, pid= 96

Related Commands

Command
Description

debug cns config

Displays information on CNS configurations.

debug cns event

Displays information on CNS events.

debug cns management

Displays information on CNS management.


line-cli

To connect to the Cisco Networking Services (CNS) configuration engine using a modem dialup line, use the line-cli command in connect-interface-configuration mode.

line-cli

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Defaults

No default behavior or values.

Command Modes

Connect-interface-configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

12.2(8)T

This command was introduced on Cisco 2600 series and Cisco 3600 series routers.

12.0(26)S

Support for this feature was integrated.


Usage Guidelines

Use this command to connect to the CNS configuration engine using a specific type of interface. You must specify the interface type but need not specify the interface number; the router's bootstrap configuration finds the connecting interface, regardless of the slot in which the card resides or the modem dialout line for the connection, by trying different candidate interfaces or lines until it successfully pings the registrar.

Enter this command to enter connect-interface-config (config-cns-conn-if) submode. Then use one of the following bootstrap-configuration commands to connect to the registrar for initial configuration:

config-cli followed by commands that, used as is, configure the interface.

line-cli followed by a command to configure modem lines to enable dialout and, after that, commands to configure the modem dialout line.

The config-cli command accepts the special directive character "&" which acts as a placeholder for the interface name. When the configuration is applied, the & is replaced with the interface name. Thus, for example, if we are able to connect using FastEthernet0/0, the following is the case:

The command config-cli ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 &
generates the command config ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 FastEthernet0/0.

The command cns id & ipaddress
generates the command cns id FastEthernet0/0 ipaddress

Examples

The following example enters config-cns-conn-if submode, connects to a configuration engine using an async interface, and issues a number of commands:

Router(config)# cns config connect-intf Async
Router(config-cns-conn-if)# config-cli encapsulation ppp
Router(config-cns-conn-if)# config-cli ip unnumbered FastEthernet0/0
Router(config-cns-conn-if)# config-cli dialer rotart-group 0
Router(config-cns-conn-if)# line-cli modem InOut
Router(config-cns-conn-if)# line-cli ...<other line commands>...
Router(config-cns-conn-if)# exit

These commands apply the following configuration:

line 65
modem InOut
.
.
.
interface Async65
encapsulation ppp
dialer in-band
dialer rotary-group 0

Related Commands

Command
Description

cns config connect-intf

Specifies the interface for connecting to the CNS configuration engine.

config-cli

Connects to the CNS configuration engine using a specific type of interface.


show cns config connections

To display the status of the Cisco Networking Services (CNS) event agent connection, use the show cns config connections command in privileged EXEC mode.

show cns config connections

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Command Modes

Privileged EXEC

Command History

Release
Modification

12.2(8)T

This command was integrated on Cisco 2600 series and Cisco 3600 series routers.


Usage Guidelines

Use to determine whether the CNS event agent is connecting to the gateway, connected, or active, and to display the gateway used by the event agent and its IP address and port number.

Examples

The following example displays information about outstanding incremental (partial) configurations:

Router# show cns config connections

The partial configuration agent is enabled.

Configuration server:  10.1.1.1
Port number:           80
Encryption:            disabled
Config id:             							test1
Connection Status:	     Connection not active.

Related CommandsThe partial configuration agent is enabled.

Related Commands

Related CommandsConfiguration server: 10.1.1.1

Related CommandsPort number: 80

Related CommandsEncryption: disabled

Related CommandsConfig id: test1

Related CommandsConnection Status: Connection not active.

Command
Description

show cns config outstanding

Displays information about incremental CNS configurations that have started but not yet completed.

show cns config stats

Displays statistics about the CNS configuration agent.


show cns config outstanding

To display information about incremental (partial) Cisco Networking Services (CNS) configurations that have started but not yet completed, use the show cns config command in privileged EXEC mode.

show cns config outstanding

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Command Modes

Privileged EXEC

Command History

Release
Modification

12.2(8)T

This command was integrated on Cisco 2600 series and Cisco 3600 series routers.

12.0(26)S

Support for this feature was integrated.


Usage Guidelines

Use to display information about outstanding incremental (partial) configurations that have started but not yet completed, including the following:

queue-id (location of configuration in the config queue)

Identifier (group ID)

config-id (identify of configuration within the group)

Examples

The following example displays information about outstanding incremental (partial) configurations:

Router# show cns config outstanding

The outstanding configuration information:
queue id   identifier       config-id
1          identifierREAD   config_idREAD

Related Commands

Command
Description

config-cli

Displays the status of the CNS event agent connection.

cns config cancel

Cancels an incremental two-phase synchronization configuration.

show cns config stats

Displays statistics about the CNS configuration agent.


show cns config stats

To display statistics about the Cisco Networking Services (CNS) configuration agent, use the show cns config command in privileged EXEC mode.

show cns config stats

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Command Modes

Privileged EXEC

Command History

Release
Modification

12.2(8)T

This command was integrated on Cisco 2600 series and Cisco 3600 series routers.

12.0(26)S

Support for this feature was integrated.


Usage Guidelines

Use to display the following statistics about the configuration agent:

Number of configurations completed and failed

Time stamp of last configuration received

Examples

The following example displays information about outstanding incremental (partial) configurations:

Router# show cns config stats

0 configurations completed.
0 configurations failed.

