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MPLS Traffic Engineering -- DiffServ Aware (DS-TE)

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MPLS Traffic Engineering—DiffServ Aware

Table Of Contents

MPLS Traffic Engineering—DiffServ Aware

Contents

Background and Overview

Benefits

Related Features and Technologies

Prerequisites

Configuration Tasks

Central Commands for DS-TE

The ip rsvp bandwidth command

The tunnel mpls traffic-eng bandwidth command

The Configuration Procedure

Level 1: Configuring the Device

Level 2: Configuring the Physical Interface

Level 3: Configuring the Tunnel Interface

Verifying the Configurations

Configuration Examples

Tunnel Head

Midpoint Devices

Tail-End Device

Guaranteed Bandwidth Service Configuration

Guaranteed Bandwidth Service Examples

Example with Single Destination Prefix

Configuring Tunnel Head-1

Configuring Tunnel Head-2

Tunnel Midpoint Configuration [Mid-1]

Tunnel Midpoint Configuration [Mid-2]

Tunnel Tail Configuration

Example with Many Destination Prefixes

Configuration of Tunnel Head-1

Configuration of Tunnel Head-2

Tunnel Midpoint Configuration [Mid-1]

Tunnel Midpoint Configuration [Mid-2]

Tunnel Tail Configuration

Additional References

Related Documents

Standards

MIBs

RFCs

Technical Assistance

Command Reference

debug mpls traffic-eng link-management preemption

interface

ip cef

ip router isis

ip rsvp bandwidth

is-type

metric-style wide

mpls traffic-eng

mpls traffic-eng administrative-weight

mpls traffic-eng area

mpls traffic-eng attribute-flags

mpls traffic-eng backup-path tunnel

mpls traffic-eng flooding thresholds

mpls traffic-eng link timers bandwidth-hold

mpls traffic-eng link timers periodic-flooding

mpls traffic-eng reoptimize timers frequency

mpls traffic-eng router-id

mpls traffic-eng tunnels (global configuration)

mpls traffic-eng tunnels (interface configuration)

net

passive-interface

router isis

router ospf

show interfaces tunnel

show ip ospf

show ip route

show ip rsvp host

show ip rsvp interface

show mpls traffic-eng autoroute

show mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute database

show mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute log reroutes

show mpls traffic-eng link-management admission-control

show mpls traffic-eng link-management advertisements

show mpls traffic-eng link-management bandwidth-allocation

show mpls traffic-eng link-management igp-neighbors

show mpls traffic-eng link-management interfaces

show mpls traffic-eng link-management summary

show mpls traffic-eng topology

show mpls traffic-eng tunnels

tunnel destination

tunnel mode mpls traffic-eng

tunnel mpls traffic-eng affinity

tunnel mpls traffic-eng autoroute announce

tunnel mpls traffic-eng autoroute metric

tunnel mpls traffic-eng bandwidth

tunnel mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute

tunnel mpls traffic-eng path-option

tunnel mpls traffic-eng priority

Glossary


MPLS Traffic Engineering—DiffServ Aware


First Published: 12.0(11) ST
Last Updated: February 28, 2006

This guide presents extensions made to Multiprotocol Label Switching Traffic Engineering (MPLS TE) that make it DiffServ aware. Specifically, the bandwidth reservable on each link for constraint-based routing (CBR) purposes can now be managed through two bandwidth pools: a global pool and a sub-pool. The sub-pool can be limited to a smaller portion of the link bandwidth. Tunnels using the sub-pool bandwidth can then be used in conjunction with MPLS Quality of Service (QoS) mechanisms to deliver guaranteed bandwidth services end-to-end across the network.

History for the MPLS Traffic Engineering—DiffServ Aware Feature

Release
Modification

12.0(11) ST

This feature was introduced.

12.0(14) ST

Support added for Cisco Series 7500(VIP) platform.

Support added for IS-IS Interior Gateway Protocol.

12.0(14) ST-1

Support added for guaranteed bandwidth service directed to many destination prefixes (for example, guaranteed bandwidth service destined to an autonomous system or to a BGP community).

12.0(22)S

This feature integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.0(22)S.

12.2(28)SB

This feature was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.


Finding Support Information for Platforms and Cisco IOS Software Images

Use Cisco Feature Navigator to find information about platform support and Cisco IOS software image support. Access Cisco Feature Navigator at http://www.cisco.com/go/fn. You must have an account on Cisco.com. If you do not have an account or have forgotten your username or password, click Cancel at the login dialog box and follow the instructions that appear.

Contents

Background and Overview

Prerequisites

Configuration Tasks

Configuration Examples

Additional References

Command Reference

Glossary

Background and Overview

MPLS traffic engineering allows constraint-based routing of IP traffic. One of the constraints satisfied by CBR is the availability of required bandwidth over a selected path. DiffServ-aware Traffic Engineering extends MPLS traffic engineering to enable you to perform constraint-based routing of "guaranteed" traffic, which satisfies a more restrictive bandwidth constraint than that satisfied by CBR for regular traffic. The more restrictive bandwidth is termed a sub-pool, while the regular TE tunnel bandwidth is called the global pool. (The sub-pool is a portion of the global pool.) This ability to satisfy a more restrictive bandwidth constraint translates into an ability to achieve higher Quality of Service performance (in terms of delay, jitter, or loss) for the guaranteed traffic.

For example, DS-TE can be used to ensure that traffic is routed over the network so that, on every link, there is never more than 40 per cent (or any assigned percentage) of the link capacity of guaranteed traffic (for example, voice), while there can be up to 100 per cent of the link capacity of regular traffic. Assuming QoS mechanisms are also used on every link to queue guaranteed traffic separately from regular traffic, it then becomes possible to enforce separate "overbooking" ratios for guaranteed and regular traffic. (In fact, for the guaranteed traffic it becomes possible to enforce no overbooking at all—or even an underbooking—so that very high QoS can be achieved end-to-end for that traffic, even while for the regular traffic a significant overbooking continues to be enforced.)

Also, through the ability to enforce a maximum percentage of guaranteed traffic on any link, the network administrator can directly control the end-to-end QoS performance parameters without having to rely on over-engineering or on expected shortest path routing behavior. This is essential for transport of applications that have very high QoS requirements (such as real-time voice, virtual IP leased line, and bandwidth trading), where over-engineering cannot be assumed everywhere in the network.

DS-TE involves extending OSPF (Open Shortest Path First routing protocol), so that the available sub-pool bandwidth at each preemption level is advertised in addition to the available global pool bandwidth at each preemption level. And DS-TE modifies constraint-based routing to take this more complex advertised information into account during path computation.

Benefits

DiffServ-aware Traffic Engineering enables service providers to perform separate admission control and separate route computation for discrete subsets of traffic (for example, voice and data traffic).

Therefore, by combining DS-TE with other IOS features such as QoS, the service provider can:

Develop QoS services for end customers based on signaled rather than provisioned QoS

Build the higher-revenue generating "strict-commitment" QoS services, without over-provisioning

Offer virtual IP leased-line, Layer 2 service emulation, and point-to-point guaranteed bandwidth services including voice-trunking

Enjoy the scalability properties offered by MPLS

Related Features and Technologies

The DS-TE feature is related to OSPF, IS-IS, RSVP (Resource reSerVation Protocol), QoS, and MPLS traffic engineering. Cisco documentation for all of these features is listed in the next section.

Prerequisites

Your network must support the following Cisco IOS features in order to support guaranteed bandwidth services based on DiffServ-aware Traffic Engineering:

MPLS

IP Cisco Express Forwarding

OSPF or ISIS

RSVP-TE

QoS

Configuration Tasks

This section lists the minimum set of commands you need to implement the DiffServ-aware Traffic Engineering feature—in other words, to establish a tunnel that reserves bandwidth from the sub-pool.

The subsequent "Configuration Examples" section on page 8 presents these same commands in context and shows how, by combining them with QoS commands, you can build guaranteed bandwidth services.

Central Commands for DS-TE

DS-TE commands were developed from the existing command set that configures MPLS traffic engineering. The only difference introduced to create DS-TE was the expansion of two commands:

ip rsvp bandwidth was expanded to configure the size of the sub-pool on every link.

tunnel mpls traffic-eng bandwidth was expanded to enable a TE tunnel to reserve bandwidth from the sub-pool.

The ip rsvp bandwidth command

The old command was

ip rsvp bandwidth x y

where x = the size of the only possible pool, and y = the size of a single traffic flow (ignored by traffic engineering)

Now the extended command is

ip rsvp bandwidth x y sub-pool z

where x = the size of the global pool, and z = the size of the sub-pool.

(Remember, the sub-pool's bandwidth is less than—because it is part of—the global pool's bandwidth.)

The tunnel mpls traffic-eng bandwidth command

The old command was

tunnel mpls traffic-eng bandwidth b

where b = the amount of bandwidth this tunnel requires.

Now you specify from which pool (global or sub) the tunnel's bandwidth is to come. You can enter

tunnel mpls traffic-eng bandwidth sub-pool b

This indicates that the tunnel should use bandwidth from the sub-pool. Alternatively, you can enter

tunnel mpls traffic-eng bandwidth b

This indicates that the tunnel should use bandwidth from the global pool (the default).

The Configuration Procedure

To establish a sub-pool TE tunnel, you must enter configurations at three levels:

the device (router or switch router)

the physical interface

the tunnel interface

On the first two levels, you activate traffic engineering; on the third level—the tunnel interface—you establish the sub-pool tunnel. Therefore, it is only at the tunnel headend device that you need to configure all three levels. At the tunnel midpoints and tail, it is sufficient to configure the first two levels.

In the tables below, each command is explained in brief. For a more complete explanation of any command, refer to the page given in the right-hand column.

Level 1: Configuring the Device

At this level, you tell the device (router or switch router) to use accelerated packet-forwarding (known as Cisco Express Forwarding), MultiProtocol Label Switching (MPLS), traffic-engineering tunneling, and either the OSPF or IS-IS routing algorithm (Open Shortest Path First or Intermediate System to Intermediate System). This level is often called global configuration mode because the configuration is applied globally, to the entire device, rather than to a specific interface or routing instance. (These commands have not been modified from earlier releases of Cisco IOS.)

You enter the following commands:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

Router(config)# ip cef distributed

Enables Cisco Express Forwarding—which accelerates the flow of packets through the device.

Step 2 

Router(config)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels

Enables MPLS, and specifically its traffic engineering tunnel capability.

Step 3 

Router(config)# router ospf



[or]

Router(config)# router isis


Invokes the OSPF routing process for IP and puts the device into router configuration mode. Proceed now to Steps 9 and 10.

Alternatively, you may invoke the ISIS routing process with this command, and continue with Step 4.

Step 4 

Router (config-router)# net network-entity-title

Specifies the IS-IS network entity title (NET) for the routing process.

Step 5 

Router (config-router)# metric-style wide

Enables the router to generate and accept IS-IS new-style TLVs (type, length, and value objects).

Step 6 

Router (config-router)# is-type level-n

Configures the router to learn about destinations inside its own area or "IS-IS level".

Step 7 

Router (config-router)# mpls traffic-eng level-n

Specifies the IS-IS level (which must be same level as in the preceding step) to which the router will flood MPLS traffic- engineering link information.

Step 8 

Router (config-router)# passive-interface loopback0

Instructs IS-IS to advertise the IP address of the loopback interface without actually running IS-IS on that interface. Continue with Step 9 but don't do Step 10—because Step 10 refers to OSPF.

Step 9 

Router(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng router-id loopback0

Specifies that the traffic engineering router identifier is the IP address associated with the loopback0 interface.

Step 10 

Router(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng area num

Turns on MPLS traffic engineering for a particular OSPF area.

Level 2: Configuring the Physical Interface

Having configured the device, you now must configure the interface on that device through which the tunnel will run. To do that, you first put the router into interface-configuration mode.

You then enable Resource Reservation Protocol. RSVP is used to signal (set up) a traffic engineering tunnel, and to tell devices along the tunnel path to reserve a specific amount of bandwidth for the traffic that will flow through that tunnel. It is with this command that you establish the maximum size of the sub-pool.

Finally, you enable the MPLS traffic engineering tunnel feature on this physical interface—and if you will be relying on the IS-IS routing protocol, you enable that as well.

To accomplish these tasks, you enter the following commands:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

Router(config)# interface interface-id

Moves configuration to the interface level, directing subsequent configuration commands to the specific interface identified by the interface-id.

Step 2 

Router(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth interface-kbps sub-pool kbps

Enables RSVP on this interface and limits the amount of bandwidth RSVP can reserve on this interface. The sum of bandwidth used by all tunnels on this interface cannot exceed interface-kbps, and the sum of bandwidth used by all sub-pool tunnels cannot exceed sub-pool kbps.

Step 3 

Router(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels

Enables the MPLS traffic engineering tunnel feature on this interface.

Step 4 

Router(config-if)# ip router isis

Enables the IS-IS routing protocol on this interface. Do not enter this command if you are configuring for OSPF.

Level 3: Configuring the Tunnel Interface

Now you create a set of attributes for the tunnel itself; those attributes are configured on the "tunnel interface" (not to be confused with the physical interface just configured above).

The only command which was modified at this level for DS-TE is tunnel mpls traffic-eng bandwidth.

You enter the following commands:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

Router(config)# interface tunnel1

Creates a tunnel interface (named in this example tunnel1) and enters interface configuration mode.

Step 2 

Router(config-if)# tunnel destination A.B.C.D

Specifies the IP address of the tunnel tail device.

Step 3 

Router(config-if)# tunnel mode mpls traffic-eng

Sets the tunnel's encapsulation mode to MPLS traffic engineering.

Step 4 

Router(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng bandwidth {sub-pool | [global]} bandwidth

Configures the tunnel's bandwidth and assigns it either to the sub-pool or the global pool.

Step 5 

Router(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng priority

Sets the priority to be used when system determines which existing tunnels are eligible to be preempted.

Step 6 

Router(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng path-option

Configures the paths (hops) a tunnel should use. The user can enter an explicit path (can specify the IP addresses of the hops) or can specify a dynamic path (the router figures out the best set of hops).

Verifying the Configurations

To view the complete configuration you have entered, use the EXEC command show running-config and check its output display for correctness.

To check just one tunnel's configuration, enter show interfaces tunnel followed by the tunnel interface number. And to see that tunnel's RSVP bandwidth and flow, enter show ip rsvp interface followed by the name or number of the physical interface.

Here is an example of the information displayed by these two commands. To see an explanation of each field used in the following displays, refer to the show interfaces tunnel command and the show ip rsvp interface command.

GSR1#show interfaces tunnel 4
Tunnel4 is up, line protocol is down
  Hardware is Routing Tunnel
  MTU 1500 bytes, BW 9 Kbit, DLY 500000 usec, rely 255/255, load 1/255
  Encapsulation TUNNEL, loopback not set, keepalive set (10 sec)
  Tunnel source 0.0.0.0, destination 0.0.0.0
  Tunnel protocol/transport GRE/IP, key disabled, sequencing disabled
  Last input never, output never, output hang never
  Last clearing of "show interface" counters never
  Output queue 0/0, 0 drops; input queue 0/75, 0 drops
  Five minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
  Five minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
0 packets input, 0 bytes, 0 no buffer
Received 0 broadcasts, 0 runts, 0 giants
0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored, 0 abort
0 packets output, 0 bytes, 0 underruns
0 output errors, 0 collisions, 0 interface resets, 0 restarts    

GSR1#show ip rsvp interface pos4/0
interface    allocated  i/f max  flow max sub max 
PO4/0        300K       466500K  466500K  0M 

To view all tunnels at once on the router you have configured, enter show mpls traffic-eng tunnels brief. The information displayed when tunnels are functioning properly looks like this:

GSR1#show mpls traffic-eng tunnels brief
Signalling Summary:
LSP Tunnels Process:           running
RSVP Process:                  running
Forwarding:                    enabled
Periodic reoptimization:       every 3600 seconds, next in 3029 seconds
TUNNEL NAME 	DESTINATION      UP IF     DOWN IF   STATE/PROT
GSR1_t0 	192.168.1.13     -         SR3/0     up/up     
GSR1_t1 	192.168.1.13     -         SR3/0     up/up     
GSR1_t2 	192.168.1.13     -         PO4/0     up/up     
Displayed 3 (of 3) heads, 0 (of 0) midpoints, 0 (of 0) tails

When one or more tunnels is not functioning properly, the display could instead look like this. (In the following example, tunnels t0 and t1 are down, as indicated in the far right column).

GSR1#show mpls traffic-eng tunnels brief
Signalling Summary:
    LSP Tunnels Process:           running
    RSVP Process:                  running
    Forwarding:                    enabled
    Periodic reoptimization:       every 3600 seconds, next in 2279 seconds
TUNNEL NAME 	DESTINATION      UP IF     DOWN IF   STATE/PROT
GSR1_t0 	192.168.1.13     -         SR3/0     up/down 
GSR1_t1 	192.168.1.13     -         SR3/0     up/down 
GSR1_t2 	192.168.1.13     -         PO4/0     up/up 
Displayed 3 (of 3) heads, 0 (of 0) midpoints, 0 (of 0) tails

To find out why a tunnel is down, insert its name into this same command, after adding the keyword name and omitting the keyword brief. For example:

GSR1#show mpls traffic-eng tunnels name GSR1_t0 
Name:GSR1_t0                            (Tunnel0) Destination:192.168.1.13
  Status:
    Admin:up         Oper:down 	Path: not valid       Signalling:connected

If, as in this example, the Path is displayed as not valid, use the show mpls traffic-eng topology command to make sure the router has received the needed updates.

Additionally, you can use any of the following show commands to inspect particular aspects of the network, router, or interface concerned:

To see information about...
Use this command
this level
and this item...

Network

Advertised bandwidth allocation information

show mpls traffic-eng link-management advertisements

Preemptions along the tunnel path

debug mpls traffic-eng link-management preemption

Available TE link band- width on all head routers

show mpls traffic-eng topology

Router

Status of all tunnels cur- rently signalled by this router

show mpls traffic-eng link-management admission-control

Tunnels configured on midpoint routers

show mpls traffic-eng link-management summary

Physical interface

Detailed information on current bandwidth pools

show mpls traffic-eng link-management bandwidth-allocation [interface-name]

TE RSVP bookkeeping

show mpls traffic-eng link-management interfaces

Entire configuration of one interface

show run interface


Configuration Examples

First this section presents the DS-TE configurations needed to create the sub-pool tunnel. Then it presents the more comprehensive design for building end-to-end guaranteed bandwidth service, which involves configuring Quality of Service as well.

As shown in Figure 1, the tunnel configuration involves at least three devices—tunnel head, midpoint, and tail. On each of those devices one or two network interfaces must be configured, for traffic ingress and egress.

Figure 1 Sample Tunnel Topology

Tunnel Head

At the device level:

router-1# configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line.  End with CNTL/Z.

router-1(config)# ip cef distributed
router-1(config)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels

[now one uses either the IS-IS commands on the left or the OSPF commands on the right]

router-1(config)# router isis
router ospf 100
router-1(config-router)# net 49.0000.1000.0000.0010.00
redistribute connected
router-1(config-router)# metric-style wide
network 10.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 
area 0
router-1(config-router)# is-type level-1
network 172.16.22.1 0.0.0.0 
area 0
router-1(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng level-1
mpls traffic-eng area 0
router-1(config-router)# passive-interface Loopback0


:

[now one resumes the common command set]:

router-1(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng router-id Loopback0
router-1(config-router)# exit

router-1(config)# interface Loopback0

At the virtual interface level:

router-1(config-if)# ip address 172.16.22.1 255.255.255.255
router-1(config-if)# no ip directed-broadcast
router-1(config-if)# exit

At the device level:

router-1(config)# interface POS2/0/0

At the physical interface level (egress):

router-1(config-if)# ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
router-1(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels
router-1(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth 130000 130000 sub-pool 80000
[and if using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:
router-1(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases]:
router-1(config-if)# exit

At the device level:

router-1(config)# interface Tunnel1

At the tunnel interface level:

router-1(config-if)# bandwidth 110000
router-1(config-if)# ip unnumbered Loopback0
router-1(config-if)# tunnel destination 172.16.24.1
router-1(config-if)# tunnel mode mpls traffic-eng
router-1(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng priority 0 0
router-1(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng bandwidth sub-pool 30000
router-1(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng path-option 1 dynamic
router-1(config-if)# exit
router-1(config)# 

Midpoint Devices

At the device level:

router-2# configure terminal
router-2(config)# ip cef distributed
router-2(config)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels

[now one uses either the IS-IS commands on the left or the OSPF commands on the right]

router-2(config)# router isis
router ospf 100
router-2(config-router)# net 49.0000.1000.0000.0012.00
redistribute connected
router-2(config-router)# metric-style wide
network 10.0.1.0 0.0.0.255 
area 0
router-2(config-router)# is-type level-1
network 192.168.12.0 
0.0.0.255 area 0
router-2(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng level-1
network 172.16.25.1 0.0.0.0 
area 0
router-2(config-router)# passive-interface Loopback0
mpls traffic-eng area 0

:

[now one resumes the common command set]:

router-2(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng router-id Loopback0
router-2(config-router)# exit

router-2(config)# interface Loopback0

At the virtual interface level:

router-2(config-if)# ip address 172.16.25.1 255.255.255.255
router-2(config-if)# no ip directed-broadcast
router-2(config-if)# exit

At the device level:

router-1(config)# interface POS4/0
router-1(config-if)# ip address 10.0.1.2 255.255.255.0
router-1(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels
router-1(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth 130000 130000 sub-pool 80000

[If using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:

router-1(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases]:
router-1(config-if)# exit

At the device level:

router-1(config)# interface POS4/1
router-1(config-if)# ip address 192.168.12.2 255.255.255.0
router-1(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels
router-1(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth 130000 130000 sub-pool 80000

[If using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:

router-1(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases]:
router-1(config-if)# exit

Note that there is no configuring of tunnel interfaces at the mid-point devices, only network interfaces and the device globally.