Related Commands

Command
Description

config-cli

Displays the status of the CNS event agent connection.

show cns config outstanding

Displays information about incremental CNS configurations that have started but not yet completed.


show cns event connections

To display the status of the Cisco Networking Services (CNS) event agent connection, use the show cns event command in privileged EXEC mode.

show cns event connections

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Command Modes

Privileged EXEC

Command History

Release
Modification

12.2(2)T

This command was introduced.

12.2(8)T

This command was integrated on Cisco 2600 series and Cisco 3600 series routers.

12.0(26)S

Support for this feature was integrated.


Usage Guidelines

Use this command to display the status of the event agent connection—such as whether it is connecting to the gateway, connected, or active—and to display the gateway used by the event agent and its IP address and port number.

Examples

The following example displays the IP address and port number of the primary and backup gateways:

Router# show cns event connections

The currently configured primary event gateway:
        hostname is 10.1.1.1.
        port number is 11011.
Event-Id is Internal test1
Keepalive setting:
        none.
Connection status:
        Connection Established.
The currently configured backup event gateway:
        none.
The currently connected event gateway:
        hostname is 10.1.1.1.
        port number is 11011.

Related Commands

Command
Description

show cns event stats

Displays statistics about the CNS event agent connection.

show cns event subject

Displays a list of subjects about the CNS event agent connection.


show cns event stats

To display statistics about the Cisco Networking Services (CNS) event agent connection, use the show cns event stats command in privileged EXEC mode.

show cns event stats

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Command Modes

Privileged EXEC

Command History

Release
Modification

12.2(2)T

This command was introduced.

12.2(8)T

This command was integrated on Cisco 2600 series and Cisco 3600 series routers.

12.0(26)S

Support for this feature was integrated.


Usage Guidelines

Use this command to display the following statistics:

Number of events received, sent, not processed successfully, and in queue

Time stamp (router time) of latest event received and sent

Number of applications that are using the event agent and number of subjects subscribed

Examples

The following example displays the IP address and port number of the primary and backup gateways:

Router# show cns event stats

0 events received.
4 events sent.
0 events not processed.
0 events in the queue.
The time stamp of the last received event is *Jan  1 1900 00:00:00 UTC
The time stamp of the last sent event is *Mar  1 1993 00:05:42 UTC
2 applications are using the event agent.
4 subjects subscribed.

Related Commands

Command
Description

show cns event connections

Displays the status of the CNS event agent connection.

show cns event subject

Displays a list of subjects about the CNS event agent connection.


show cns event subject

To display a list of subjects about the Cisco Networking Services (CNS) event agent connection, use the show cns event command in privileged EXEC mode.

show cns event subject [name]

Syntax Description

name

(Optional) Displays a list of applications that subscribe this specific subject.


Command Modes

Privileged EXEC

Command History

Release
Modification

12.2(2)T

This command was introduced.

12.2(8)T

This command was integrated on Cisco 2600 series and Cisco 3600 series routers.

12.0(26)S

Support for this feature was integrated.


Usage Guidelines

Use this command to display a list of subjects of the the event agent that are subscribed by applications.

Examples

The following example displays the IP address and port number of the primary and backup gateways:

Router# show cns event subject

The list of subjects subscribed by applications.
   cisco.cns.mibaccess:request
   cisco.cns.config.load
   cisco.cns.config.reboot
   cisco.cns.exec.cmd

Related Commands

Command
Description

show cns event connections

Displays the status of the CNS event agent connection.

show cns event stats

Displays statistics about the CNS event agent connection.


Glossary

ADSI—Microsoft's Active Directory Services Interface.

ADSL—asymmetric digital subscriber line. Available through several telecommunications carriers to accommodate the need for increased bandwidth for Internet access and telecommuting applications.

ARP—Address Resolution Protocol.

ASP—Microsoft's Active Server Pages technology.

ATM InARP—ATM Inverse Address Resolution Protocol.

CLEC—competitive local-exchange carrier. A company that builds and operates communication networks in metropolitan, urban, and remote areas and provides its customers with an alternative to the local telephone company.

CLI—command-line interface.

CNS—Cisco Networking Services.

CSU—channel service unit.

codec—code/decoder. An algorithm that transforms analog signals into digital signals and digital signals into analog signals.

CPE—customer-premises equipment. Devices such as channel service units (CSUs) and data service units (DSUs), modems, and ISDN terminal adapters, required to provide an electromagnetic termination for wide-area network circuits before connecting to the router or access server. This equipment was historically provided by the telephone company, but is now typically provided by the customer in North American markets.

DNS—Domain Name System.

DSU—data service unit.

HDLC—High-Level Data Link Control.

HTTP—Hypertext Transport Protocol.

IAD—integrated access device. A CPE device used to combine services from various sources onto a common platform for transmission on a common transport span. Typically, an IAD combines various voice and data services such as circuit-based services such as traditional plain old telephone service (POTS) and packet-switched services such as Frame Relay or ATM.

LDAP—Lightweight Directory Access Protocol.

NVRAM—Nonvolatile random-access memory.

PPP/IPCP—Point-to-Point Protocol / IP Control Protocol.

POTS—plain old telephone service.

PVC—permanent virtual circuit.

SLARP—Serial Line ARP.

XML—eXtensible Markup Language.