Tail-End Device

At the device level:

router-3# configure terminal
router-3(config)# ip cef distributed
router-3(config)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels

[now one uses either the IS-IS commands on the left or the OSPF commands on the right]

router-3(config)# router isis
router ospf 100
router-3(config-router)# net 49.0000.1000.0000.0013.00
redistribute connected
router-3(config-router)# metric-style wide
network 192.168.12.0 
0.0.0.255 area 0
router-3(config-router)# is-type level-1
network 172.16.24.1 0.0.0.0 
area 0
router-3(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng level-1
mpls traffic-eng area 0
router-3(config-router)# passive-interface Loopback0


:

[now one resumes the common command set]:

router-3(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng router-id Loopback0
router-3(config-router)# exit

router-3(config)# interface Loopback0

At the virtual interface level:

router-3(config-if)# ip address 172.16.24.1 255.255.255.255
router-3(config-if)# no ip directed-broadcast
[and if using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:
router-3(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases]:
router-3(config-if)# exit

At the device level:

router-1(config)# interface POS4/0
router-1(config-if)# ip address 12.1.1.0 255.255.255.0
router-1(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels
router-1(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth 130000 130000 sub-pool 80000

[If using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:

router-1(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases]:
router-1(config-if)# exit

Guaranteed Bandwidth Service Configuration

Having configured two bandwidth pools, you now can

Use one pool, the sub-pool, for tunnels that carry traffic requiring strict bandwidth guarantees or delay guarantees

Use the other pool, the global pool, for tunnels that carry traffic requiring only Differentiated Service.

Having a separate pool for traffic requiring strict guarantees allows you to limit the amount of such traffic admitted on any given link. Often, it is possible to achieve strict QoS guarantees only if the amount of guaranteed traffic is limited to a portion of the total link bandwidth.

Having a separate pool for other traffic (best-effort or diffserv traffic) allows you to have a separate limit for the amount of such traffic admitted on any given link. This is useful because it allows you to fill up links with best-effort/diffserv traffic, thereby achieving a greater utilization of those links.

Providing Strict QoS Guarantees Using DS-TE Sub-pool Tunnels

A tunnel using sub-pool bandwidth can satisfy the stricter requirements if you do all of the following:

1. Select a queue—or in diffserv terminology, select a PHB (per-hop behavior)—to be used exclusively by the strict guarantee traffic. This shall be called the "GB queue."

If delay/jitter guarantees are sought, the diffserv Expedited Forwarding queue (EF PHB) is used. On the Cisco 7500(VIP) it is the "priority" queue. You must configure the bandwidth of the queue to be at least equal to the bandwidth of the sub-pool.

If only bandwidth guarantees are sought, the diffserv Assured Forwarding PHB (AF PHB) is used. On the Cisco 7500 (VIP) you use one of the existing Class-Based Weighted Fair Queuing (CBWFQ) queues.

2. Ensure that the guaranteed traffic sent through the sub-pool tunnel is placed in the GB queue at the outbound interface of every tunnel hop, and that no other traffic is placed in this queue.

You do this by marking the traffic that enters the tunnel with a unique value in the mpls exp bits field, and steering only traffic with that marking into the GB queue.

3. Ensure that this GB queue is never oversubscribed; that is, see that no more traffic is sent into the sub-pool tunnel than the GB queue can handle.

You do this by rate-limiting the guaranteed traffic before it enters the sub-pool tunnel. The aggregate rate of all traffic entering the sub-pool tunnel should be less than or equal to the bandwidth capacity of the sub-pool tunnel. Excess traffic can be dropped (in the case of delay/jitter guarantees) or can be marked differently for preferential discard (in the case of bandwidth guarantees).

4. Ensure that the amount of traffic entering the GB queue is limited to an appropriate percentage of the total bandwidth of the corresponding outbound link. The exact percentage to use depends on several factors that can contribute to accumulated delay in your network: your QoS performance objective, the total number of tunnel hops, the amount of link fan-in along the tunnel path, burstiness of the input traffic, and so on.

You do this by setting the sub-pool bandwidth of each outbound link to the appropriate percentage of the total link bandwidth (that is, by adjusting the z parameter of the ip rsvp bandwidth command).

Providing Differentiated Service Using DS-TE Global Pool Tunnels

You can configure a tunnel using global pool bandwidth to carry best-effort as well as several other classes of traffic. Traffic from each class can receive differentiated service if you do all of the following:

1. Select a separate queue (a distinct diffserv PHB) for each traffic class. For example, if there are three classes (gold, silver, and bronze) there must be three queues (diffserv AF2, AF3, and AF4).

2. Mark each class of traffic using a unique value in the MPLS experimental bits field (for example gold = 4, silver = 5, bronze = 6).

3. Ensure that packets marked as Gold are placed in the gold queue, Silver in the silver queue, and so on. The tunnel bandwidth is set based on the expected aggregate traffic across all classes of service.

To control the amount of diffserv tunnel traffic you intend to support on a given link, adjust the size of the global pool on that link.

Providing Strict Guarantees and Differentiated Service in the Same Network

Because DS-TE allows simultaneous constraint-based routing of sub-pool and global pool tunnels, strict guarantees and diffserv can be supported simultaneously in a given network.

Guaranteed Bandwidth Service Examples

Given the many topologies in which Guaranteed Bandwidth Services can be applied, there is space here only to present two examples. They illustrate opposite ends of the spectrum of possibilities.

In the first example, the guaranteed bandwidth tunnel can be easily specified by its destination. So the forwarding criteria refer to a single destination prefix.

In the second example, there can be many final destinations for the guaranteed bandwidth traffic, including a dynamically changing number of destination prefixes. So the forwarding criteria are specified by Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) policies.

Example with Single Destination Prefix

Figure 2 illustrates a topology for guaranteed bandwidth services whose destination is specified by a single prefix, either Site D (like a voice gateway, here bearing prefix 172.16.26.1) or a subnet (like the location of a web farm, here called "Province" and bearing prefix 172.16.26.0). Three services are offered:

From Site A (defined as all traffic arriving at interface FE4/1/0): to host 172.16.26.1, 8 Mbps of guaranteed bandwidth with low loss, low delay and low jitter

From Site B (defined as all traffic arriving at interface FE4/1/1): towards subnet 172.16.26.0, 32 Mbps of guaranteed bandwidth with low loss

From Site C (defined as all traffic arriving at interface FE2/1/0): 30 Mbps of guaranteed bandwidth with low loss

Figure 2 Sample Topology for Guaranteed Bandwidth Services to a Single Destination Prefix

These three services run through two sub-pool tunnels:

From the Head-1 router, 172.16.23.1, to the router-4 tail

From the Head-2 router, 172.16.22.1, to the router-4 tail

Both tunnels use the same tail router, though they have different heads. (In Figure 2, one midpoint router is shared by both tunnels. In the real world there could of course be many more midpoints.)

All POS interfaces in this example are OC3, whose capacity is 155 Mbps.

Configuring Tunnel Head-1

First we recapitulate commands that establish two bandwidth pools and a sub-pool tunnel (as presented earlier in this Configuration Examples section). Then we present the QoS commands that guarantee end-to-end service on the subpool tunnel. (With the 7500 router, Modular QoS CLI is used.)

Configuring the Pools and Tunnel

At the device level:

router-1(config)# ip cef distributed
router-1(config)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels

[now one uses either the IS-IS commands on the left or the OSPF commands on the right]

router-1(config)# router isis
router ospf 100
router-1(config-router)# net 49.0000.1000.0000.0010.00
redistribute connected
router-1(config-router)# metric-style wide
network 10.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 
area 0
router-1(config-router)# is-type level-1
network 172.16.23.1 0.0.0.0 
area 0
router-1(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng level-1
mpls traffic-eng area 0
router-1(config-router)# passive-interface Loopback0


:

[now one resumes the common command set]:

router-1(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng router-id Loopback0
router-1(config-router)# exit

Create a virtual interface:

router-1(config)# interface Loopback0
router-1(config-if)# ip address 172.16.23.1 255.255.255.255
router-1(config-if)# no ip directed-broadcast
router-1(config-if)# exit

At the outgoing physical interface:

router-1(config)# interface pos4/0
router-1(config-if)# ip address 10.1.1.1 255.0.0.0
router-1(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels
router-1(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth 140000 140000 sub-pool 60000
[and if using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:
router-1(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases}:
router-1(config-if)# exit

At the tunnel interface:

router-1(config)# interface Tunnel1
router-1(config-if)# bandwidth 110000
router-1(config-if)# ip unnumbered Loopback0
router-1(config-if)# tunnel destination 172.16.27.1
router-1(config-if)# tunnel mode mpls traffic-eng
router-1(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng priority 0 0
router-1(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng bandwidth sub-pool 40000
router-1(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng path-option 1 dynamic

To ensure that packets destined to host 172.16.26.1 and subnet 172.16.26.0 are sent into the sub-pool tunnel, we create a static route. At the device level:

router-1(config)# ip route 172.16.26.1 255.255.255.0 Tunnel1
router-1(config)# exit

And in order to make sure that the Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) will not send any other traffic down this tunnel, we disable autoroute announce:

router-1(config)# no tunnel mpls traffic-eng autoroute announce

For Service from Site A to Site D

At the inbound physical interface (FE4/1/0):

1. In global configuration mode, create a class of traffic matching ACL 100, called "sla-1-class":

class-map match-all sla-1-class
match access-group 100

2. Create an ACL 100 to refer to all packets destined to 172.16.26.1:

access-list 100 permit ip any host 172.16.26.1

3. Create a policy named "sla-1-input-policy", and according to that policy:

a. Packets in the class called "sla-1-class" are rate-limited to:

- a rate of 8 million bits per second

- a normal burst of 1 million bytes

- a maximum burst of 2 million bytes

b. Packets which conform to this rate are marked with MPLS experimental bit 5 and are forwarded.

c. Packets which exceed this rate are dropped.

d. All other packets are marked with experimental bit 0 and are forwarded.

policy-map sla-1-input-policy
class sla-1-class
police 8000000 1000000 2000000 conform-action set-mpls-exp-transmit 5 \ 
exceed-action drop
class class-default
set-mpls-exp-transmit 0

4. The policy is applied to packets entering interface FE4/1/0.

interface FastEthernet4/1/0
service-policy input sla-1-input-policy

For Service from Site B to Subnet "Province"

At the inbound physical interface (FE4/1/1):

1. In global configuration mode, create a class of traffic matching ACL 120, called "sla-2-class":

class-map match-all sla-2-class
match access-group 120

2. Create an ACL, 120, to refer to all packets destined to subnet 172.16.26.0:

access-list 120 permit ip any 172.16.26.0 0.0.0.255

3. Create a policy named "sla-2-input-policy", and according to that policy:

a. Packets in the class called "sla-2-class" are rate-limited to:

- a rate of 32 million bits per second

- a normal burst of 1 million bytes

- a maximum burst of 2 million bytes

b. Packets which conform to this rate are marked with MPLS experimental bit 5 and are forwarded.

c. Packets which exceed this rate are dropped.

d. All other packets are marked with experimental bit 0 and are forwarded.

policy-map sla-2-input-policy
class sla-2-class
police 32000000 1000000 2000000 conform-action set-mpls-exp-transmit 5 \ 
exceed-action drop
class class-default
set-mpls-exp-transmit 0

4. The policy is applied to packets entering interface FE4/1/1.

interface FastEthernet4/1/1
service-policy input sla-2-input-policy

For Both Services

The outbound interface (POS4/0) is configured as follows:

1. In global configuration mode, create a class of traffic matching experimental bit 5, called "exp-5-traffic".

class-map match-all exp-5-traffic
match mpls experimental 5

2. Create a policy named "output-interface-policy". According to that policy, packets in the class "exp-5-traffic" are put in the priority queue (which is rate-limited to 62 kbits/sec).

policy-map output-interface-policy
class exp-5-traffic
priority 32

3. The policy is applied to packets exiting interface POS4/0.

		 interface POS4/0
service-policy output output-interface-policy

The result of the above configuration lines is that packets entering the Head-1 router via interface FE4/1/0 destined to host 172.16.26.1, or entering the router via interface FE4/1/1 destined to subnet 172.16.26.0, will have their MPLS experimental bit set to 5. We assume that no other packets entering the router (on any interface) are using this value. (If this cannot be assumed, an additional configuration must be added to mark all such packets to another experimental value.) Packets marked with experimental bit 5, when exiting the router via interface POS4/0, will be placed into the priority queue.


Note Packets entering the router via FE4/1/0 or FE4/1/1 and exiting POS4/0 enter as IP packets and exit as MPLS packets.


Configuring Tunnel Head-2

First we recapitulate commands that establish two bandwidth pools and a sub-pool tunnel (as presented earlier in this Configuration Examples section). Then we present the QoS commands that guarantee end-to-end service on the sub-pool tunnel.

.Configuring the Pools and Tunnel

At the device level:

router-2(config)# ip cef distributed
router-2(config)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels

[now one uses either the IS-IS commands on the left or the OSPF commands on the right]

router-2(config)# router isis
router ospf 100
router-2(config-router)# net 49.0000.1000.0000.0011.00
redistribute connected
router-2(config-router)# metric-style wide
network 192.168.11.0 
0.0.0.255 area 0
router-2(config-router)# is-type level-1
network 172.16.22.1 0.0.0.0 
area 0
router-2(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng level-1
mpls traffic-eng area 0
router-2(config-router)# passive-interface Loopback0


:

[now one resumes the common command set]:

router-2(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng router-id Loopback0
router-2(config-router)# exit

Create a virtual interface:

router-2(config)# interface Loopback0
router-2(config-if)# ip address 172.16.22.1 255.255.255.255
router-2(config-if)# no ip directed broadcast
router-2(config-if)# exit

At the outgoing physical interface:

router-2(config)# interface pos0/0
router-2(config-if)# ip address 192.168.11.1 255.0.0.0
router-2(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels
router-2(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth 140000 140000 sub-pool 60000
[and if using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:
router-2(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases]:
router-2(config-if)# exit

At the tunnel interface:

router-2(config)# interface Tunnel2
router-2(config-if)# ip unnumbered Loopback0
router-2(config-if)# tunnel destination 172.16.27.1
router-2(config-if)# tunnel mode mpls traffic-eng
router-2(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng priority 0 0
router-2(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng bandwidth sub-pool 30000
router-2(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng path-option 1 dynamic
router-2(config-if)# exit

And to ensure that packets destined to subnet 172.16.26.0 are sent into the sub-pool tunnel, we create a static route, at the device level:

router-2(config)# ip route 172.16.26.0 255.255.255.0 Tunnel2
router-2(config)# exit

Finally, in order to make sure that the Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) will not send any other traffic down this tunnel, we disable autoroute announce:

router-2(config)# no tunnel mpls traffic-eng autoroute announce

For Service from Site C to Subnet "Province"

At the inbound physical interface (FE2/1/0):

1. In global configuration mode, create a class of traffic matching ACL 130, called "sla-3-class":

class-map match-all sla-3-class
match access-group 130

2. Create an ACL, 130, to refer to all packets destined to subnet 26.1.1.0:

access-list 130 permit ip any 172.16.26.0 0.0.0.255

3. Create a policy named "sla-3-input-policy", and according to that policy:

a. Packets in the class called "sla-3-class" are rate-limited to:

- a rate of 30 million bits per second

- a normal burst of 1 million bytes

- a maximum burst of 2 million bytes

b. Packets which conform to this rate are marked with MPLS experimental bit 5 and are forwarded.

c. Packets which exceed this rate are dropped.

d. All other packets are marked with experimental bit 0 and are forwarded.

policy-map sla-3-input-policy
class sla-3-class
police 30000000 1000000 2000000 conform-action set-mpls-exp-transmit 5 \ 
exceed-action drop
class class-default
set-mpls-exp-transmit 0

4. The policy is applied to packets entering interface FE2/1/0.

interface FastEthernet2/1/0
service-policy input sla-3-input-policy

The outbound interface POS0/0 is configured as follows:

1. In global configuration mode, create a class of traffic matching experimental bit 5, called "exp-5-traffic".

class-map match-all exp-5-traffic
match mpls experimental 5

2. Create a policy named "output-interface-policy". According to that policy, packets in the class "exp-5-traffic" are put in the priority queue (which is rate-limited to 32 kbits/sec).

policy-map output-interface-policy
class exp-5-traffic
priority 32

3. The policy is applied to packets exiting interface POS0/0:

interface POS0/0
service-policy output output-interface-policy

As a result of all the above configuration lines, packets entering theHead-2 router via interface FE2/1/0 and destined for subnet 172.16.26.0 have their IP precedence field set to 5. It is assumed that no other packets entering this router (on any interface) are using this precedence. (If this cannot be assumed, an additional configuration must be added to mark all such packets with another precedence value.) When exiting this router via interface POS0/0, packets marked with precedence 5 are placed in the priority queue.


Note Packets entering the router via FE2/1/0 and exiting through POS0/0 enter as IP packets and exit as MPLS packets.


Tunnel Midpoint Configuration [Mid-1]

All four interfaces on the midpoint router are configured identically to the outbound interface of the head router (except, of course, for the IDs of the individual interfaces):

Configuring the Pools and Tunnels

At the device level:

router-3(config)# ip cef distributed 
router-3(config)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels

[now one uses either the IS-IS commands on the left or the OSPF commands on the right]

router-3(config)# router isis
router ospf 100
router-3(config-router)# net 49.0000.2400.0000.0011.00
redistribute connected
router-3(config-router)# metric-style wide
network 10.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 
area 0
router-3(config-router)# is-type level-1
network 192.168.11.0 
0.0.0.255 area 0
router-3(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng level-1
network 172.16.24.1 0.0.0.0 
area 0
router-3(config-router)# passive-interface Loopback0
network 192.168.12.0 
0.0.0.255 area 0
router-3(config-router)#
network 192.168.13.1 
0.0.0.255 area 0
router-3(config-router)#
mpls traffic-eng area 0

:

[now one resumes the common command set]:

router-3(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng router-id Loopback0
router-3(config-router)# exit

Create a virtual interface:

router-3(config)# interface Loopback0
router-3(config-if)# ip address 172.16.24.1 255.255.255.255
router-3(config-if)# exit

At the physical interface level (ingress):

router-3(config)# interface pos2/1
router-3(config-if)# ip address 10.1.1.2 255.0.0.0
router-3(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels
router-3(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth 140000 140000 sub-pool 60000
[and if using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:
router-3(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases]:
router-3(config-if)# exit

router-3(config)# interface pos1/1
router-3(config-if)# ip address 192.168.11.2 255.0.0.0
router-3(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels
router-3(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth 140000 140000 sub-pool 60000
[and if using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:
router-3(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases]:
router-3(config-if)# exit

At the physical interface level (egress):

router-3(config)# interface pos3/1
router-3(config-if)# ip address 192.168.12.1 255.0.0.0
router-3(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels
router-3(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth 140000 140000 sub-pool 60000
[and if using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:
router-3(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases]:
router-3(config-if)# exit

router-3(config)# interface pos4/1
router-3(config-if)# ip address 192.168.13.1 255.0.0.0
router-3(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels
router-3(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth 140000 140000 sub-pool 60000
[and if using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:
router-3(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases]:
router-3(config-if)# exit

Tunnel Midpoint Configuration [Mid-2]

Both interfaces on the midpoint router are configured identically to the outbound interface of the head router (except, of course, for the IDs of the individual interfaces):

Configuring the Pools and Tunnel

At the device level:

router-5(config)# ip cef distributed 
router-5(config)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels

[now one uses either the IS-IS commands on the left or the OSPF commands on the right]

router-5(config)# router isis
router ospf 100
router-5(config-router)# net 49.2500.1000.0000.0012.00
redistribute connected
router-5(config-router)# metric-style wide
network 192.168.13.0 
0.0.0.255 area 0
router-5(config-router)# is-type level-1
network 192.168.14.0 
0.0.0.255 area 0
router-5(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng level-1
network 172.16.25.1 0.0.0.0 
area 0
router-5(config-router)# passive-interface Loopback0
mpls traffic-eng area 0

:

[now one resumes the common command set]:

router-5(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng router-id Loopback0
router-5(config-router)# exit

Create a virtual interface:

router-5(config)# interface Loopback0
router-5(config-if)# ip address 172.16.25.1 255.255.255.255
router-5(config-if)# exit

At the physical interface level (ingress):

router-5(config)# interface pos1/1
router-5(config-if)# ip address 192.168.13.2 255.0.0.0
router-5(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels
router-5(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth 140000 140000 sub-pool 60000
[and if using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:
router-5(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases]:
router-5(config-if)# exit

At the physical interface level (egress):

router-5(config)# interface pos2/1
router-5(config-if)# ip address 192.168.14.1 255.0.0.0
router-5(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels
router-5(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth 140000 140000 sub-pool 60000
[and if using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:
router-5(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases]:
router-5(config-if)# exit

Tunnel Tail Configuration

The inbound interfaces on the tail router are configured identically to the inbound interfaces of the midpoint routers (except, of course, for the ID of each particular interface):

Configuring the Pools and Tunnels

At the device level:

router-4(config)# ip cef distributed
router-4(config)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels

[now one uses either the IS-IS commands on the left or the OSPF commands on the right]

router-4(config)# router isis
router ospf 100
router-4(config-router)# net 49.0000.2700.0000.0000.00
redistribute connected
router-4(config-router)# metric-style wide
network 192.168.12.0 
0.0.0.255 area 0
router-4(config-router)# is-type level-1
network 192.168.14.0 
0.0.0.255 area 0
router-4(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng level-1
network 172.16.27.1 0.0.0.0 
area 0
router-4(config-router)# passive-interface Loopback0
mpls traffic-eng area 0

:

[now one resumes the common command set]:

router-4(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng router-id Loopback0
router-4(config-router)# exit

Create a virtual interface:

router-4(config)# interface Loopback0
router-4(config-if)# ip address 172.16.27.1 255.255.255.255
router-4(config-if)# exit

At the physical interface (ingress):

router-4(config)# interface pos2/1
router-4(config-if)# ip address 192.168.12.2 255.0.0.0
router-4(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels
router-4(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth 140000 140000 sub-pool 60000
[and if using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:
router-4(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases]:
router-4(config-if)# exit

router-4(config)# interface pos2/2
router-4(config-if)# ip address 192.168.14.2 255.0.0.0
router-4(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels
router-4(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth 140000 140000 sub-pool 60000
[and if using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:
router-4(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases]:
router-4(config-if)# exit

Because the tunnel ends on the tail (does not include any outbound interfaces of the tail router), no outbound QoS configuration is used.

Example with Many Destination Prefixes

Figure 3 illustrates a topology for guaranteed bandwidth services whose destinations are a set of prefixes. Those prefixes usually share some common properties such as belonging to the same Autonomous System (AS) or transiting through the same AS. Although the individual prefixes may change dynamically because of route flaps in the downstream autonomous systems, the properties the prefixes share will not change. Policies addressing the destination prefix set are enforced through Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), which is described in the following documents:

"Configuring QoS Policy Propagation via Border Gateway Protocol" section in the Cisco IOS Quality of Service Solutions Configuration Guide, Release 12.1

"Configuring BGP" chapter in the Cisco IOS IP and IP Routing Configuration Guide, Release 12.1

"BGP Commands" chapter in the Cisco IOS IP and IP Routing Command Reference, Release 12.1

"bgp-policy" command in the Cisco IOS Quality of Service Solutions Command Reference, Release 12.1

In this example, three guaranteed bandwidth services are offered, each coming through a 7500 or a 12000 edge device:

Traffic coming from Site A (defined as all traffic arriving at interface FE4/1/0) and from Site C (defined as all traffic arriving at interface FE2/1) destined to AS5

Traffic coming from Sites A and C that transits AS5 but is not destined to AS5. (In the figure, the transiting traffic will go to AS6 and AS7)

Traffic coming from Sites A and C destined to prefixes advertised with a particular BGP community attribute (100:1). In this example, Autonomous Systems #3, #5, and #8 are the BGP community assigned the attribute 100:1.

Figure 3 Sample Topology for Guaranteed Bandwidth Service to Many Destination Prefixes

The applicability of guaranteed bandwidth service is not limited to the three types of multiple destination scenarios described above. There is not room in this document to present all possible scenarios. These three were chosen as representative of the wide range of possible deployments.

The guaranteed bandwidth services run through two sub-pool tunnels:

From the Head-1 router, 172.16.23.1, to the tail

From the Head-2 router, 172.16.22.1, to that same tail

In addition, a global pool tunnel has been configured from each head end, to carry best-effort traffic to the same destinations. All four tunnels use the same tail router, even though they have different heads and differ in their passage through the midpoints. (Of course in the real world there would be many more midpoints than just the two shown here.)

All POS interfaces in this example are OC3, whose capacity is 155 Mbps.

Configuring a multi-destination guaranteed bandwidth service involves:

a. Building a sub-pool MPLS-TE tunnel

b. Configuring DiffServ QoS

c. Configuring QoS Policy Propagation via BGP (QPPB)

d. Mapping traffic onto the tunnels

All of these tasks are included in the following example.

Configuration of Tunnel Head-1

First we recapitulate commands that establish a sub-pool tunnel (commands presented earlier on page 8) and now we also configure a global pool tunnel. Additionally, we present QoS and BGP commands that guarantee end-to-end service on the sub-pool tunnel. (With the 7500(VIP) router, Modular QoS CLI is used).

Configuring the Pools and Tunnels

At the device level:

router-1(config)# ip cef distributed
router-1(config)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels

[now one uses either the IS-IS commands on the left or the OSPF commands on the right]

router-1(config)# router isis
router ospf 100
router-1(config-router)# net 49.0000.1000.0000.0010.00
redistribute connected
router-1(config-router)# metric-style wide
network 10.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 
area 0
router-1(config-router)# is-type level-1
network 172.16.23.1 0.0.0.0 
area 0
router-1(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng level-1
mpls traffic-eng area 0

:

[now one resumes the common command set]:

router-1(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng router-id Loopback0
router-1(config-router)# exit

Create a virtual interface:

router-1(config)# interface Loopback0
router-1(config-if)# ip address 172.16.23.1 255.255.255.255
router-1(config-if)# exit

At the outgoing physical interface:

router-1(config)# interface pos4/0
router-1(config-if)# ip address 10.1.1.1 255.0.0.0
router-1(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels
router-1(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth 140000 140000 sub-pool 60000
[and if using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:
router-1(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases]:
router-1(config-if)# exit

At one tunnel interface, create a sub-pool tunnel:

router-1(config)# interface Tunnel1
router-1(config-if)# ip unnumbered Loopback0
router-1(config-if)# tunnel destination 172.16.27.1
router-1(config-if)# tunnel mode mpls traffic-eng
router-1(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng priority 0 0
router-1(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng bandwidth sub-pool 40000
router-1(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng path-option 1 explicit name gbs-path1
router-1(config-if)# exit

and at a second tunnel interface, create a global pool tunnel:

router-1(config)# interface Tunnel2
router-1(config-if)# ip unnumbered Loopback0
router-1(config-if)# tunnel destination 172.16.27.1
router-1(config-if)# tunnel mode mpls traffic-eng
router-1(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng priority 0 0
router-1(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng bandwidth 80000
router-1(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng path-option 1 explicit name \ 
best-effort-path1
router-1(config-if)# exit

In this example explicit paths are used instead of dynamic, to ensure that best-effort traffic and guaranteed bandwidth traffic will travel along different paths.

At the device level:

router-1(config)# ip explicit-path name gbs-path1
router-1(config-ip-expl-path)# next-address 172.16.24.1
router-1(config-ip-expl-path)# next-address 172.16.27.1
router-1(config-ip-expl-path)# exit
router-1(config)# ip explicit-path name best-effort-path1
router-1(config-ip-expl-path)# next-address 172.16.24.1
router-1(config-ip-expl-path)# next-address 172.16.25.1
router-1(config-ip-expl-path)# next-address 172.16.27.1
router-1(config-ip-expl-path)# exit

Note that autoroute is not used, as that could cause the Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) to send other traffic down these tunnels.

Configuring DiffServ QoS

At the inbound physical interface (in Figure 3 this is FE4/1/0), packets received are rate-limited to:

a. a rate of 30 Mbps

b. a normal burst of 1 MB

c. a maximum burst of 2 MB

Packets that are mapped to qos-group 6 and that conform to the rate-limit are marked with experimental value 5 and the BGP destination community string, and are forwarded; packets that do not conform (exceed action) are dropped:

router-1(config)# interface FastEthernet4/1/0
router-1(config-if)# rate-limit input qos-group 6 30000000 1000000 2000000 \ 
conform-action set-mpls-exp-transmit 5 exceed-action drop
router-1(config-if)# bgp-policy destination ip-qos-map
router-1(config-if)# exit

At the device level create a class of traffic called "exp5-class" that has MPLS experimental bit set to 5:

router-1(config)# class-map match-all exp5-class
router-1(config-cmap)# match mpls experimental 5
router-1(config-cmap)# exit

Create a policy that creates a priority queue for "exp5-class":

router-1(config)# policy-map core-out-policy
router-1(config-pmap)# class exp5-class
router-1(config-pmap-c)# priority 100000
router-1(config-pmap-c)# exit
router-1(config-pmap)# class class-default
router-1(config-pmap-c)# bandwidth 55000
router-1(config-pmap-c)# exit
router-1(config-pmap)# exit

The policy is applied to packets exiting the outbound interface POS4/0.

router-1(config)# interface POS4/0
router-1(config-if)# service-policy output core-out-policy

Configuring QoS Policy Propagation via BGP

For All GB Services

Create a table map under BGP to map (tie) the prefixes to a qos-group. At the device level:

router-1(config)# ip bgp-community new-format
router-1(config)# router bgp 2
router-1(config-router)# no synchronization
router-1(config-router)# table-map set-qos-group
router-1(config-router)# bgp log-neighbor-changes
router-1(config-router)# neighbor 172.16.27.1 remote-as 2
router-1(config-router)# neighbor 172.16.27.1 update-source Loopback0
router-1(config-router)# no auto-summary
router-1(config-router)# exit

For GB Service Destined to AS5

Create a distinct route map for this service. This includes setting the next-hop of packets matching 172.16.29.1 so they will be mapped onto Tunnel #1 (the guaranteed bandwidth service tunnel). At the device level:

router-1(config)# route-map set-qos-group permit 10
router-1(config-route-map)# match as-path 100
router-1(config-route-map)# set ip qos-group 6
router-1(config-route-map)# set ip next-hop 172.16.29.1
router-1(config-route-map)# exit
router-1(config)# ip as-path access-list 100 permit ^5$

For GB Service Transiting through AS5

Create a distinct route map for this service. (Its traffic will go to AS6 and AS7).

At the device level:

router-1(config)# route-map set-qos-group permit 10
router-1(config-route-map)# match as-path 101
router-1(config-route-map)# set ip qos-group 6
router-1(config-route-map)# set ip next-hop 172.16.29.1
router-1(config-route-map)# exit
router-1(config)# ip as-path access-list 101 permit _5_

For GB Service Destined to Community 100:1

Create a distinct route map for all traffic destined to prefixes that have community value 100:1. This traffic will go to AS3, AS5, and AS8.

At the device level:

router-1(config)# route-map set-qos-group permit 10
router-1(config-route-map)# match community 20
router-1(config-route-map)# set ip qos-group 6
router-1(config-route-map)# set ip next-hop 172.16.29.1
router-1(config-route-map)# exit
router-1(config)# ip community-list 20 permit 100:1

Mapping Traffic onto the Tunnels

Map all guaranteed bandwidth traffic onto Tunnel #1:

router-1(config)# ip route 172.16.29.1 255.255.255.255 Tunnel1

Map all best-effort traffic onto Tunnel #2:

router-1(config)# ip route 172.16.30.1 255.255.255.255 Tunnel2

Configuration of Tunnel Head-2

As with the Head-1 device and interfaces, the following Head-2 configuration first presents commands that establish a sub-pool tunnel (commands presented earlier on page 8) and then also configures a global pool tunnel. After that it presents QoS and BGP commands that guarantee end-to-end service on the sub-pool tunnel. (Because this is a 7500 (VIP) router, Modular QoS CLI is used).

Configuring the Pools and Tunnels

At the device level:

router-2(config)# ip cef distributed
router-2(config)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels

[now one uses either the IS-IS commands on the left or the OSPF commands on the right]

router-2(config)# router isis
router ospf 100
router-2(config-router)# net 49.0000.1000.0000.0011.00
redistribute connected
router-2(config-router)# metric-style wide
network 192.168.11.0 
0.0.0.255 area 0
router-2(config-router)# is-type level-1
network 172.16.22.1 
0.0.0.0 area 0
router-2(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng level-1
mpls traffic-eng area 0

:

[now one resumes the common command set]:

router-2(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng router-id Loopback0
router-2(config-router)# exit

Create a virtual interface:

router-2(config)# interface Loopback0
router-2(config-if)# ip address 172.16.22.1 255.255.255.255
router-2(config-if)# exit

At the outgoing physical interface:

router-2(config)# interface pos0/0
router-2(config-if)# ip address 192.168.11.1 255.0.0.0
router-2(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels
router-2(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth 140000 140000 sub-pool 60000
[and if using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:
router-2(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases]:
router-2(config-if)# exit

At one tunnel interface, create a sub-pool tunnel:

router-2(config)# interface Tunnel3
router-2(config-if)# ip unnumbered Loopback0
router-2(config-if)# tunnel destination 172.16.27.1
router-2(config-if)# tunnel mode mpls traffic-eng
router-2(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng priority 0 0
router-2(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng bandwidth sub-pool 30000
router-2(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng path-option 1 explicit name gbs-path2
router-2(config-if)# exit

and at a second tunnel interface, create a global pool tunnel:

router-2(config)# interface Tunnel4
router-2(config-if)# ip unnumbered Loopback0
router-2(config-if)# tunnel destination 172.16.27.1
router-2(config-if)# tunnel mode mpls traffic-eng
router-2(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng priority 0 0
router-2(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng bandwidth 70000
router-2(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng path-option 1 explicit name \ 
best-effort-path2
router-2(config-if)# exit

In this example explicit paths are used instead of dynamic, to ensure that best-effort traffic and guaranteed bandwidth traffic will travel along different paths.

At the device level:

router-2(config)# ip explicit-path name gbs-path2
router-2(config-ip-expl-path)# next-address 172.16.24.1
router-2(config-ip-expl-path)# next-address 172.16.27.1
router-2(config-ip-expl-path)# exit
router-2(config)# ip explicit-path name best-effort-path2
router-2(config-ip-expl-path)# next-address 172.16.24.1
router-2(config-ip-expl-path)# next-address 172.16.25.1
router-2(config-ip-expl-path)# next-address 172.16.27.1
router-2(config-ip-expl-path)# exit

Note that autoroute is not used, as that could cause the Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) to send other traffic down these tunnels.

Configuring DiffServ QoS

At the inbound physical interface (in Figure 3 this is FE2/1), packets received are rate-limited to:

a. a rate of 30 Mbps

b. a normal burst of 1 MB

c. a maximum burst of 2 MB

Packets that are mapped to qos-group 6 and that conform to the rate-limit are marked with experimental value 5 and the BGP destination community string, and are forwarded; packets that do not conform (exceed action) are dropped:

router-2(config)# interface FastEthernet2/1
router-2(config-if)# rate-limit input qos-group 6 30000000 1000000 2000000 \ 
conform-action set-mpls-exp-transmit 5 exceed-action drop
router-2(config-if)# bgp-policy destination ip-qos-map
router-1(config-if)# exit

At the device level create a class of traffic called "exp5-class" that has MPLS experimental bit set to 5:

router-2(config)# class-map match-all exp5-class
router-2(config-cmap)# match mpls experimental 5
router-2(config-cmap)# exit

Create a policy that creates a priority queue for "exp5-class":

router-2(config)# policy-map core-out-policy
router-2(config-pmap)# class exp5-class
router-2(config-pmap-c)# priority 100000
router-2(config-pmap-c)# exit
router-2(config-pmap)# class class-default
router-2(config-pmap-c)# bandwidth 55000
router-2(config-pmap-c)# exit
router-2(config-pmap)# exit

The policy is applied to packets exiting interface POS0/0:

interface POS0/0
service-policy output core-out-policy

As a result of all the above configuration lines, packets entering the Head-2 router via interface FE2/1 and destined for AS5, BGP community 100:1, or transiting AS5 will have their experimental field set to 5. It is assumed that no other packets entering this router (on any interface) are using this exp bit value. (If this cannot be assumed, an additional configuration must be added to mark all such packets with another experimental value.) When exiting this router via interface POS0/0, packets marked with experimental value 5 are placed into the priority queue.


Note Packets entering the router via FE2/1 and exiting through POS0/0 enter as IP packets and exit as MPLS packets.


Configuring QoS Policy Propagation via BGP

For All GB Services

Create a table map under BGP to map (tie) the prefixes to a qos-group. At the device level:

router-2(config)# ip bgp-community new-format
router-2(config)# router bgp 2
router-2(config-router)# no synchronization
router-2(config-router)# table-map set-qos-group
router-2(config-router)# bgp log-neighbor-changes
router-2(config-router)# neighbor 172.16.27.1 remote-as 2
router-2(config-router)# neighbor 172.16.27.1 update-source Loopback0
router-2(config-router)# no auto-summary
router-2(config-router)# exit

For GB Service Destined to AS5

Create a distinct route map for this service. This includes setting the next-hop of packets matching 29.1.1.1 so they will be mapped onto Tunnel #3 (the guaranteed bandwidth service tunnel). At the device level:

router-2(config)# route-map set-qos-group permit 10
router-2(config-route-map)# match as-path 100
router-2(config-route-map)# set ip qos-group 6
router-2(config-route-map)# set ip next-hop 172.16.29.1
router-2(config-route-map)# exit
router-2(config)# ip as-path access-list 100 permit ^5$

For GB Service Transiting through AS5

Create a distinct route map for this service. (Its traffic will go to AS6 and AS7).

At the device level:

router-2(config)# route-map set-qos-group permit 10
router-2(config-route-map)# match as-path 101
router-2(config-route-map)# set ip qos-group 6
router-2(config-route-map)# set ip next-hop 172.16.29.1
router-2(config-route-map)# exit
router-2(config)# ip as-path access-list 101 permit _5_

For GB Service Destined to Community 100:1

Create a distinct route map for all traffic destined to prefixes that have community value 100:1. This traffic will go to AS3, AS5, and AS8.

At the device level:

router-2(config)# route-map set-qos-group permit 10
router-2(config-route-map)# match community 20
router-2(config-route-map)# set ip qos-group 6
router-2(config-route-map)# set ip next-hop 172.16.29.1
router-2(config-route-map)# exit
router-2(config)# ip community-list 20 permit 100:1

Mapping the Traffic onto the Tunnels

Map all guaranteed bandwidth traffic onto Tunnel #3:

router-2(config)# ip route 172.16.29.1 255.255.255.255 Tunnel3

Map all best-effort traffic onto Tunnel #4:

router-2(config)# ip route 172.16.30.1 255.255.255.255 Tunnel4

Tunnel Midpoint Configuration [Mid-1]

All four interfaces on the midpoint router are configured very much like the outbound interface of the head router. The strategy is to have all mid-point routers in this Autonomous System ready to carry future as well as presently configured sub-pool and global pool tunnels.

Configuring the Pools and Tunnels

At the device level:

router-3(config)# ip cef distributed
router-3(config)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels

[now one uses either the IS-IS commands on the left or the OSPF commands on the right]

router-3(config)# router isis
router ospf 100
router-3(config-router)# net 49.0000.2400.0000.0011.00
redistribute connected
router-3(config-router)# metric-style wide
network 10.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 
area 0
router-3(config-router)# is-type level-1
network 192.168.11.1 
0.0.0.255 area 0
router-3(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng level-1
network 172.16.24.1 0.0.0.0 
area 0
router-3(config-router)#
network 192.168.12.0 
0.0.0.255 area 0
router-3(config-router)#
network 192.168.13.0 
0.0.0.255 area 0
router-3(config-router)#
mpls traffic-eng area 0

:

[now one resumes the common command set]:

router-3(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng router-id Loopback0
router-3(config-router)# exit

Create a virtual interface:

router-3(config)# interface Loopback0
router-3(config-if)# ip address 172.16.24.1 255.255.255.255
router-3(config-if)# exit

At the physical interface level (ingress):

router-3(config)# interface pos2/1
router-3(config-if)# ip address 10.1.1.2 255.0.0.0
router-3(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels
router-3(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth 140000 140000 sub-pool 70000
[and if using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:
router-3(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases]:
router-3(config-if)# exit

router-3(config)# interface pos1/1
router-3(config-if)# ip address 192.168.11.2 255.0.0.0
router-3(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels
router-3(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth 140000 140000 sub-pool 70000
[and if using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:
router-3(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases]:
router-3(config-if)# exit

At the physical interface level (egress), through which two sub-pool tunnels currently exit:

router-3(config)# interface pos3/1
router-3(config-if)# ip address 192.168.12.1 255.0.0.0router-3(config-if)# mpls 
traffic-eng tunnels
router-3(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth 140000 140000 sub-pool 70000
[and if using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:
router-3(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases]:
router-3(config-if)# exit

At the physical interface level (egress), through which two global pool tunnels currently exit:

router-3(config)# interface pos4/1
router-3(config-if)# ip address 192.168.13.1 255.0.0.0
router-3(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels
router-3(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth 140000 140000 sub-pool 70000
[and if using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:
router-3(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases]:
router-3(config-if)# exit

Tunnel Midpoint Configuration [Mid-2]

Both interfaces on this midpoint router are configured like the outbound interfaces of the Mid-1 router.

Configuring the Pools and Tunnels

At the device level:

router-5(config)# ip cef distributed
router-5(config)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels

[now one uses either the IS-IS commands on the left or the OSPF commands on the right]

router-5(config)# router isis
router ospf 100
router-5(config-router)# net 49.2500.1000.0000.0012.00
redistribute connected
router-5(config-router)# metric-style wide
network 192.168.13.0 
0.0.0.255 area 0
router-5(config-router)# is-type level-1
network 192.168.14.0 
0.0.0.255 area 0
router-5(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng level-1
network 172.16.25.1 0.0.0.0 
area 0
router-5(config-router)#
mpls traffic-eng area 0

:

[now one resumes the common command set]:

router-5(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng router-id Loopback0
router-5(config-router)# exit

Create a virtual interface:

router-5(config)# interface Loopback0
router-5(config-if)# ip address 172.16.25.1 255.255.255.255
router-5(config-if)# exit

At the physical interface level (ingress):

router-5(config)# interface pos1/1
router-5(config-if)# ip address 192.168.13.2 255.0.0.0
router-5(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels
router-5(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth 140000 140000 sub-pool 70000
[and if using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:
router-5(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases]:
router-5(config-if)# exit

At the physical interface level (egress):

router-5(config)# interface pos2/1
router-5(config-if)# ip address 192.168.14.1 255.0.0.0
router-5(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels
router-5(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth 140000 140000 sub-pool 70000
[and if using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:
router-5(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases]:
router-5(config-if)# exit

Tunnel Tail Configuration

The inbound interfaces on the tail router are configured much like the outbound interfaces of the midpoint routers:

Configuring the Pools and Tunnels

At the device level:

router-4(config)# ip cef distributed
router-4(config)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels

[now one uses either the IS-IS commands on the left or the OSPF commands on the right. In the case of OSPF, one must advertise two new loopback interfaces—172.16.29.1 and 172.16.30.1 in our example—which are defined in the QoS Policy Propagation section, further along on this page]

router-4(config)# router isis
router ospf 100
router-4(config-router)# net 49.0000.2700.0000.0000.00
redistribute connected
router-4(config-router)# metric-style wide
network 192.168.12.0 
0.0.0.255 area 0
router-4(config-router)# is-type level-1
network 192.168.14.0 
0.0.0.255 area 0
router-4(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng level-1
network 172.16.27.1 0.0.0.0 
area 0
router-4(config-router)#
network 172.16.29.1 0.0.0.0 
area 0
router-4(config-router)#
network 172.16.30.1 0.0.0.0 
area 0
router-4(config-router)#
mpls traffic-eng area 0

:

[now one resumes the common command set, taking care to include the two additional loopback interfaces]:

router-4(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng router-id Loopback0
router-4(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng router-id Loopback1
router-4(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng router-id Loopback2
router-4(config-router)# exit

Create a virtual interface:

router-4(config)# interface Loopback0
router-4(config-if)# ip address 172.16.27.1 255.255.255.255
router-4(config-if)# exit

At the physical interface (ingress):

router-4(config)# interface pos2/1
router-4(config-if)# ip address 192.168.12.2 255.0.0.0
router-4(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels
router-4(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth 140000 140000 sub-pool 70000
[and if using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:
router-4(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases]:
router-4(config-if)# exit

router-4(config)# interface pos2/2
router-4(config-if)# ip address 192.168.14.2 255.0.0.0
router-4(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels
router-4(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth 140000 140000 sub-pool 70000
[and if using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:
router-4(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases]:
router-4(config-if)# exit

Configuring QoS Policy Propagation

On the tail device, one must configure a separate virtual loopback IP address for each class-of-service terminating here. The headend routers need these addresses to map traffic into the proper tunnels. In the current example, four tunnels terminate on the same tail device but they represent only two service classes, so only two additional loopback addresses are needed:

Create two virtual interfaces:

router-4(config)# interface Loopback1
router-4(config-if)# ip address 172.16.29.1 255.255.255.255
[and if using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:
router-4(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases]:
router-4(config-if)# exit
router-4(config)# interface Loopback2
router-4(config-if)# ip address 172.16.30.1 255.255.255.255
[and if using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:
router-4(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases]:
router-4(config-if)# exit

At the device level, configure BGP to send the community to each tunnel head:

router-4(config)# ip bgp-community new-format
router-4(config)# router bgp 2
router-4(config-router)# neighbor 172.16.23.1 send-community
router-4(config-router)# neighbor 172.16.22.1 send-community
router-4(config-router)# exit

Additional References

The following sections provide references related to MPLS Traffic Engineering—DiffServ Aware.

Related Documents

Related Topic
Document Title

Configuring OSPF

"Configuring OSPF" section in the Cisco IOS IP Routing Protocols Configuration Guide, Release 12.4

OSPF commands

"OSPF Commands" section in the Cisco IOS IP Routing Protocols Command Reference, Release 12.4T

Configuring integrated IS-IS

"Configuring Integrated IS-IS" section in the Cisco IOS IP Routing Protocols Configuration Guide, Release 12.4

Integrated IS-IS commands

"Integrated IS-IS Commands" section in the Cisco IOS IP Routing Protocols Command Reference, Release 12.4T

Configuring RSVP

"Configuring RSVP" section in the Cisco IOS Quality of Service Solutions Configuration Guide, Release 12.4

IP RSVP commands

Cisco IOS Quality of Service Solutions Command Reference, Release 12.4T

Configuring QoS

Cisco IOS Quality of Service Solutions Configuration Guide, Release 12.4

QoS commands

Cisco IOS Quality of Service Solutions Command Reference, Release 12.4T

MPLS traffic engineering

MPLS Traffic Engineering and Enhancements, Cisco IOS Release 12.1(3)T

"Multiprotocol Label Switching" chapter in the Cisco IOS Switching Services Configuration Guide, Release 12.1

Cisco IOS Switching Command Reference, Release 12.4T


Standards

Standard
Title

None


MIBs

MIB
MIBs Link

None

To locate and download MIBs for selected platforms, Cisco IOS releases, and feature sets, use Cisco MIB Locator found at the following URL:

http://www.cisco.com/go/mibs


RFCs

RFC
Title

RFC 4124

Protocol Extensions for Support of Diffserv-aware MPLS Traffic Engineering

RFC 4125

Maximum Allocation Bandwidth Constraints Model for Diffserv-aware MPLS Traffic Engineering

RFC 4127

Russian Dolls Bandwidth Constraints Model for Diffserv-aware MPLS Traffic Engineering


Technical Assistance

Description
Link

The Cisco Technical Support & Documentation website contains thousands of pages of searchable technical content, including links to products, technologies, solutions, technical tips, and tools. Registered Cisco.com users can log in from this page to access even more content.

http://www.cisco.com/techsupport


Command Reference

This section documents modified commands only.

debug mpls traffic-eng link-management preemption

interface

ip cef

ip router isis

ip rsvp bandwidth

is-type

metric-style wide

mpls traffic-eng

mpls traffic-eng administrative-weight

mpls traffic-eng area

mpls traffic-eng attribute-flags

mpls traffic-eng backup-path tunnel

mpls traffic-eng flooding thresholds

mpls traffic-eng link timers bandwidth-hold

mpls traffic-eng link timers periodic-flooding

mpls traffic-eng reoptimize timers frequency

mpls traffic-eng router-id

mpls traffic-eng tunnels (global configuration)

mpls traffic-eng tunnels (interface configuration)

net

passive-interface

router isis

router ospf

show interfaces tunnel

show ip ospf

show ip route

show ip rsvp host

show ip rsvp interface

show mpls traffic-eng autoroute

show mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute database

sshow mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute log reroutes

show mpls traffic-eng link-management admission-control

show mpls traffic-eng link-management advertisements

show mpls traffic-eng link-management bandwidth-allocation

show mpls traffic-eng link-management igp-neighbors

show mpls traffic-eng link-management interfaces

show mpls traffic-eng link-management summary

show mpls traffic-eng topology

show mpls traffic-eng tunnels

tunnel destination

tunnel mode mpls traffic-eng

tunnel mpls traffic-eng affinity

tunnel mpls traffic-eng autoroute announce

tunnel mpls traffic-eng autoroute metric

tunnel mpls traffic-eng bandwidth

tunnel mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute

tunnel mpls traffic-eng path-option

tunnel mpls traffic-eng priority

debug mpls traffic-eng link-management preemption

To print information about traffic engineering label-switched path (LSP) preemption, use the debug mpls traffic-eng link-management preemption command in privileged EXEC mode. To disable debugging output, use the no form of this command.

debug mpls traffic-eng link-management preemption [detail]

no debug mpls traffic-eng link-management preemption [detail]

Syntax Description

detail

(Optional) Prints detailed debugging information.


Defaults

No default behavior or values

Command Modes

Privileged EXEC

Command History

Release
Modification

12.1(3)T

This command was introduced.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.


Examples

In the following example, detailed debugging information is printed about traffic engineering LSP preemption:

Router# debug mpls traffic-eng link-management preemption detail

TE-LM-BW:preempting Downstream bandwidth, 1000000, for tunnel 10.106.0.6 2_2
TE-LM-BW:building preemption list to get bandwidth, 1000000, for tunnel 10.106.0.6 2_2 
(priority 0)
TE-LM-BW:added bandwidth, 3000000, from tunnel 10.106.0.6 1_2 (pri 1) to preemption list
TE-LM-BW:preemption list build to get bw, 1000000, succeeded (3000000)
TE-LM-BW:preempting bandwidth, 1000000, using plist with 1 tunnels
TE-LM-BW:tunnel 10.106.0.6 1_2:being preempted on AT0/0.2 by 10.106.0.6 2_2
TE-LM-BW:preemption of Downstream bandwidth, 1000000, succeeded

interface

To configure an interface type and enter interface configuration mode, use the interface command in global configuration mode.

Standard Syntax

interface type number [name-tag]

Analysis Module Network Module

interface analysis-module slot/unit

Content Engine Network Module

interface content-engine slot/unit

Cisco 830 Series

interface type [number]

Cisco 2600 Series

interface type slot/{port-adapter | port.subinterface-number}

Cisco 2600 Series on Voice Interfaces

interface type slot/voice-module-slot/voice-interface-slot

Cisco 3600 Series

interface type slot/{port | port.subinterface-number}

Cisco 3600 Series on Voice Interfaces

interface type slot/voice-module-slot/voice-interface-slot

Cisco 7100 Series

interface type slot/{port-adapter | port.subinterface-number}

Cisco 7200 Series and Cisco 7500 Series with a Packet over SONET Interface Processor

interface type slot/port

Cisco 7200 VXR Router Used as a Router Shelf in a Cisco AS5800 Universal Access Server

interface type router-shelf/slot/port

Cisco 7500 Series with Channelized T1 or E1

interface serial slot/port:channel-group

Cisco 7500 Series with Ports on VIP Cards

interface type slot/port-adapter/port

To configure a subinterface, use this form of the interface global configuration command.

Cisco 7200 Series

interface type slot/port.subinterface-number [multipoint | point-to-point]

Cisco 7500 Series

interface type slot/port-adapter.subinterface-number [multipoint | point-to-point]

Cisco 7500 Series with Ports on VIP Cards

interface type slot/port-adapter/port.subinterface-number [multipoint | point-to-point]

Cisco 12000 Series

interface type slot/{port-adapter | port.subinterface-number}

Shared Port Adapters

interface type slot/subslot/port[.subinterface-number]

Syntax Description

type

Type of interface to be configured. See Table 1.

number

Port, connector, or interface card number. On Cisco 830 series routers, number specifies the ethernet interface number. On Cisco 4700 series routers, specifies the network interface module (NIM) or network processor module (NPM) number. The numbers are assigned at the factory at the time of installation or when added to a system, and can be displayed with the show interfaces command.

name-tag

(Optional) Specifies the logic name to identify the server configuration so that multiple server configurations can be entered.

This optional argument is for use with the Redundant Link Manager (RLM) feature.

slot

Chassis slot number.

Refer to the appropriate hardware manual for slot information. For SIPs, refer to the platform-specific SPA hardware installation guide or the corresponding "Identifying Slots and Subslots for SIPs and SPAs" topic in the platform-specific SPA software configuration guide.

/voice-module-slot

Voice module slot number.

Refer to the "Cisco 3700 Series Routers Voice Interface Numbering" section of the "Understanding Interface Numbering and Cisco IOS Basics" chapter in the platform-specific SPA software configuration guide.

/voice-interface-slot

Voice interface slot number.

Refer to the "Cisco 3700 Series Routers Voice Interface Numbering" section of the "Understanding Interface Numbering and Cisco IOS Basics" chapter in the platform-specific SPA software configuration guide.

/subslot

Secondary slot number on a SIP where a SPA is installed.

Refer to the platform-specific SPA hardware installation guide and the corresponding "Specifying the Interface Address on a SPA" topic in the platform-specific SPA software configuration guide for subslot information.

/unit

Number of the daughter card on the network module. For analysis module and content engine (CE) network modules, always use 0.

/port

Port or interface number.

Refer to the appropriate hardware manual for port information. For SPAs, refer to the corresponding "Specifying the Interface Address on a SPA" topics in the platform-specific SPA software configuration guide.

router-shelf

Router shelf number in a Cisco AS5800 universal access server. Refer to the appropriate hardware manual for router shelf information.

:channel-group

Channel group number. Cisco 7500 series routers specify the channel group number in the range of 0 to 4 defined with the channel-group controller configuration command.

/port-adapter

Port adapter number. Refer to the appropriate hardware manual for information about port adapter compatibility.

.subinterface-number

Subinterface number in the range 1 to 4294967293. The number that precedes the period (.) must match the number to which this subinterface belongs.

multipoint | point-to-point

(Optional) Specifies a multipoint or point-to-point subinterface. There is no default.


Command Default

No interface types are configured.

Command Modes

Global configuration


Note To use this command with the RLM feature, you must be in interface configuration mode.


Command History

Release
Modification

10.0

This command was introduced for the Cisco 7000 series routers.

11.0

This command was implemented on the Cisco 4000 series routers.

12.0(3)T

The optional name-tag argument was added for the RLM feature.

12.2(13)T

The content-engine keyword was added.

12.2(15)T

The lex keyword was removed because the LAN Extension feature is no longer available in Cisco IOS software.

12.3(7)T

The analysis-module keyword was added.

12.2(20)S2

This command was implemented for SPAs on the Cisco 7304 router.

12.2(18)SXE

This command was implemented for SPAs on the Cisco 7600 series routers and Catalyst 6500 series switches.

12.0(31)S

This command was implemented for SPAs on the Cisco 12000 series routers.

12.2(18)SXF

The tengigabitethernet keyword was added for support of the10 Gigabit Ethenet interface type.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.


Usage Guidelines

This command does not have a no form.

Subinterfaces can be configured to support partially meshed Frame Relay networks. Refer to the "Configuring Serial Interfaces" chapter in the Cisco IOS Interface and Hardware Component Configuration Guide.

Table 1 displays the keywords that represent the types of interfaces that can be configured with the interface command. Replace the type argument with the appropriate keyword from the table.

Table 1 Interface Type Keywords 

Keyword
Interface Type

analysis-module

Analysis module interface. The analysis module interface is a Fast Ethernet interface on the router that connects to the internal interface on the Network Analysis Module (NAM). This interface cannot be configured for subinterfaces or for speed, duplex mode, and similar parameters. See the command-line interface (CLI) help for a list of valid parameters.

async

Port line used as an asynchronous interface.

atm

ATM interface.

bri

ISDN BRI. This interface configuration is propagated to each of the B channels. B channels cannot be individually configured. The interface must be configured with dial-on-demand commands in order for calls to be placed on that interface.

content-engine

Content engine (CE) network module interface. The CE network module interface cannot be configured for subinterfaces or for speed, duplex mode, and similar parameters. See the command-line interface (CLI) help for a list of valid parameters. The content-engine keyword was formerly documented as the interface content-engine command.

dialer

Dialer interface.

ethernet

Ethernet IEEE 802.3 interface.

fastethernet

100-Mbps Ethernet interface. The fastethernet keyword was formerly documented as the interface fastethernet command.

fddi

FDDI interface.

gigabitethernet

1000-Mbps Ethernet interface. The gigabitethernet keyword was formerly documented as the interface gigabitethernet command.

group-async

Master asynchronous interface. The group-async keyword was formerly documented as the interface group-async command.

hssi

High-Speed Serial Interface (HSSI).

loopback

Software-only loopback interface that emulates an interface that is always up. It is a virtual interface supported on all platforms. The number argument is the number of the loopback interface that you want to create or configure. There is no limit on the number of loopback interfaces that you can create.

null

Null interface.

port-channel

Port channel interface. The port-channel keyword was formerly documented as the interface port-channel command.

pos

Packet OC-3 interface on the Packet-over-SONET (POS) interface processor. The pos keyword was formerly documented as the interface pos command.

sdcc

Section data communications channel interface.

serial

Serial interface.

switch

Switch interface.

tengigabitethernet

10 Gigabit Ethernet interface.

tokenring

Token Ring interface.

tunnel

Tunnel interface; a virtual interface. The number argument is the number of the tunnel interface that you want to create or configure. There is no limit on the number of tunnel interfaces that you can create.

vg-anylan

100VG-AnyLAN port adapter. The vg-anylan keyword was formerly documented as the interface vg-anylan command.


Using the analysis-module Keyword

The analysis module interface is used to access the NAM console for the initial configuration. After the NAM IP parameters are configured, the analysis module interface is typically used only during NAM software upgrades and while troubleshooting if the NAM Traffic Analyzer is inaccessible.

Visible only to the Cisco IOS software on the router, the analysis module interface is an internal Fast Ethernet interface on the router that connects to the internal NAM interface. The analysis module interface is connected to the router's Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) backplane, and all configuration and management of the analysis module interface must be performed from the Cisco IOS CLI.

Using the group-async Keyword

Using the group-async keyword, you create a single asynchronous interface with which other interfaces are associated as members using the group-range command. This one-to-many configuration allows you to configure all associated member interfaces by entering one command on the group master interface, rather than entering this command on each individual interface. You can create multiple group masters on a device; however, each member interface can be associated only with one group.

Using the port-channel Keyword

The Fast EtherChannel feature allows multiple Fast Ethernet point-to-point links to be bundled into one logical link to provide bidirectional bandwidth of up to 800 Mbps. You can configure the port-channel interface as you would any Fast Ethernet interface.

After you create a port-channel interface, you assign Fast Ethernet interfaces (up to four) to it. For information on how to assign a Fast Ethernet interface to a port-channel interface, refer to the channel-group command in the interface configuration mode.


Caution The port-channel interface is the routed interface. Do not enable Layer 3 addresses on the physical
Fast Ethernet interfaces. Do not assign bridge groups on the physical Fast Ethernet interfaces
because doing so creates loops. Also, you must disable spanning tree.


Caution With Release 11.1(20)CC, the Fast EtherChannel supports Cisco Express Forwarding (CEF) and distributed Cisco Express Forwarding (dCEF). We recommend that you clear all explicit
ip route-cache distributed commands from the Fast Ethernet interfaces before enabling dCEF on
the port-channel interface. Clearing the route cache gives the port-channel interface proper control
of its physical Fast Ethernet links. When you enable CEF/dCEF globally, all interfaces that support CEF/dCEF are enabled. When CEF/dCEF is enabled on the port-channel interface, it is automatically enabled on each of the Fast Ethernet interfaces in the channel group. However, if you have
previously disabled CEF/dCEF on the Fast Ethernet interface, CEF/dCEF is not automatically
enabled. In this case, you must enable CEF/dCEF on the Fast Ethernet interface.

As you work with the port-channel keyword, consider the following points:

Currently, if you want to use the Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP), you must configure it only on the port-channel interface and not on the physical Fast Ethernet interface.

If you do not assign a static MAC address on the port-channel interface, the Cisco IOS software automatically assigns a MAC address. If you assign a static MAC address and then later remove it, Cisco IOS software automatically assigns a MAC address.

Using the vg-anylan Keyword

The 100VG-AnyLAN port adapter provides a single interface port that is compatible with and specified by IEEE 802.12. The 100VG-AnyLAN port adapter provides 100 Mbps over Category 3 or Category 5 unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cable with RJ-45 terminators, and supports IEEE 802.3 Ethernet packets.

You configure the 100VG-AnyLAN port adapter as you would any Ethernet or Fast Ethernet interface. The 100VG-AnyLAN port adapter can be monitored with the IEEE 802.12 Interface MIB.

Examples

Serial Interface with PPP Encapsulation Example

The following example shows how to configure serial interface 0 with PPP encapsulation:

Router(config)# interface serial 0
Router(config-if)# encapsulation ppp

Loopback Interface Example

The following example shows how to enable loopback mode and assigns an IP network address and network mask to the interface. The loopback interface established here will always appear to be up.

Router(config)# interface loopback 0
Router(config-if)# ip address 10.108.1.1 255.255.255.0

Ethernet Port on Ethernet Interface Processor on Cisco 7500 Series Router Example

The following example shows how to configure Ethernet port 4 on the Ethernet Interface Processor (EIP) in slot 2 on the Cisco 7500 series router:

Router(config)# interface ethernet 2/4

Token Ring Interface Processor Example

The following example shows how to configure the Token Ring interface processor in slot 1 on port 0 of a Cisco 7500 series router:

Router(config)# interface tokenring 1/0

Analysis Module Interface with NAM Router Example

The following example configures an analysis module interface when the NAM router is in router slot 1:

Router(config)# interface analysis-module 1/0

Content Engine Network Module Interface Example

The following example configures an interface for a content engine network module in slot 1:

Router(config)# interface content-engine 1/0

Ethernet Interface on Cisco 830 Router Example

The following example configures a new interface ethernet2 on the LAN or on the WAN side of the Cisco 830 Series router.

c837#conf terminal 
Enter configuration commands, one per line.  End with CNTL/Z.
c837(config)#interface ethernet 2

Fast Ethernet Interface on Cisco 2600 Router Example

The following example shows how to configure Fast Ethernet interface 0 on a Cisco 2600 series router:

Router(config)# interface fastethernet0/0
or
Router(config)# interface fastethernet0/0.1

Fast Ethernet Interface on Cisco 3600 Router Example

The following example shows how to configure Fast Ethernet interface 0 on a Cisco 3600 series router:

Router(config)# interface fastethernet0/0
or
Router(config)# interface fastethernet0/0.1

Fast Ethernet Interface with ARPA Encapsulation on Cisco 4700 Router Example

The following example shows how to configure Fast Ethernet interface 0 for standard ARPA encapsulation (the default setting) on a Cisco 4700 series router:

Router(config)# interface fastethernet 0

Gigabit Ethernet Interface Example

The following example shows how to configure the Gigabit Ethernet interface for slot 0, port 0:

Router(config)# interface gigabitethernet 0/0

Asynchronous Group Master Interface Example

The following example shows how to define asynchronous group master interface 0:

Router(config)# interface group-async 0

Port Channel Interface Example

The following example shows how to create a port-channel interface with a channel group number of 1 and adds two Fast Ethernet interfaces to port-channel 1:

Router(config)# interface port-channel 1
Router(config-if)# ip address 10.1.1.10 255.255.255.0
Router(config-if)# exit
Router(config)# interface fastethernet 1/0/0
Router(config-if)# channel-group 1
Router(config-if)# exit
Router(config)# interface fastethernet 4/0/0
Router(config-if)# channel-group 1

Packet over SONET Interface Example

The following example shows how to specify the single Packet OC-3 interface on port 0 of the POS OC-3 port adapter in slot 2:

Router(config)# interface pos 2/0

100VG-AnyLAN Interface Example

The following example shows how to specify the 100VG-AnyLAN port adapter in the first port adapter in slot 1:

Router(config)# interface vg-anylan 1/0/0

Fast Ethernet Interface on Cisco 7100 Router Example

The following example shows how to configure Fast Ethernet interface 0 on a Cisco 7100 series router:

Router(config)# interface fastethernet0/0
or
Router(config)# interface fastethernet0/0.1

Fast Ethernet Interface on Cisco 12000 Router Example

The following example shows how to configure Fast Ethernet interface 6 on a Cisco 12000 series router:

Router(config)# interface fastethernet6/0
or
Router(config)# interface fastethernet6/0.1

Partially Meshed Frame Relay Network Example

The following example shows how to configure a partially meshed Frame Relay network. In this example, subinterface serial 0.1 is configured as a multipoint subinterface with two associated Frame Relay permanent virtual connections (PVCs), and subinterface serial 0.2 is configured as a point-to-point subinterface.

Router(config)# interface serial 0
Router(config-if)# encapsulation frame-relay
Router(config-if)# exit
Router(config)# interface serial 0/0.1 multipoint
Router(config-if)# ip address 10.108.10.1 255.255.255.0
Router(config-if)# frame-relay interface-dlci 42 broadcast
Router(config-if)# frame-relay interface-dlci 53 broadcast
Router(config-if)# exit
Router(config)# interface serial 0/0.2 point-to-point
Router(config-if)# ip address 10.108.11.1 255.255.255.0
Router(config-if)# frame-relay interface-dlci 59 broadcast

T1 Serial Interface Example

The following example shows how to configure circuit 0 of a T1 link for PPP encapsulation:

Router(config)# controller t1 4/1
Router(config-controller)# circuit 0 1
Router(config-controller)# exit
Router(config)# interface serial 4/1:0
Router(config-if)# ip address 10.108.13.1 255.255.255.0
Router(config-if)# encapsulation ppp

SDCC Interface on a POS Shared Port Adapter Example

The following example configures the first interface (port 0) as a section data communications channel (SDCC) interface on a POS SPA, where the SPA is installed in the top subslot (0) of the MSC, and the MSC is installed in slot 4 of the Cisco 7304 router:

Router(config)# interface sdcc 4/3/0 
Router(config-if)# ip address 10.1.9.2 255.255.255.0 
Router(config-if)# logging event link-status 
Router(config-if)# load-interval 30 
Router(config-if)# no keepalive 
Router(config-if)# no fair-queue 
Router(config-if)# no cdp enable 

Shared Port Adapter Interface Example

The following example configures the second interface (port 1) on a 4-Port 10/100 Fast Ethernet SPA for standard ARPA encapsulation (the default setting), where the SPA is installed in the bottom subslot (1) of the MSC, and the MSC is installed in slot 2 of the Cisco 7304 router:

Router(config)# interface fastethernet 2/1/1

Related Commands

Command
Description

channel-group

Defines the timeslots that belong to each T1 or E1 circuit.

channel-group (Fast EtherChannel)

Assigns a Fast Ethernet interface to a Fast EtherChannel group.

clear interface

Resets the hardware logic on an interface.

controller

Configures an E1, J1, T1, or T3 controller and enters controller configuration mode.

group-range

Creates a list of asynchronous interfaces that are associated with a group interface on the same device.

mac-address

Sets the MAC layer address.

ppp

Starts an asynchronous connection using PPP.

show controllers content-engine

Displays controller information for CE network modules.

show interfaces

Displays information about interfaces.

show interfaces content-engine

Displays basic interface configuration information for a CE network module.

shutdown (RLM)

Shuts down all of the links under the RLM group.

slip

Starts a serial connection to a remote host using SLIP.


ip cef

To enable Cisco Express Forwarding (CEF) on the route processor card, use the ip cef command in global configuration mode. To disable CEF, use the no form of this command.

ip cef [distributed]

no ip cef [distributed]

Syntax Description

distributed

(Optional) Enables distributed CEF (dCEF) operation. Distributes CEF information to line cards. Line cards perform express forwarding.


Defaults

CEF is disabled by default, excluding these platforms:

CEF is enabled on the Cisco 7100 series router.
CEF is enabled on the Cisco 7200 series router.
CEF is enabled on the Cisco 7500 series Internet router.
Distributed CEF is enabled on the Cisco 6500 series router
Distributed CEF is enabled on the Cisco 12000 series Internet router.

Command Modes

Global configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

11.1 CC

This command was introduced.

12.2

The default for Cisco 7200 series routers was changed from disabled to enabled.

12.2(11)T

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(11)T and implemented on the following platforms: Cisco IAD2420 series, Cisco 2600 series, Cisco 3620 routers, Cisco 3640 routers, Cisco 3660 routers, Cisco 3700 series routers, and Cisco MC3810 multiservice access concentrators.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.


Usage Guidelines

The ip cef command is not available on the Cisco 12000 series because that router series operates only in dCEF mode.

CEF is advanced Layer 3 IP switching technology. CEF optimizes network performance and scalability for networks with dynamic, topologically dispersed traffic patterns, such as those associated with web-based applications and interactive sessions.

If you enable CEF and then create an access list that uses the log keyword, the packets that match the access list are not CEF switched. They are fast switched. Logging disables CEF.

Examples

The following example shows how to enable standard CEF operation:

Router(config)# ip cef

The following example shows how to enable dCEF operation:

Router(config)# ip cef distributed 

Related Commands

Command
Description

ip route-cache

Controls the use of high-speed switching caches for IP routing.

ip cef accounting

Enables CEF network accounting.

ip cef load-sharing algorithm

Selects a CEF load balancing algorithm.

ip cef table adjacency-prefix override

Enables CEF adjacency prefixes to override static host glean routes.

ip cef table consistency-check

Enables CEF table consistency checker types and parameters.

ip cef table event-log

Controls CEF table event-log characteristics.

ip cef table resolution-timer

Changes CEF background resolution timer.


ip router isis

To configure anIntermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS) routing process for IP on an interface and to attach an area designator to the routing process, use the ip router isis command in interface configuration mode. To disable IS-IS for IP, use the no form of the command.

ip router isis area-tag

no ip router isis area-tag

Syntax Description

area-tag

Meaningful name for a routing process. If it is not specified, a null tag is assumed and the process is referenced with a null tag. This name must be unique among all IP or Connectionless Network Service (CLNS) router processes for a given router.

Required for multiarea IS-IS configuration. Optional for conventional IS-IS configuration.

Note Each area in a multiarea configuration should have a nonnull area tag to facilitate identification of the area.


Defaults

No routing processes are specified.

Command Modes

Interface configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

10.0

This command was introduced.

12.0(5)T

Multiarea functionality was added, changing the way the tag argument (now area-tag) is used.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.


Usage Guidelines

Before the IS-IS routing process is useful, a network entity title (NET) must be assigned with the net command and some interfaces must have IS-IS enabled.

If you have IS-IS running and at least one International Organization for Standardization Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (ISO-IGRP) process, the IS-IS process and the ISO-IGRP process cannot both be configured without an area tag. The null tag can be used by only one process. If you run ISO-IGRP and IS-IS, a null tag can be used for IS-IS, but not for ISO-IGRP at the same time. However, each area in an IS-IS multiarea configuration should have a nonnull area tag to facilitate identification of the area.

You can configure only one process to perform Level 2 (interarea) routing. If Level 2 routing is configured on any process, all additional processes are automatically configured as Level 1. You can configure this process to perform intra-area (Level 1) routing at the same time. You can configure up to 29 additional processes as Level 1-only processes. Use the is-type command to remove Level 2 routing from a router instance. You can then use the is-type command to enable Level 2 routing on some other IS-IS router instance.

An interface cannot be part of more than one area, except in the case where the associated routing process is performing both Level 1 and Level 2 routing. On media such as WAN media where subinterfaces are supported, different subinterfaces could be configured for different areas.

Examples

The following example specifies IS-IS as an IP routing protocol for a process named Finance, and specifies that the Finance process will be routed on Ethernet interface 0 and serial interface 0:

router isis Finance
 net 49.0001.aaaa.aaaa.aaaa.00
interface Ethernet 0
 ip router isis Finance
interface serial 0
 ip router isis Finance

The following example shows an IS-IS configuration with two Level 1 areas and one Level 1-2 area:

ip routing

.
.
.

interface Tunnel529
 ip address 10.0.0.5 255.255.255.0
 ip router isis BB

interface Ethernet1
 ip address 10.1.1.5 255.255.255.0
 ip router isis A3253-01
1
!
interface Ethernet2
 ip address 10.2.2.5 255.255.255.0
 ip router isis A3253-02


.
.
.

! Defaults to "is-type level-1-2"
router isis BB
 net 49.2222.0000.0000.0005.00
!
router isis A3253-01
 net 49.0553.0001.0000.0000.0005.00
 is-type level-1
!
router isis A3253-02
 net 49.0553.0002.0000.0000.0005.00
 is-type level-1

Related Commands

Command
Description

is-type

Configures the routing level for an IS-IS routing process.

net

Configures an IS-IS NET for a CLNS routing process.

router isis

Enables the IS-IS routing protocol.


ip rsvp bandwidth

To enable Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) for IP on an interface, use the ip rsvp bandwidth command in interface configuration mode. To disable RSVP completely, use the no form of this command. To eliminate only the subpool portion of the bandwidth, use the no form of this command with the sub-pool keyword.

ip rsvp bandwidth [interface-kbps] [single-flow-kbps] [sub-pool kbps]

no ip rsvp bandwidth [interface-kbps] [single-flow-kbps] [sub-pool kbps]

Syntax Description

interface-kbps

(Optional) Maximum amount of bandwidth, in kbps, that may be allocated by RSVP flows. The range is from 1 to 10,000,000.

single-flow-kbps

(Optional) Maximum amount of bandwidth, in kbps, that may be allocated to a single flow. The range is from 1 to 10,000,000. This value is ignored by the Diff-Serv-aware MPLS Traffic Engineering feature available with Cisco IOS Release 12.2(4)T.

sub-pool kbps

(Optional) Amount of bandwidth in kbps on interface to be reserved to a portion of the total. The range is from 1 to the value of the interface-kbps argument.


Defaults

RSVP is disabled by default.

If the ip rsvp bandwidth command is entered but no bandwidth values are supplied (for example, ip rsvp bandwidth is entered followed by pressing the Enter key), a default bandwidth value (that is, 75% of the link bandwidth) is assumed for both the interface-kbps and single-flow-kbps arguments.

Command Modes

Interface configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

11.2

This command was introduced.

12.0(11)ST

The sub-pool keyword was added.

12.2(4)T

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(4)T. This command was implemented on the Cisco 7500 series and the ATM-permanent virtual circuit (PVC) interface.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.


Usage Guidelines

RSVP cannot be configured with distributed Cisco Express Forwarding (dCEF).

RSVP is disabled by default to allow backward compatibility with systems that do not implement RSVP.

Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED) or fair queueing must be enabled first.

Examples

The following example shows a T1 (1536 kbps) link configured to permit RSVP reservation of up to 1158 kbps, but no more than 100 kbps for any given flow on serial interface 0. Fair queueing is configured with 15 reservable queues to support those reserved flows, should they be required.

Router(config)# interface serial 0
Router(config-if)# fair-queue 64 256 15
Router(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth 1158 100

Related Commands

Command
Description

fair-queue (WFQ)

Enables WFQ for an interface.

ip rsvp neighbor

Enables neighbors to request a reservation.

ip rsvp reservation

Enables a router to behave like it is receiving and forwarding RSVP RESV messages.

ip rsvp sender

Enables a router to behave like it is receiving and forwarding RSVP PATH messages.

ip rsvp udp-multicasts

Instructs the router to generate UDP-encapsulated RSVP multicasts whenever it generates an IP-encapsulated multicast packet.

random-detect (interface)

Enables WRED or DWRED.

show ip rsvp installed

Displays RSVP-related installed filters and corresponding bandwidth information.

show ip rsvp interface

Displays RSVP-related interface information.

show ip rsvp neighbor

Displays current RSVP neighbors.

show ip rsvp reservation

Displays RSVP-related receiver information currently in the database.

show ip rsvp sender

Displays RSVP PATH-related sender information currently in the database.


is-type

To configure the routing level for an instance of the Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS) routing process, use the is-type command in router configuration mode. To reset the default value, use the no form of this command.

is-type [level-1 | level-1-2 | level-2-only]

no is-type [level-1 | level-1-2 | level-2-only]

Syntax Description

level-1

(Optional) Router performs only Level 1 (intra-area) routing. This router learns only about destinations inside its area. Level 2 (interarea) routing is performed by the closest Level 1-2 router.

level-1-2

(Optional) Router performs both Level 1 and Level 2 routing. This router runs two instances of the routing process. It has one link-state packet database (LSDB) for destinations inside the area (Level 1 routing) and runs a shortest path first (SPF) calculation to discover the area topology. It also has another LSDB with link-state packets (LSPs) of all other backbone (Level 2) routers, and runs another SPF calculation to discover the topology of the backbone, and the existence of all other areas.

level-2-only

(Optional) Routing process acts as a Level 2 (interarea) router only. This router is part of the backbone, and does not communicate with Level 1-only routers in its own area.


Defaults

In conventional IS-IS configurations, the router acts as both a Level 1 (intra-area) and a Level 2 (interarea) router.

In multiarea IS-IS configurations, the first instance of the IS-IS routing process configured is by default a Level 1-2 (intra-area and interarea) router. The remaining instances of the IS-IS process configured by default are Level 1 routers.

Command Modes

Router configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

10.3

This command was introduced.

12.0(5)T

This command was modified to include multiarea IS-IS routing.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.


Usage Guidelines

We highly recommend that you configure the type of IS-IS routing process. If you are configuring multiarea IS-IS, you must configure the type of the router, or allow it to be configured by default. By default, the first instance of the IS-IS routing process that you configure using the router isis command is a Level 1-2 router.

If only one area is in the network, there is no need to run both Level 1 and Level 2 routing algorithms. If IS-IS is used for Connectionless Network Service (CLNS) routing (and there is only one area), Level 1 only must be used everywhere. If IS-IS is used for IP routing only (and there is only one area), you can run Level 2 only everywhere. Areas you add after the Level 1-2 area exists are by default Level 1 areas.

If the router instance has been configured for Level 1-2 (the default for the first instance of the IS-IS routing process in a Cisco device), you can remove Level 2 (interarea) routing for the area using the is-type command. You can also use the is-type command to configure Level 2 routing for an area, but it must be the only instance of the IS-IS routing process configured for Level 2 on the Cisco device.

Examples

The following example specifies an area router:

router isis 
 is-type level-2-only

Related Commands

Command
Description

router isis

Enables the IS-IS routing protocol and specifies an IS-IS process.

show clns neighbor areas

Displays information about IS-IS neighbors and the areas to which they belong.


metric-style wide

To configure a router running Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS) so that it generates and accepts only new-style type, length, and value objects (TLVs), use the metric-style wide command in router configuration mode. To disable this function, use the no form of this command.

metric-style wide [transition] [level-1 | level-2 | level-1-2]

no metric-style wide [transition] [level-1 | level-2 | level-1-2]

Syntax Description

transition

(Optional) Instructs the router to accept both old- and new-style TLVs.

level-1

(Optional) Enables this command on routing level 1.

level-2

(Optional) Enables this command on routing level 2.

level-1-2

(Optional) Enables this command on routing levels 1 and 2.


Defaults

The Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) traffic engineering image generates only old-style TLVs. To do MPLS traffic engineering, a router must generate new-style TLVs that have wider metric fields.

Command Modes

Router configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.


Usage Guidelines

If you enter the metric-style wide command, a router generates and accepts only new-style TLVs. Therefore, the router uses less memory and other resources than it would if it generated both old-style and new-style TLVs.

This style is appropriate for enabling MPLS traffic engineering across an entire network.


Note This discussion of metric styles and transition strategies is oriented toward traffic engineering deployment. Other commands and models could be appropriate if the new-style TLVs are desired for other reasons. For example, a network might require wider metrics, but might not use traffic engineering.


Examples

The following example shows how to configure a router to generate and accept only new-style TLVs on level 1:

Router(config-router)# metric-style wide level-1

Related Commands

Command
Description

metric-style narrow

Configures a router to generate and accept old-style TLVs.

metric-style transition

Configures a router to generate and accept both old-style and new-style TLVs.


mpls traffic-eng

To configure a router running Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS) so that it floods Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) traffic engineering (TE) link information into the indicated IS-IS level, use the mpls traffic-eng command in router configuration mode. To disable the flooding of MPLS TE link information into the indicated IS-IS level, use the no form of this command.

mpls traffic-eng {level-1 | level-2}

no mpls traffic-eng {level-1 | level-2}

Syntax Description

level-1

Floods MPLS TE link information into IS-IS level 1.

level-2

Floods MPLS TE link information into IS-IS level 2.


Defaults

Flooding is disabled.

Command Modes

Router configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.


Usage Guidelines

This command, which is part of the routing protocol tree, causes link resource information (such as available bandwidth) for appropriately configured links to be flooded in the IS-IS link-state database.

Examples

The following example shows how to configure MPLS TE link information flooding for IS-IS level 1:

Router(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng level-1

Related Commands

Command
Description

mpls traffic-eng router-id

Specifies that the traffic engineering router identifier for the node is the IP address associated with a given interface.


mpls traffic-eng administrative-weight

To override the Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) administrative weight (cost) of the link, use the mpls traffic-eng administrative-weight command in interface configuration mode. To disable the override, use the no form of this command.

mpls traffic-eng administrative-weight weight

no mpls traffic-eng administrative-weight

Syntax Description

weight

Cost of the link.


Defaults

IGP cost of the link.

Command Modes

Interface configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.


Examples

The following example shows how to override the IGP cost of the link and set the cost to 20:

Router(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng administrative-weight 20

Related Commands

Command
Description

mpls traffic-eng attribute-flags

Sets the user-specified attribute flags for an interface.


mpls traffic-eng area

To configure a router running Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) so that it floods traffic engineering for the indicated OSPF area, use the mpls traffic-eng area command in router configuration mode. To disable flooding of traffic engineering for the indicated OSPF area, use the no form of this command.

mpls traffic-eng area number

no mpls traffic-eng area number

Syntax Description

number

The OSPF area on which MPLS traffic engineering is enabled.


Defaults

Flooding is disabled.

Command Modes

Router configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.


Usage Guidelines

This command is in the routing protocol configuration tree and is supported for both OSPF and IS-IS. The command affects the operation of MPLS traffic engineering only if MPLS traffic engineering is enabled for that routing protocol instance. Currently, only a single level can be enabled for traffic engineering.

Examples

The following example shows how to configure a router running OSPF MPLS to flood traffic engineering for OSPF 0:

Router(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng area 0

Related Commands

Command
Description

mpls traffic-eng router-id

Specifies that the traffic engineering router identifier for the node is the IP address associated with a given interface.

network area

Defines the interfaces on which OSPF runs and defines the area ID for those interfaces.

router ospf

Configures an OSPF routing process on a router.


mpls traffic-eng attribute-flags

To set the user-specified attribute flags for the interface, use the mpls traffic-eng attribute-flags command in interface configuration mode. To disable the user-specified attribute flags for the interface, use the no form of this command.

mpls traffic-eng attribute-flags attributes

no mpls traffic-eng attribute-flags

Syntax Description

attributes

Links attributes that will be compared to a tunnel's affinity bits during selection of a path.

Valid values are from 0x0 to 0xFFFFFFFF, representing 32 attributes (bits) where the value of an attribute is 0 or 1.


Defaults

0x0

Command Modes

Interface configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.


Usage Guidelines

This command assigns attributes to a link so that tunnels with matching attributes (represented by their affinity bits) prefer this link instead of others that do not match.

The interface is flooded globally so that it can be used as a tunnel head-end path selection criterion.

Examples

The following example shows how to set the attribute flags to 0x0101:

Router(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng attribute-flags 0x0101

Related Commands

Command
Description

mpls traffic-eng administrative-weight

Overrides the IGP administrative weight of the link.

tunnel mpls traffic-eng affinity

Configures affinity (the properties that the tunnel requires in its links) for an MPLS traffic engineering tunnel.


mpls traffic-eng backup-path tunnel

To configure the physical interface to use a backup tunnel in the event of a detected failure on that interface, use the mpls traffic-eng backup tunnel command in interface configuration mode.

mpls traffic-eng backup-path tunnel interface

Syntax Description

interface

String that identifies the tunnel interface being created and configured.


Defaults

No default behavior or values.

Command Modes

Interface configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(8)ST

This command was introduced.

12.2(18)S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(18)S.

12.2(18)SXD

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(18)SX.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.


Examples

The following example shows you how to specify the traffic engineering backup tunnel with the identifier 1000:

Router(config_if)# mpls traffic-eng backup-path Tunnel1000

Related Commands

Command
Description

show mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute database

Displays information about existing Fast Reroute configurations.

tunnel mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute

Enables an MPLS traffic engineering tunnel to use a backup tunnel in the event of a link failure (assuming a backup tunnel exists).


mpls traffic-eng flooding thresholds

To set a reserved bandwidth thresholds for a link, use the mpls traffic-eng flooding thresholds command in interface configuration mode. To return to the default settings, use the no form of this command.

mpls traffic-eng flooding thresholds {down | up} percent [percent ...]

no mpls traffic-eng flooding thresholds {down | up}

Syntax Description

down

Sets the thresholds for decreased reserved bandwidth.

up

Sets the thresholds for increased reserved bandwidth.

percent [percent]

Bandwidth threshold level. For the down keyword, valid values are from 0 through 99. For the up keyword, valid values are from 1 through 100.


Defaults

The default for down is 100, 99, 98, 97, 96, 95, 90, 85, 80, 75, 60, 45, 30, 15.

The default for up is 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 97, 98, 99, 100.

Command Modes

Interface configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.


Usage Guidelines

When a threshold is crossed, Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) traffic engineering link management advertises updated link information. If no thresholds are crossed, changes can be flooded periodically unless periodic flooding was disabled.

Examples

The following example shows how to set the reserved bandwidth of the link for decreased (down) and for increased (up) thresholds:

Router(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng flooding thresholds down 100 75 25
Router(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng flooding thresholds up 25 50 100

Related Commands

Command
Description

mpls traffic-eng link timers periodic-flooding

Sets the length of the interval used for periodic flooding.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management advertisements

Displays local link information currently being flooded by MPLS traffic engineering link management into the global traffic engineering topology.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management bandwidth-allocation

Displays current local link information.


mpls traffic-eng link timers bandwidth-hold

To set the length of time that bandwidth is held for a Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) PATH (Set Up) message while waiting for the corresponding RSVP RESV message to come back, use the mpls traffic-eng link timers bandwidth-hold command in global configuration mode.

mpls traffic-eng link timers bandwidth-hold hold-time

Syntax Description

hold-time

Sets the length of time that bandwidth can be held. The range is from 1 to 300 seconds.


Defaults

15 seconds

Command Modes

Global configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.


Examples

The following example sets the length of time that bandwidth is held to 10 seconds.

Router(config)# mpls traffic-eng link-management timers bandwidth-hold 10

Related Commands

Command
Description

show mpls traffic-eng link-management bandwidth-allocation

Displays current local link information.


mpls traffic-eng link timers periodic-flooding

To set the length of the interval used for periodic flooding, use the mpls traffic-eng link timers periodic-flooding command in global configuration mode.

mpls traffic-eng link timers periodic-flooding interval

Syntax Description

interval

Length of interval used for periodic flooding (in seconds). The range is from 0 to 3600. If you set this value to 0, you turn off periodic flooding. If you set this value anywhere in the range from 1 to 29, it is treated as 30.


Defaults

180 seconds

Command Modes

Global configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB


Usage Guidelines

Use this command to set the interval for periodic flooding of traffic engineering (TE) topology information.

Changes in the Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) TE topology database are flooded by the link state Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP). Some changes, such as those to link status (up/down) or configured parameters, trigger immediate flooding. Other changes are considered less urgent and are flooded periodically. For example, changes to the amount of link bandwidth allocated to TE tunnels are flooded periodically unless the change causes the bandwidth to cross a configurable threshold.

Examples

The following example sets the interval length for periodic flooding to advertise flooding changes to 120 seconds.

Router(config)# mpls traffic-eng timers periodic-flooding 120

Related Commands

Command
Description

mpls traffic-eng flooding thresholds

Sets the reserved bandwidth thresholds of a link.


mpls traffic-eng reoptimize timers frequency

To control the frequency with which tunnels with established label switched paths (LSPs) are checked for better LSPs, use the mpls traffic-eng reoptimize timers frequency command in global configuration mode. To disable this function, use the no form of this command.

mpls traffic-eng reoptimize timers frequency seconds

no mpls traffic-eng reoptimize timers frequency

Syntax Description

seconds

Sets the frequency of reoptimization (in seconds). A value of 0 disables reoptimization. The range of values is 0 to 604800 seconds (1 week)


Defaults

3600 seconds (1 hour)

Command Modes

Global configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.


Usage Guidelines

A device with traffic engineering tunnels periodically examines tunnels with established LSPs to learn if better LSPs are available. If a better LSP seems to be available, the device attempts to signal the better LSP; if the signalling is successful, the device replaces the old, inferior LSP with the new, better LSP.


Note If the lockdown keyword is specified with the tunnel mpls traffic-eng path-option command, then a reoptimize check is not done on the tunnel.


Examples

The following example shows how to set the reoptimization frequency to 1 day:

Router(config)# mpls traffic-eng reoptimize timers frequency 86400

Related Commands

Command
Description

mpls traffic-eng reoptimize

Reoptimizes all traffic engineering tunnels immediately.

tunnel mpls traffic-eng path-option

Configures a path option for an MPLS traffic engineering tunnel.


mpls traffic-eng router-id

To specify that the traffic engineering router identifier for the node is the IP address associated with a given interface, use the mpls traffic-eng router-id command in router configuration mode. To remove the traffic engineering router identifier, use the no form of this command.

mpls traffic-eng router-id interface-name

no mpls traffic-eng router-id

Syntax Description

interface-name

Interface whose primary IP address is the router's identifier.


Defaults

No traffic engineering router identifier is specified.

Command Modes

Router configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.


Usage Guidelines

This router identifier acts as a stable IP address for the traffic engineering configuration. This IP address is flooded to all nodes. For all traffic engineering tunnels originating at other nodes and ending at this node, you must set the tunnel destination to the traffic engineering router identifier of the destination node, because that is the address that the traffic engineering topology database at the tunnel head uses for its path calculation.

Examples

The following example shows how to specify the traffic engineering router identifier as the IP address associated with interface Loopback0:

Router(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng router-id Loopback0

Related Commands

Command
Description

mpls atm control-vc

Turns on flooding of MPLS traffic engineering link information in the indicated IGP level/area.


mpls traffic-eng tunnels (global configuration)

To enable Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) traffic engineering tunnel signaling on a device, use the mpls traffic-eng tunnels command in global configuration mode. To disable MPLS traffic engineering tunnel signaling, use the no form of this command.

mpls traffic-eng tunnels

no mpls traffic-eng tunnels

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Defaults

The command is disabled.

Command Modes

Global configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.


Usage Guidelines

This command enables MPLS traffic engineering on a device. For you to use the feature, MPLS traffic engineering must also be enabled on the desired interfaces.

Examples

The following example shows how to turn on MPLS traffic engineering tunnel signaling:

Router(config)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels

Related Commands

Command
Description

mpls traffic-eng tunnels (interface configuration)

Enables MPLS traffic engineering tunnel signalling on an interface.


mpls traffic-eng tunnels (interface configuration)

To enable Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) traffic engineering tunnel signaling on an interface (assuming that it is enabled on the device), use the mpls traffic-eng tunnels command in interface configuration mode. To disable MPLS traffic engineering tunnel signaling on the interface, use the no form of this command.

mpls traffic-eng tunnels

no mpls traffic-eng tunnels

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Defaults

The command is disabled on all interfaces.

Command Modes

Interface configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.


Usage Guidelines

To enable MPLS traffic engineering on the interface, MPLS traffic engineering must also be enabled on the device. An enabled interface has its resource information flooded into the appropriate IGP link-state database and accepts traffic engineering tunnel signalling requests.

Examples

The following example shows how to enable MPLS traffic engineering on Ethernet interface 0/0:

Router(config)# interface Ethernet0/0
Router(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels

Related Commands

Command
Description

mpls traffic-eng tunnels (global configuration)

Enables MPLS traffic engineering tunnel signalling on a device.


net

To configure an Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS) network entity title (NET) for a Connectionless Network Service (CLNS) routing process, use the net command in router configuration mode. To remove a NET, use the no form of this command.

net network-entity-title

no net network-entity-title

Syntax Description

network-entity-title

NET that specifies the area address and the system ID for a CLNS routing process. This argument can be either an address or a name.


Defaults

No NET is configured and the CLNS process will not start. A NET is mandatory.

Command Modes

Router configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

10.0

This command was introduced.

12.0(5)T

This command was modified to include multiarea IS-IS routing.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.


Usage Guidelines

Under most circumstances, one and only one NET must be configured.

A NET is a network service access point (NSAP) where the last byte is always zero. On a Cisco router running IS-IS, a NET can be 8 to 20 bytes. The last byte is always the n-selector and must be zero.

The six bytes directly in front of the n-selector are the system ID. The system ID length is a fixed size and cannot be changed. The system ID must be unique throughout each area (Level 1) and throughout the backbone (Level 2).

All bytes in front of the system ID are the area ID.

Even when IS-IS is used to perform IP routing only (no CLNS routing enabled), a NET must still be configured to define the router system ID and area ID.

A maximum of three NETs per router are allowed. In rare circumstances, it is possible to configure two or three NETs. In such a case, the area this router is in will have three area addresses. There will still be only one area, but it will have an additional maximum of three area addresses.

Configuring multiple NETs can be temporarily useful in the case of network reconfiguration where multiple areas are merged, or where one area is split into additional areas. Multiple area addresses enable you to renumber an area individually as needed.

If you are configuring multiarea IS-IS, the area ID must be unique, but the system ID portion of the NET must be the same for all IS-IS routing process instances.

Examples

The following example configures a router with system ID 0000.0c11.1111.00 and area ID 47.0004.004d.0001:

router isis FIRST
 net 47.0004.004d.0001.0001.0c11.1111.00

The following example shows three IS-IS routing processes with three areas configured. Each area has a unique identifier, but the system ID is the same for all areas.

clns routing

.
.
.

interface Tunnel529
 ip address 10.0.0.5 255.255.255.0
 ip router isis BB
 clns router isis BB

interface Ethernet1
 ip address 10.1.1.5 255.255.255.0
 ip router isis A3253-01
 clns router isis A3253-01
!
interface Ethernet2
 ip address 10.2.2.5 255.255.255.0
 ip router isis A3253-02
 clns router isis A3253-02

.
.
.

router isis BB                          ! Defaults to "is-type level-1-2"
 net 49.2222.0000.0000.0005.00
!
router isis A3253-01
 net 49.0553.0001.0000.0000.0005.00
 is-type level-1
!
router isis A3253-02
 net 49.0553.0002.0000.0000.0005.00
 is-type level-1

Related Commands

Command
Description

is-type

Configures the routing level for an instance of the IS-IS routing process.

router isis

Enables the IS-IS routing protocol and specifies an IS-IS process.


passive-interface

To disable sending routing updates on an interface, use the passive-interface command in router configuration mode. To reenable the sending of routing updates, use the no form of this command.

passive-interface [default] {interface-type interface-number}

no passive-interface interface-type interface-number

Syntax Description

default

(Optional) All interfaces become passive.

interface-type

Interface type.

interface-number

Interface number.


Defaults

Routing updates are sent on the interface.

Command Modes

Router configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

10.0

This command was introduced.

12.0

The default keyword was added.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.


Usage Guidelines

If you disable the sending of routing updates on an interface, the particular subnet will continue to be advertised to other interfaces, and updates from other routers on that interface continue to be received and processed.

The default keyword sets all interfaces as passive by default. You can then configure individual interfaces where adjacencies are desired using the no passive-interface command. The default keyword is useful in Internet service provider (ISP) and large enterprise networks where many of the distribution routers have more than 200 interfaces.

For the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocol, OSPF routing information is neither sent nor received through the specified router interface. The specified interface address appears as a stub network in the OSPF domain.

For the Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS) protocol, this command instructs IS-IS to advertise the IP addresses for the specified interface without actually running IS-IS on that interface. The no form of this command for IS-IS disables advertising IP addresses for the specified address.


Note For IS-IS you must keep at least one active interface and configure the interface with the ip router isis command.


Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) is disabled on an interface that is configured as passive although it advertises the route.

Examples

The following example sends EIGRP updates to all interfaces on network 10.108.0.0 except Ethernet interface 1:

router eigrp 109
 network 10.108.0.0
 passive-interface ethernet 1

The following configuration enables IS-IS on Ethernet interface 1 and serial interface 0 and advertises the IP addresses of Ethernet interface 0 in its link-state protocol data units (PDUs):

router isis Finance
 passive-interface Ethernet 0
interface Ethernet 1
 ip router isis Finance
interface serial 0
 ip router isis Finance

The following example sets all interfaces as passive, then activates Ethernet interface 0:

router ospf 100
passive-interface default
no passive-interface ethernet0
network 10.108.0.1 0.0.0.255 area 0

router isis

To enable the Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS) routing protocol and to specify an IS-IS process, use the router isis command in global configuration mode. To disable IS-IS routing, use the no form of this command.

router isis area-tag

no router isis area-tag

Syntax Description

area-tag

Meaningful name for a routing process. If it is not specified, a null tag is assumed and the process is referenced with a null tag. This name must be unique among all IP or Connectionless Network Service (CLNS) router processes for a given router.

Required for multiarea IS-IS configuration. Optional for conventional IS-IS configuration.


Defaults

This command is disabled by default.

Command Modes

Global configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

10.0

This command was introduced.

12.0(5)T

Multiarea functionality was added, changing the way the tag argument (now area-tag) is used.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.


Usage Guidelines

This command is used to enable routing for an area. An appropriate network entity title (NET) must be configured to specify the area address of the area and system ID of the router. Routing must be enabled on one or more interfaces before adjacencies may be established and dynamic routing is possible.

If you have IS-IS running and at least one International Standards Organization Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (ISO-IGRP) process, the IS-IS process and the ISO-IGRP process cannot both be configured without an area tag. The null tag can be used by only one process. If you run ISO-IGRP and IS-IS, a null tag can be used for IS-IS, but not for ISO-IGRP at the same time. However, each area in an IS-IS multiarea configuration should have a nonnull area tag to facilitate identification of the area.

You can configure only one IS-IS routing process to perform Level 2 (interarea) routing. You can configure this process to perform Level 1 (intra-area) routing at the same time. You can configure up to 29 additional processes as Level 1-only processes. If Level 2 routing is configured on any process, all additional processes are automatically configured as Level 1.

An interface cannot be part of more than one area, except in the case where the associated routing process is performing both Level 1 and Level 2 routing. On media such as WAN media where subinterfaces are supported, different subinterfaces could be configured for different areas.

If Level 2 routing is not desired for a given area, use the is-type command to remove Level 2. Level 2 routing can then be enabled on some other router instance.

Explicit redistribution between IS-IS instances is prohibited (prevented by the parser). In other words, you cannot issue a redistribute isis area-tag command in the context of another IS-IS router instance (router isis area-tag). Redistribution from any other routing protocol into a particular area is possible, and is configured per router instance, as in Cisco IOS software Release 12.0, using the redistribute and route map commands. By default, redistribution is into Level 2.

If multiple Level 1 areas are defined, the Target Address Resolution Protocol (TARP) behaves in the following way:

The locally assigned target identifier gets the network service access point (NSAP) of the Level 2 area, if present.

If only Level 1 areas are configured, the router uses the NSAP of the first active Level 1 area as shown in the configuration at the time of TARP configuration ("tarp run"). (Level 1 areas are sorted alphanumerically by tag name, with capital letters coming before lowercase letters. For example, AREA-1 precedes AREA-2, which precedes area-1.) Note that the target identifier NSAP could change following a reload if a new Level 1 area is added to the configuration after TARP is running.

The router continues to process all Type 1 and 2 protocol data units (PDUs) that are for this router. Type 1 PDUs are processed locally if the specified target identifier is in the local target identifier cache. If not, they are "propagated" (routed) to all interfaces in the same Level 1 area. (The same area is defined as the area configured on the input interface.)

Type 2 PDUs are processed locally if the specified target identifier is in the local target identifier cache. If not, they are propagated via all interfaces (all Level 1 or Level 2 areas) with TARP enabled. If the source of the PDU is from a different area, the information is also added to the local target identifier cache. Type 2 PDUs are propagated via all static adjacencies.

Type 4 PDUs (for changes originated locally) are propagated to all Level 1 and Level 2 areas (because internally they are treated as "Level 1-2").

Type 3 and 5 PDUs continue to be routed.

Type 1 PDUs are propagated only via Level 1 static adjacencies if the static NSAP is in one of the Level 1 areas in this router.

After you enter the router isis command, you can enter the maximum number of paths. There can be from 1 to 32 paths.

Examples

The following example configures IS-IS for IP routing, with system ID 0000.0000.0002 and area ID 01.0001, and enables IS-IS to form adjacencies on Ethernet interface 0 and serial interface 0. The IP prefix assigned to Ethernet interface 0 will be advertised to other IS-IS routers.

router isis tag1
 net 01.0001.0000.0000.0002
 is-type level-1
!
interface ethernet 0
 ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
 ip router isis
!
interface serial 0
 ip unnumbered ethernet0
 ip router isis

The following example starts IS-IS routing with the optional area-tag argument, where CISCO is the value for the area-tag argument:

router isis CISCO

The following example specifies IS-IS as an IP routing protocol for a process named Finance, and specifies that the Finance process will be routed on Ethernet interface 0 and serial interface 0:

router isis Finance
 net 49.0001.aaaa.aaaa.aaaa.00
interface Ethernet 0
 ip router isis Finance
interface serial 0
 ip router isis Finance

The following example shows usage of the maximum-paths option:

router isis
maximum-paths?
20

Related Commands

Command
Description

clns router isis

Enables IS-IS routing for ISO CLNS on an interface and attaches an area designator to the routing process.

ip router isis

Configures an IS-IS routing process for IP on an interface and attaches an area designator to the routing process.

net

Configures an IS-IS NET for the routing process.

redistribute (IP)

Redistribute routes from one routing domain into another routing domain.

route-map (IP)

Defines the conditions for redistributing routes from one routing protocol into another.


router ospf

To configure an Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) routing process, use the router ospf command in global configuration mode. To terminate an OSPF routing process, use the no form of this command.

router ospf process-id [vrf vpn-name]

no router ospf process-id [vrf vpn-name]

Syntax Description

process-id

Internally used identification parameter for an OSPF routing process. It is locally assigned and can be any positive integer. A unique value is assigned for each OSPF routing process.

vrf vpn-name

(Optional) Specifies the name of the VPN routing and forwarding (VRF) instance to associate with OSPF VRF processes.


Defaults

No OSPF routing process is defined.

Command Modes

Global configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

10.0

This command was introduced.

12.0(7)T

The vrf keyword and vpn-name arguments were added to identify a VPN.

12.0(9)ST

The vrf keyword and vpn-name arguments were added.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.


Usage Guidelines

You can specify multiple OSPF routing processes in each router.

After you enter the router ospf command, you can enter the maximum number of paths. There can be from 1 to 32 paths.

Examples

The following example configures an OSPF routing process and assign a process number of 109:

router ospf 109

This example shows a basic OSPF configuration using the router ospf command to configure OSPF VPN routing and forwarding (VRF) instance processes for the VRFs first, second, and third:

Router> enable
Router# configure terminal
Router(config)# router ospf 12 vrf first
Router(config)# router ospf 13 vrf second
Router(config)# router ospf 14 vrf third
Router(config)# exit 

The following example shows usage of the maximum-paths option:

Router> enable
Router# configure terminal
Router(config)# router ospf 
Router(config-router)# maximum-paths?
Router(config)# 20 
Router(config)# exit 

Related Commands

Command
Description

network area

Defines the interfaces on which OSPF runs and defines the area ID for those interfaces.


show interfaces tunnel

To list tunnel interface information, use the show interfaces tunnel command in privileged EXEC mode.

show interfaces tunnel number [accounting]

Syntax Description

number

Port line number.

accounting

(Optional) Displays the number of packets of each protocol type that have been sent through the interface.


Command Modes

Privileged EXEC

Command History

Release
Modification

10.0

This command was introduced.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.


Examples

The following is sample output from the show interfaces tunnel command:

Router# show interfaces tunnel 4

Tunnel4 is up, line protocol is down
  Hardware is Routing Tunnel
  MTU 1500 bytes, BW 9 Kbit, DLY 500000 usec, rely 255/255, load 1/255
  Encapsulation TUNNEL, loopback not set, keepalive set (10 sec)
  Tunnel source 0.0.0.0, destination 0.0.0.0
  Tunnel protocol/transport GRE/IP, key disabled, sequencing disabled
  Last input never, output never, output hang never
  Last clearing of "show interface" counters never
  Output queue 0/0, 0 drops; input queue 0/75, 0 drops
  Five minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
  Five minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
     0 packets input, 0 bytes, 0 no buffer
     Received 0 broadcasts, 0 runts, 0 giants
     0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored, 0 abort
     0 packets output, 0 bytes, 0 underruns
     0 output errors, 0 collisions, 0 interface resets, 0 restarts    

Table 2 describes significant fields shown in the display.

Table 2 show interfaces tunnel Field Descriptions 

Field
Description

Tunnel is {up | down}

Interface is currently active and inserted into ring (up) or inactive and not inserted (down).

On the Cisco 7500 series routers, gives the interface processor type, slot number, and port number.

line protocol is {up | down | administratively down}

Shows line protocol up if a valid route is available to the tunnel destination. Shows line protocol down if no route is available, or if the route would be recursive.

Hardware

Specifies the hardware type.

MTU

Maximum transmission unit of the interface.

BW

Bandwidth of the interface, in kilobits per second.

DLY

Delay of the interface, in microseconds.

rely

Reliability of the interface as a fraction of 255 (255/255 is 100 percent reliability), calculated as an exponential average over 5 minutes.

load

Load on the interface as a fraction of 255 (255/255 is completely saturated), calculated as an exponential average over 5 minutes.

Encapsulation

Encapsulation method is always TUNNEL for tunnels.

loopback

Indicates whether loopback is set or not.

keepalive

Indicates whether keepalives are set or not.

Tunnel source

IP address used as the source address for packets in the tunnel.

destination

IP address of the host destination.

Tunnel protocol

Tunnel transport protocol (the protocol the tunnel is using). This is based on the tunnel mode command, which defaults to GRE.

key

ID key for the tunnel interface, unless disabled.

sequencing

Indicates whether the tunnel interface drops datagrams that arrive out of order. Can be disabled.

Last input

Number of hours, minutes, and seconds since the last packet was successfully received by an interface and processed locally on the router. Useful for knowing when a dead interface failed. This counter is updated only when packets are process-switched, not when packets are fast-switched.

Last output

Number of hours, minutes, and seconds since the last packet was successfully transmitted by an interface. This counter is updated only when packets are process-switched, not when packets are fast-switched.

output hang

Number of hours, minutes, and seconds (or never) since the interface was last reset because of a transmission that took too long. When the number of hours in any of the "last" fields exceeds 24 hours, the number of days and hours is printed. If that field overflows, asterisks are printed.

Last clearing

Time at which the counters that measure cumulative statistics (such as number of bytes transmitted and received) shown in this report were last reset to zero. Note that variables that might affect routing (for example, load and reliability) are not cleared when the counters are cleared.

*** indicates the elapsed time is too large to be displayed.

0:00:00 indicates the counters were cleared more than 231 ms (and less than 232 ms) ago.

Output queue, drops
Input queue, drops

Number of packets in output and input queues. Each number is followed by a slash, the maximum size of the queue, and the number of packets dropped because of a full queue.

Five minute input rate,
Five minute output rate

Average number of bits and packets transmitted per second in the last 5 minutes.

The 5-minute input and output rates should be used only as an approximation of traffic per second during a given 5-minute period. These rates are exponentially weighted averages with a time constant of 5 minutes. A period of four time constants must pass before the average will be within two percent of the instantaneous rate of a uniform stream of traffic over that period.

packets input

Total number of error-free packets received by the system.

bytes

Total number of bytes, including data and MAC encapsulation, in the error-free packets received by the system.

no buffer

Number of received packets discarded because there was no buffer space in the main system. Compare with ignored count. Broadcast storms on Ethernet networks and bursts of noise on serial lines are often responsible for no input buffer events.

broadcasts

Total number of broadcast or multicast packets received by the interface.

runts

Number of packets that are discarded because they are smaller than the minimum packet size of them medium.

giants

Number of packets that are discarded because they exceed the maximum packet size of the medium.

CRC

Cyclic redundancy checksum generated by the originating LAN station or far-end device does not match the checksum calculated from the data received. On a LAN, this usually indicates noise or transmission problems on the LAN interface or the LAN bus itself. A high number of CRCs is usually the result of a station transmitting bad data.

frame

Number of packets received incorrectly having a CRC error and a noninteger number of octets.

overrun

Number of times the serial receiver hardware was unable to hand received data to a hardware buffer because the input rate exceeded the receiver's ability to handle the data.

ignored

Number of received packets ignored by the interface because the interface hardware ran low on internal buffers. These buffers are different than the system buffers mentioned previously in the buffer description. Broadcast storms and bursts of noise can cause the ignored count to be increased.

abort

Illegal sequence of one bits on a serial interface. This usually indicates a clocking problem between the serial interface and the data link equipment.

packets output

Total number of messages transmitted by the system.

bytes

Total number of bytes, including data and MAC encapsulation, transmitted by the system.

underruns

Number of times that the far-end transmitter has been running faster than the near-end router's receiver can handle. This may never be reported on some interfaces.

output errors

Sum of all errors that prevented the final transmission of datagrams out of the interface being examined. Note that this may not balance with the sum of the enumerated output errors, as some datagrams may have more than one error, and others may have errors that do not fall into any of the specifically tabulated categories.

collisions

Number of messages retransmitted because of an Ethernet collision. Some collisions are normal. However, if your collision rate climbs to around 4 or 5 percent, you should consider verifying that there is no faulty equipment on the segment and/or moving some existing stations to a new segment. A packet that collides is counted only once in output packets.

interface resets

Number of times an interface has been reset. The interface may be reset by the administrator or automatically when an internal error occurs.

restarts

Number of times that the controller was restarted because of errors.


Related Commands

Command
Description

show interfaces

Displays statistics for all interfaces configured on the router or access server.

show ip route

Displays the current state of the routing table.


show ip ospf

To display general information about Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) routing processes, use the show ip ospf command in EXEC mode.

show ip ospf [process-id]

Syntax Description

process-id

(Optional) Process ID. If this argument is included, only information for the specified routing process is included.


Command Modes

EXEC

Command History

Release
Modification

10.0

This command was introduced.

12.2(4)T

This command was modified to show packet pacing timers in the displayed output.

12.2(15)T

This command was modified to show additional information if the OSPF Forwarding Address Suppression in Type-5 LSAs feature is configured.

12.0(25)S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.0(25)S and the output was expanded to display link-state advertisement (LSA) throttling timers.

12.3(2)T

The output of this command was expanded to display LSA throttling timers and the limit on redistributed routes.

12.2(18)SXE

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(18)SXE and support for the Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) feature was added.

12.0(31)S

Support for the BFD feature was added.

12.4(4)T

Support for the BFD feature was added.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.


Examples

The following is sample output from the show ip ospf command when entered without a specific OSPF process ID:

Router# show ip ospf 

  Routing Process "ospf 201" with ID 10.0.0.1 and Domain ID 10.20.0.1 
  Supports only single TOS(TOS0) routes 
  Supports opaque LSA 
  SPF schedule delay 5 secs, Hold time between two SPFs 10 secs 
  Minimum LSA interval 5 secs. Minimum LSA arrival 1 secs 
  LSA group pacing timer 100 secs 
  Interface flood pacing timer 55 msecs 
  Retransmission pacing timer 100 msecs 
  Number of external LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x0      
  Number of opaque AS LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x0      
  Number of DCbitless external and opaque AS LSA 0 
  Number of DoNotAge external and opaque AS LSA 0 
  Number of areas in this router is 2. 2 normal 0 stub 0 nssa 
  External flood list length 0 
     Area BACKBONE(0) 
         Number of interfaces in this area is 2 
         Area has message digest authentication 
         SPF algorithm executed 4 times 
         Area ranges are 
         Number of LSA 4. Checksum Sum 0x29BEB  
         Number of opaque link LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x0      
         Number of DCbitless LSA 3 
         Number of indication LSA 0 
         Number of DoNotAge LSA 0 
         Flood list length 0 
     Area 172.16.26.0 
         Number of interfaces in this area is 0 
         Area has no authentication 
         SPF algorithm executed 1 times 
         Area ranges are 
            192.168.0.0/16 Passive Advertise  
         Number of LSA 1. Checksum Sum 0x44FD   
         Number of opaque link LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x0      
         Number of DCbitless LSA 1 
         Number of indication LSA 1 
         Number of DoNotAge LSA 0 
         Flood list length 0

Cisco IOS Release 12.2(18)SXE, 12.0(31)S, and 12.4(4)T

The following is sample output from the show ip ospf command to verify that the BFD feature has been enabled for OSPF process 123. The relevant command output is shown in bold in the output.

Router# show ip ospf 

 Routing Process "ospf 123" with ID 172.16.10.1
 Supports only single TOS(TOS0) routes
 Supports opaque LSA
 Supports Link-local Signaling (LLS)
 Initial SPF schedule delay 5000 msecs
 Minimum hold time between two consecutive SPFs 10000 msecs
 Maximum wait time between two consecutive SPFs 10000 msecs
 Incremental-SPF disabled
 Minimum LSA interval 5 secs
 Minimum LSA arrival 1000 msecs
 LSA group pacing timer 240 secs
 Interface flood pacing timer 33 msecs
 Retransmission pacing timer 66 msecs
 Number of external LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x000000
 Number of opaque AS LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x000000
 Number of DCbitless external and opaque AS LSA 0
 Number of DoNotAge external and opaque AS LSA 0
 Number of areas in this router is 1. 1 normal 0 stub 0 nssa
 External flood list length 0
   BFD is enabled
    Area BACKBONE(0)
        Number of interfaces in this area is 2
        Area has no authentication
        SPF algorithm last executed 00:00:03.708 ago
        SPF algorithm executed 27 times
        Area ranges are
        Number of LSA 3. Checksum Sum 0x00AEF1
        Number of opaque link LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x000000
        Number of DCbitless LSA 0
        Number of indication LSA 0
        Number of DoNotAge LSA 0
        Flood list length 0

Table 3 describes the significant fields shown in the display.

Table 3 show ip ospf Field Descriptions 

Field
Description

Routing process "ospf 201" with ID 10.0.0.1

Process ID and OSPF router ID.

Supports...

Number of types of service supported (Type 0 only).

SPF schedule delay

Delay time of SPF calculations.

Minimum LSA interval

Minimum interval between link-state advertisements.

LSA group pacing timer

Configured LSA group pacing timer (in seconds).

Interface flood pacing timer

Configured LSA flood pacing timer (in milliseconds).

Retransmission pacing timer

Configured LSA retransmission pacing timer (in milliseconds).

Number of external LSA

Number of external link-state advertisements.

Number of opaque AS LSA

Number of opaque link-state advertisements.

Number of DCbitless external and opaque AS LSA

Number of demand circuit external and opaque link-state advertisements.

Number of DoNotAge external and opaque AS LSA

Number of do not age external and opaque link-state advertisements.

Number of areas in this router is

Number of areas configured for the router.

External flood list length

External flood list length.

BFD is enabled

BFD has been enabled on the OSPF process.


The following is an excerpt of output from the show ip ospf command when the OSPF Forwarding Address Suppression in Type-5 LSAs feature is configured:

Router# show ip ospf
.
.
Area 2
   Number of interfaces in this area is 4
   It is a NSSA area
   Perform type-7/type-5 LSA translation, suppress forwarding address
.
.
Routing Process "ospf 1" with ID 192.168.0.1
 Supports only single TOS(TOS0) routes
 Supports opaque LSA
 Supports Link-local Signaling (LLS)
 Initial SPF schedule delay 5000 msecs
 Minimum hold time between two consecutive SPFs 10000 msecs
 Maximum wait time between two consecutive SPFs 10000 msecs
 Incremental-SPF disabled
 Minimum LSA interval 5 secs
 Minimum LSA arrival 1000 msecs
 LSA group pacing timer 240 secs
 Interface flood pacing timer 33 msecs
 Retransmission pacing timer 66 msecs
 Number of external LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x0     
 Number of opaque AS LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x0     
 Number of DCbitless external and opaque AS LSA 0
 Number of DoNotAge external and opaque AS LSA 0
 Number of areas in this router is 0. 0 normal 0 stub 0 nssa
 External flood list length 0

Table 4 describes the significant fields shown in the display.

Table 4 show ip ospf Field Descriptions 

Field
Description

Area

OSPF area and tag.

Number of interfaces...

Number of interfaces configured in the area.

It is...

Possible types are internal, area border, or autonomous system boundary.

Routing process "ospf 1" with ID 192.168.0.1

Process ID and OSPF router ID.

Supports...

Number of types of service supported (Type 0 only).

Initial SPF schedule delay

Delay time of SPF calculations at startup.

Minimum hold time

Minimum hold time between consecutive SPF calculations.

Maximum wait time

Maximum wait time between consecutive SPF calculations.

Incremental-SPF

Status of incremental SPF calculations.

Minimum LSA...

Minimum time interval (in seconds) between link-state advertisements, and maximum arrival time (in milliseconds) of link-state advertisements,

LSA group pacing timer

Configured LSA group pacing timer (in seconds).

Interface flood pacing timer

Configured LSA flood pacing timer (in milliseconds).

Retransmission pacing timer

Configured LSA retransmission pacing timer (in milliseconds).

Number of...

Number and type of link-state advertisements that have been received.

Number of external LSA

Number of external link-state advertisements.

Number of opaque AS LSA

Number of opaque link-state advertisements.

Number of DCbitless external and opaque AS LSA

Number of demand circuit external and opaque link-state advertisements.

Number of DoNotAge external and opaque AS LSA

Number of do not age external and opaque link-state advertisements.

Number of areas in this router is

Number of areas configured for the router listed by type.

External flood list length

External flood list length.


The following is sample output from the show ip ospf command. In this example, the user had configured the redistribution maximum-prefix command to set a limit of 2000 redistributed routes. Shortest Path First (SPF) throttling was configured with the timers throttle spf command.

Router# show ip ospf 1

 Routing Process "ospf 1" with ID 10.0.0.1
 Supports only single TOS(TOS0) routes
 Supports opaque LSA
 Supports Link-local Signaling (LLS)
 It is an autonomous system boundary router
 Redistributing External Routes from,
    static, includes subnets in redistribution
    Maximum limit of redistributed prefixes 2000
    Threshold for warning message 75%
Initial SPF schedule delay 5000 msecs
 Minimum hold time between two consecutive SPFs 10000 msecs

Maximum wait time between two consecutive SPFs 10000 msecs

Table 5 describes the significant fields shown in the display.

Table 5 show ip ospf Field Descriptions 

Field
Description

Routing process "ospf 1" with ID 10.0.0.1

Process ID and OSPF router ID.

Supports ...

Number of Types of Service (TOS) supported.

It is ...

Possible types are internal, area border, or autonomous system boundary.

Redistributing External Routes from

Lists of redistributed routes, by protocol.

Maximum limit of redistributed prefixes

Value set in the redistribution maximum-prefix command to set a limit on the number of redistributed routes.

Threshold for warning message

Percentage set in the redistribution maximum-prefix command for the threshold number of redistributed routes needed to cause a warning message. The default is 75 percent of the maximum limit.

Initial SPF schedule delay

Delay (in milliseconds) before initial SPF schedule for SPF throttling. Configured with the timers throttle spf command.

Minimum hold time between two consecutive SPFs

Minimum hold time (in milliseconds) between two consecutive SPF calculations for SPF throttling. Configured with the timers throttle spf command.

Maximum wait time between two consecutive SPFs

Maximum wait time (in milliseconds) between two consecutive SPF calculations for SPF throttling. Configured with the timers throttle spf command.

Number of areas

Number of areas in router, area addresses, and so on.


The following is sample output from the show ip ospf command. In this example, the user had configured LSA throttling, and those lines of output are displayed in bold.

Router# show ip ospf 1

Routing Process "ospf 4" with ID 10.10.24.4
 Supports only single TOS(TOS0) routes
 Supports opaque LSA
 Supports Link-local Signaling (LLS)
 Initial SPF schedule delay 5000 msecs
 Minimum hold time between two consecutive SPFs 10000 msecs
 Maximum wait time between two consecutive SPFs 10000 msecs
 Incremental-SPF disabled
 Initial LSA throttle delay 100 msecs
 Minimum hold time for LSA throttle 10000 msecs
 Maximum wait time for LSA throttle 45000 msecs
Minimum LSA arrival 1000 msecs
 LSA group pacing timer 240 secs
 Interface flood pacing timer 33 msecs
 Retransmission pacing timer 66 msecs
 Number of external LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x0     
 Number of opaque AS LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x0     
 Number of DCbitless external and opaque AS LSA 0
 Number of DoNotAge external and opaque AS LSA 0
 Number of areas in this router is 1. 1 normal 0 stub 0 nssa
 External flood list length 0
    Area 24
        Number of interfaces in this area is 2
        Area has no authentication
        SPF algorithm last executed 04:28:18.396 ago
        SPF algorithm executed 8 times
        Area ranges are
        Number of LSA 4. Checksum Sum 0x23EB9 
        Number of opaque link LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x0     
        Number of DCbitless LSA 0
        Number of indication LSA 0
        Number of DoNotAge LSA 0
        Flood list length 0

The following is sample output from the show ip ospf command. In this example, the user had configured the redistribution maximum-prefix command to set a limit of 2000 redistributed routes. SPF throttling was configured with the timers throttle spf command.

Router# show ip ospf 1

 Routing Process "ospf 1" with ID 192.42.110.200
 Supports only single TOS(TOS0) routes
 Supports opaque LSA
 Supports Link-local Signaling (LLS)
 It is an autonomous system boundary router
 Redistributing External Routes from,
    static, includes subnets in redistribution
    Maximum limit of redistributed prefixes 2000
    Threshold for warning message 75%
Initial SPF schedule delay 5000 msecs
 Minimum hold time between two consecutive SPFs 10000 msecs

Maximum wait time between two consecutive SPFs 10000 msecs

Table 6 describes the significant fields shown in the display.

Table 6 show ip ospf Field Descriptions 

Field
Description

Routing process "ospf 1" with ID 192.42.110.200

Process ID and OSPF router ID.

Supports ...

Number of TOS supported.

It is ...

Possible types are internal, area border, or autonomous system boundary.

Redistributing External Routes from

Lists of redistributed routes, by protocol.

Maximum limit of redistributed prefixes

Value set in the redistribution maximum-prefix command to set a limit on the number of redistributed routes.

Threshold for warning message

Percentage set in the redistribution maximum-prefix command for the threshold number of redistributed routes needed to cause a warning message. The default is 75 percent of the maximum limit.

Initial SPF schedule delay

Delay (in milliseconds) before the initial SPF schedule for SPF throttling. Configured with the timers throttle spf command.

Minimum hold time between two consecutive SPFs

Minimum hold time (in milliseconds) between two consecutive SPF calculations for SPF throttling. Configured with the timers throttle spf command.

Maximum wait time between two consecutive SPFs

Maximum wait time (in milliseconds) between two consecutive SPF calculations for SPF throttling. Configured with the timers throttle spf command.

Number of areas

Number of areas in router, area addresses, and so on.


The following is sample output from the show ip ospf command. In this example, the user had configured LSA throttling, and those lines of output are displayed in bold.

Router# show ip ospf 1

Routing Process "ospf 4" with ID 10.10.24.4
 Supports only single TOS(TOS0) routes
 Supports opaque LSA
 Supports Link-local Signaling (LLS)
 Initial SPF schedule delay 5000 msecs
 Minimum hold time between two consecutive SPFs 10000 msecs
 Maximum wait time between two consecutive SPFs 10000 msecs
 Incremental-SPF disabled
 Initial LSA throttle delay 100 msecs
 Minimum hold time for LSA throttle 10000 msecs
 Maximum wait time for LSA throttle 45000 msecs
Minimum LSA arrival 1000 msecs
 LSA group pacing timer 240 secs
 Interface flood pacing timer 33 msecs
 Retransmission pacing timer 66 msecs
 Number of external LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x0     
 Number of opaque AS LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x0     
 Number of DCbitless external and opaque AS LSA 0
 Number of DoNotAge external and opaque AS LSA 0
 Number of areas in this router is 1. 1 normal 0 stub 0 nssa
 External flood list length 0
    Area 24
        Number of interfaces in this area is 2
        Area has no authentication
        SPF algorithm last executed 04:28:18.396 ago
        SPF algorithm executed 8 times
        Area ranges are
        Number of LSA 4. Checksum Sum 0x23EB9 
        Number of opaque link LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x0     
        Number of DCbitless LSA 0
        Number of indication LSA 0
        Number of DoNotAge LSA 0
        Flood list length 0

show ip route

To display the current state of the routing table, use the show ip route command in user EXEC or privileged EXEC mode.

show ip route [ip-address [mask] [longer-prefixes] | protocol [process-id] | list [access-list-number | access-list-name] | static download]

Syntax Description

ip-address

(Optional) Address about which routing information should be displayed.

mask

(Optional) Argument for a subnet mask.

longer-prefixes

(Optional) Specifies that only routes matching the ip-address and mask pair should be displayed.

protocol

(Optional) The name of a routing protocol, or the keyword connected, static, or summary. If you specify a routing protocol, use one of the following keywords: bgp, hello, eigrp, isis, ospf, and rip.

process-id

(Optional) The number used to identify a process of the specified protocol.

list

(Optional) The list keyword is required to filter output by an access list name or number.

access-list-number

(Optional) Filters the displayed output from the routing table based on the specified access list name.

access-list-name

(Optional) Filters the displayed output from the routing table based on the specified access list number.

static

(Optional) All static routes.

download

(Optional) The route installed using the AAA route download function.


Command Modes

User EXEC
Privileged EXEC

Command History

Release
Modification

9.2

This command was introduced.

10.0

The "DEIGRP, EXEIGRP, N1OSPF NSSA external type 1 route" and "N2OSPF NSSA external type 2 route" codes were added to the command output.

10.3

The process-id argument was added.

11.0

The longer-prefixes keyword was added.

11.1

The "U—per-user static route" code was added to the command output.

11.2

The "o—on-demand routing" code was added to the command output.

11.3

The output from the show ip route ip-address command was enhanced to display the origination of an IP route in Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS) networks.

12.0(1)T

The "M—mobile" code was added to the command output.

12.0(3)T

The "Pperiodic downloaded static route" code was added to the command output.

12.0(4)T

The "iaIS-IS" code was added to the command output.

12.2(2)T

The output from the show ip route ip-address command was enhanced to display information on the multipaths to the specified network.

12.2(13)T

The egp and igrp arguments were removed because the exterior gateway protocol (EGP) and the Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) are no longer available in Cisco IOS software.

12.3(2)T

The output from the show ip route command was enhanced to display route tag information.

12.3(8)T

The output from the show ip route command was enhanced to display static routes using DHCP.

12.2(27)SBC

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(27)SBC.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.


Usage Guidelines

The show ip route static download command provides a way to display all dynamic static routes with name and distance information, including active and inactive ones. You can display all active dynamic static routes with both the show ip route and show ip route static commands after these active routes are added in the main routing table.

Examples

Routing Table Examples

The following examples show the standard routing tables displayed by the show ip route command. Use the codes displayed at the beginning of each report and the information in Table 7 to understand the type of route.

The following is sample output from the show ip route command when entered without an address:

Router# show ip route

Codes: I - IGRP derived, R - RIP derived, O - OSPF derived,
       C - connected, S - static, E - EGP derived, B - BGP derived,
       * - candidate default route, IA - OSPF inter area route,
       i - IS-IS derived, ia - IS-IS, U - per-user static route, 
       o - on-demand routing, M - mobile, P - periodic downloaded static route,
       D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, E1 - OSPF external type 1 route, 
       E2 - OSPF external type 2 route, N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1 route, 
       N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 route

Gateway of last resort is 10.119.254.240 to network 10.140.0.0

O E2 10.110.0.0 [160/5] via 10.119.254.6, 0:01:00, Ethernet2
E    10.67.10.0 [200/128] via 10.119.254.244, 0:02:22, Ethernet2
O E2 10.68.132.0 [160/5] via 10.119.254.6, 0:00:59, Ethernet2
O E2 10.130.0.0 [160/5] via 10.119.254.6, 0:00:59, Ethernet2
E    10.128.0.0 [200/128] via 10.119.254.244, 0:02:22, Ethernet2
E    10.129.0.0 [200/129] via 10.119.254.240, 0:02:22, Ethernet2
E    10.65.129.0 [200/128] via 10.119.254.244, 0:02:22, Ethernet2
E    10.10.0.0 [200/128] via 10.119.254.244, 0:02:22, Ethernet2
E    10.75.139.0 [200/129] via 10.119.254.240, 0:02:23, Ethernet2
E    10.16.208.0 [200/128] via 10.119.254.244, 0:02:22, Ethernet2
E    10.84.148.0 [200/129] via 10.119.254.240, 0:02:23, Ethernet2
E    10.31.223.0 [200/128] via 10.119.254.244, 0:02:22, Ethernet2
E    10.44.236.0 [200/129] via 10.119.254.240, 0:02:23, Ethernet2
E    10.141.0.0 [200/129] via 10.119.254.240, 0:02:22, Ethernet2
E    10.140.0.0 [200/129] via 10.119.254.240, 0:02:23, Ethernet2 

The following is sample output that includes IS-IS Level 2 routes learned:

Router# show ip route

Codes: I - IGRP derived, R - RIP derived, O - OSPF derived,
       C - connected, S - static, E - EGP derived, B - BGP derived,
       * - candidate default route, IA - OSPF inter area route,
       i - IS-IS derived, ia - IS-IS, U - per-user static route, 
       o - on-demand routing, M - mobile, P - periodic downloaded static route,
       D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, E1 - OSPF external type 1 route, 
       E2 - OSPF external type 2 route, N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1 route, 
       N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 route

Gateway of last resort is not set

     10.89.0.0 is subnetted (mask is 255.255.255.0), 3 subnets
C       10.89.64.0 255.255.255.0 is possibly down,
          routing via 0.0.0.0, Ethernet0
i L2    10.89.67.0 [115/20] via 10.89.64.240, 0:00:12, Ethernet0
i L2    10.89.66.0 [115/20] via 10.89.64.240, 0:00:12, Ethernet0

The following is sample output using the longer-prefixes keyword. When the longer-prefixes keyword is included, the address and mask pair becomes the prefix, and any address that matches that prefix is displayed. Therefore, multiple addresses are displayed.

In the following example, the logical AND operation is performed on the source address 10.0.0.0 and the mask 10.0.0.0, resulting in 10.0.0.0. Each destination in the routing table is also logically ANDed with the mask and compared to that result of 10.0.0.0. Any destinations that fall into that range are displayed in the output.

Router# show ip route 10.0.0.0 10.0.0.0 longer-prefixes 

Codes: I - IGRP derived, R - RIP derived, O - OSPF derived,
       C - connected, S - static, E - EGP derived, B - BGP derived,
       * - candidate default route, IA - OSPF inter area route,
       i - IS-IS derived, ia - IS-IS, U - per-user static route, 
       o - on-demand routing, M - mobile, P - periodic downloaded static route,
       D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, E1 - OSPF external type 1 route, 
       E2 - OSPF external type 2 route, N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1 route, 
       N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 route
 
Gateway of last resort is not set
 
S    10.134.0.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
S    10.10.0.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
S    10.129.0.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
S    10.128.0.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
S    10.49.246.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
S    10.160.97.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
S    10.153.88.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
S    10.76.141.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
S    10.75.138.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
S    10.44.237.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
S    10.31.222.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
S    10.16.209.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
S    10.145.0.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
S    10.141.0.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
S    10.138.0.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
S    10.128.0.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
     10.19.0.0 255.255.255.0 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C       10.19.64.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
     10.69.0.0 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 2 masks
C       10.69.232.32 255.255.255.240 is directly connected, Ethernet0
S       10.69.0.0 255.255.0.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0

The following examples display all downloaded static routes. A P designates which route was installed using AAA route download.

Router# show ip route

Codes: C - connected, S - static, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP
       D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area 
       N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
       E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2
       i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, * - candidate default
       U - per-user static route, o - ODR, P - periodic downloaded static route
       T - traffic engineered route
 
Gateway of last resort is 172.21.17.1 to network 0.0.0.0
 
        172.31.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets
P       172.31.229.41 is directly connected, Dialer1 20.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 3 subnets
P       10.1.1.0 [200/0] via 172.31.229.41, Dialer1
P       10.1.3.0 [200/0] via 172.31.229.41, Dialer1
P       10.1.2.0 [200/0] via 172.31.229.41, Dialer1

Router# show ip route static

     172.27.4.0/8 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 2 masks
P       172.1.1.1/32 is directly connected, BRI0
P       172.27.4.0/8 [1/0] via 103.1.1.1, BRI0
S    172.31.0.0/16 [1/0] via 172.21.114.65, Ethernet0
S    10.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, BRI0
P    10.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, BRI0
     172.21.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 5 subnets, 2 masks
S       172.21.114.201/32 is directly connected, BRI0
S       172.21.114.205/32 is directly connected, BRI0
S       172.21.114.174/32 is directly connected, BRI0
S       172.21.114.12/32 is directly connected, BRI0
P    10.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, BRI0
P    10.1.0.0/8 is directly connected, BRI0
P    10.2.2.0/8 is directly connected, BRI0
S*   0.0.0.0/0 [1/0] via 172.21.114.65, Ethernet0
S    172.29.0.0/16 [1/0] via 172.21.114.65, Ethernet0

The following example shows how to use the show ip route static download command to display all active and inactive routes installed using AAA route download:

Router# show ip route static download

Connectivity: A - Active, I - Inactive
 
A     10.10.0.0 255.0.0.0 BRI0
A     10.11.0.0 255.0.0.0 BRI0
A     10.12.0.0 255.0.0.0 BRI0
A     10.13.0.0 255.0.0.0 BRI0
I     10.20.0.0 255.0.0.0 172.21.1.1
I     10.22.0.0 255.0.0.0 Serial0
I     10.30.0.0 255.0.0.0 Serial0
I     10.31.0.0 255.0.0.0 Serial1
I     10.32.0.0 255.0.0.0 Serial1
A     10.34.0.0 255.0.0.0 192.168.1.1
A     10.36.1.1 255.255.255.255 BRI0 200 name remote1
I     10.38.1.9 255.255.255.0 192.168.69.1

Table 7 show ip route Field Descriptions 

Field
Description

O

Indicates the protocol that derived the route. It can be one of the following values:

I—Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) derived

R—Routing Information Protocol (RIP) derived

O—Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) derived

C—connected

S—static

E—Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP) derived

B—Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) derived

D—Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)

EX—EIGRP external

i—IS-IS derived

ia—IS-IS

M—mobile

P—periodic downloaded static route

Uper-user static route

o—on-demand routing

E2

Type of route. It can be one of the following values:

*—Indicates the last path used when a packet was forwarded. It pertains only to the nonfast-switched packets. However, it does not indicate which path will be used next when forwarding a nonfast-switched packet, except when the paths are equal cost.

IA—OSPF interarea route

E1—OSPF external type 1 route

E2—OSPF external type 2 route

L1—IS-IS Level 1 route

L2—IS-IS Level 2 route

N1—OSPF not-so-stubby area (NSSA) external type 1 route

N2—OSPF NSSA external type 2 route

10.110.0.0

Indicates the address of the remote network.

[160/5]

The first number in the brackets is the administrative distance of the information source; the second number is the metric for the route.

via 10.119.254.6

Specifies the address of the next router to the remote network.

0:01:00

Specifies the last time the route was updated (in hours:minutes:seconds).

Ethernet2

Specifies the interface through which the specified network can be reached.


Specific Route Information

When you specify that you want information about a specific network displayed, more detailed statistics are shown. The following is sample output from the show ip route command when entered with the address 10.0.0.1:

Router# show ip route 10.0.0.1

Routing entry for 10.0.0.1/32
    Known via "isis", distance 115, metric 20, type level-1
    Redistributing via isis
    Last update from 10.191.255.251 on Fddi1/0, 00:00:13 ago
    Routing Descriptor Blocks:
    * 10.22.22.2, from 10.191.255.247, via Serial2/3
       Route metric is 20, traffic share count is 1
       10.191.255.251, from 10.191.255.247, via Fddi1/0
       Route metric is 20, traffic share count is 1

When an IS-IS router advertises its link-state information, it includes one of its own IP addresses to be used as the originator IP address. When other routers calculate IP routes, they can store the originator IP address with each route in the routing table.

The example above shows the output from the show ip route command when looking at an IP route generated by IS-IS. Each path that is shown under the Routing Descriptor Blocks report displays two IP addresses. The first address (10.22.22.2) is the next hop address. The second is the originator IP address from the advertising IS-IS router. This address helps you determine where a particular IP route has originated in your network. In the example the route to 10.0.0.1/32 was originated by a router with IP address 10.191.255.247.

Table 8 describes the significant fields shown when using the show ip route command with an IP address (previous displays).

Table 8 show ip route with Address Field Descriptions 

Field
Description

Routing entry for 10.0.0.1/32

Network number and mask.

Known via...

Indicates how the route was derived.

Tag

Integer that is used to implement the route.

type

Indicates the IS-IS route type (Level 1 or Level 2).

Redistributing via...

Indicates the redistribution protocol.

Last update from 10.191.255.251

Indicates the IP address of a router that is the next hop to the remote network and the router interface on which the last update arrived.

Routing Descriptor Blocks:

Displays the next hop IP address followed by the information source.

Route metric

This value is the best metric for this routing descriptor block.

traffic share count

Number of uses for this routing descriptor block.


The following is sample output using the longer-prefixes keyword. When the longer-prefixes keyword is included, the address and mask pair becomes the prefix, and any address that matches that prefix is displayed. Therefore, multiple addresses are displayed.

In the following example, the logical AND operation is performed on the source address 10.0.0.0 and the mask 10.0.0.0, resulting in 10.0.0.0. Each destination in the routing table is also logically ANDed with the mask and compared to that result of 10.0.0.0. Any destinations that fall into that range are displayed in the output.

Router# show ip route 10.0.0.0 10.0.0.0 longer-prefixes 

Codes: I - IGRP derived, R - RIP derived, O - OSPF derived,
       C - connected, S - static, E - EGP derived, B - BGP derived,
       * - candidate default route, IA - OSPF inter area route,
       i - IS-IS derived, ia - IS-IS, U - per-user static route, 
       o - on-demand routing, M - mobile, P - periodic downloaded static route,
       D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, E1 - OSPF external type 1 route, 
       E2 - OSPF external type 2 route, N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1 route, 
       N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 route
 
Gateway of last resort is not set
 
S    10.134.0.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
S    10.10.0.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
S    10.129.0.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
S    10.128.0.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
S    10.49.246.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
S    10.160.97.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
S    10.153.88.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
S    10.76.141.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
S    10.75.138.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
S    10.44.237.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
S    10.31.222.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
S    10.16.209.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
S    10.145.0.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
S    10.141.0.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
S    10.138.0.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
S    10.128.0.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
     10.19.0.0 255.255.255.0 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C       10.19.64.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
     10.69.0.0 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 2 masks
C       10.69.232.32 255.255.255.240 is directly connected, Ethernet0
S       10.69.0.0 255.255.0.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0 

The following output includes the tag 120 applied to the route 10.22.0.0/16. You must specify an IP prefix in order to see the tag value.

Router# show ip route 10.22.0.0

Routing entry for 10.22.0.0/16
  Known via "isis", distance 115, metric 12
  Tag 120, type level-1
  Redistributing via isis
  Last update from 172.19.170.12 on Ethernet2, 01:29:13 ago
  Routing Descriptor Blocks:
    * 172.19.170.12, from 10.3.3.3, via Ethernet2
        Route metric is 12, traffic share count is 1
        Route tag 120

Static Routes Using a DHCP Gateway Examples

The following example shows that IP route 10.8.8.0 is directly connected to the Internet and is the next-hop (option 3) default gateway. Routes 10.1.1.1 [1/0], 10.3.2.1 [24/0], and 172.2.2.2 [1/0] are static, and route 10.0.0.0/0 is a default route candidate.

Router# show ip route

Codes: C - connected, S - static, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP
       D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area 
       N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
       E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2
       i - IS-IS, su - IS-IS summary, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2
       ia - IS-IS inter area, * - candidate default, U - per-user static route
       o - ODR, P - periodic downloaded static route

Gateway of last resort is 10.0.19.14 to network 0.0.0.0

10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 10.8.8.0 is directly connected, Ethernet1
  10.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets
S 10.1.1.1 [1/0] via 10.8.8.1
  10.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets
S 10.3.2.1 [24/0] via 10.8.8.1
  172.16.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets
S 172.2.2.2 [1/0] via 10.8.8.1
  10.0.0.0/28 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 10.0.19.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
  10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 10.15.15.0 is directly connected, Loopback0

S* 10.0.0.0/0 [1/0] via 10.0.19.14

Related Commands

Command
Description

show dialer

Displays general diagnostic information for interfaces configured for DDR.

show interfaces tunnel

Displays a list of tunnel interface information.

show ip route summary

Displays the current state of the routing table in summary format.


show ip rsvp host

To display Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) terminal point information for receivers or senders, use the show ip rsvp host command in user EXEC or privileged EXEC mode.

show ip rsvp host {senders | receivers} [hostname | ip-address]

Syntax Description

senders

Displays information for senders.

receivers

Displays information for receivers.

hostname

(Optional) Restricts the display to sessions with hostname as their destination.

ip-address

(Optional) Restricts the display to sessions with the specified IP address as their destination.


Command Modes

User EXEC
Privileged EXEC

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.


Examples

The following is sample output from the show ip rsvp host receivers command:

Router# show ip rsvp host receivers

To            From          Pro DPort Sport Next Hop      I/F   Fi Serv BPS Bytes
10.0.0.11     10.1.0.4      0   10011 1                         SE LOAD 100K  1K

Table 9 describes the significant fields shown in the display.

Table 9 show ip rsvp host Field Descriptions 

Field
Description

To

IP address of the receiver.

From

IP address of the sender.

Pro

Protocol code.

DPort

Destination port number.

Sport

Source port number.

Next Hop

IP address of the next hop.

I/F

Interface of the next hop.

Fi

Filter (wild card, shared explicit, or fixed).

Serv

Service (RATE or LOAD).

BPS

Reservation rate (in bits per second).

Bytes

Bytes of requested burst size.


Related Commands

Command
Description

show ip rsvp request

Displays the RSVP reservations currently being requested upstream for a specified interface or all interfaces.

show ip rsvp reservation

Displays RSVP-related receiver information currently in the database.

show ip rsvp sender

Displays RSVP-related sender information currently in the database.


show ip rsvp interface

To display Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP)-related information, use the show ip rsvp interface command in privileged EXEC mode.

show ip rsvp interface [interface-type interface-number] [detail]

Syntax Description

interface-type

(Optional) Type of the interface.

interface-number

(Optional) Number of the interface.

detail

(Optional) Additional information about interfaces.


Command Modes

Privileged EXEC

Command History

Release
Modification

11.2

This command was introduced.

12.2(2)T

The optional detail keyword was added.

12.2(4)T

This command was implemented on the Cisco 7500 series and the ATM-permanent virtual circuit (PVC) interface.

12.2(14)S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(14)S.

12.2(13)T

The following modifications were made to this command:

Rate-limiting and refresh-reduction information were added to the output display.

This command was modified to display RSVP global settings when no keywords or arguments are entered.

12.2(15)T

The following modifications were made to this command:

The command output was modified to display the effects of compression on admission control and the RSVP bandwidth limit counter.

Cryptographic authentication parameters were added to the display.

12.2(18)SFX2

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(18)SFX2.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.


Usage Guidelines

Use the show ip rsvp interface command to display information about interfaces on which RSVP is enabled, including the current allocation budget and maximum available bandwidth. Enter the optional detail keyword for additional information, including bandwidth and signaling parameters and blockade state.

Use the show ip rsvp interface detail command to display information about the RSVP parameters associated with an interface. These parameters include the following:

Total RSVP bandwidth

RSVP bandwidth allocated to existing flows

Maximum RSVP bandwidth that can be allocated to a single flow

The type of admission control supported (header compression methods)

The compression methods supported by RSVP compression prediction

Examples

The following command shows information for each interface on which RSVP is enabled:

Router# show ip rsvp interface

interface    allocated  i/f max  flow max sub max 
PO0/0        0          200M     200M     0   
PO1/0        0          50M      50M      0   
PO1/1        0          50M      50M      0   
PO1/2        0          50M      50M      0   
PO1/3        0          50M      50M      0   
Lo0          0          200M     200M     0   

Table 10 describes the fields shown in the display.

Table 10 show ip rsvp interface Field Descriptions 

Field
Description

interface

Interface name.

allocated

Current allocation budget.

i/f max

Maximum allocatable bandwidth.

flow max

Largest single flow allocatable on this interface.

sub max

Largest sub-pool value allowed on this interface.


Detailed RSVP Information Example

The following command shows detailed RSVP information for each interface on which RSVP is enabled:

Router# show ip rsvp interface detail

PO0/0:
   Bandwidth:
     Curr allocated:0 bits/sec
     Max. allowed (total):200M bits/sec
     Max. allowed (per flow):200M bits/sec
     Max. allowed for LSP tunnels using sub-pools:0 bits/sec
     Set aside by policy (total):0 bits/sec
   Signalling:
     DSCP value used in RSVP msgs:0x3F
     Number of refresh intervals to enforce blockade state:4
     Number of missed refresh messages:4
     Refresh interval:30

 PO1/0:
   Bandwidth:
     Curr allocated:0 bits/sec
     Max. allowed (total):50M bits/sec
     Max. allowed (per flow):50M bits/sec
     Max. allowed for LSP tunnels using sub-pools:0 bits/sec
     Set aside by policy (total):0 bits/sec
   Signalling:
     DSCP value used in RSVP msgs:0x3F
     Number of refresh intervals to enforce blockade state:4
     Number of missed refresh messages:4
     Refresh interval:30

PO1/1:
   Bandwidth:
     Curr allocated:0 bits/sec
     Max. allowed (total):50M bits/sec
     Max. allowed (per flow):50M bits/sec
     Max. allowed for LSP tunnels using sub-pools:0 bits/sec
     Set aside by policy (total):0 bits/sec
   Signalling:
     DSCP value used in RSVP msgs:0x3F
     Number of refresh intervals to enforce blockade state:4
     Number of missed refresh messages:4
     Refresh interval:30

 PO1/2:
   Bandwidth:
     Curr allocated:0 bits/sec
     Max. allowed (total):50M bits/sec
     Max. allowed (per flow):50M bits/secMax. allowed for LSP tunnels using sub-pools:0 
bits/sec
     Set aside by policy (total):0 bits/sec
   Signalling:
     DSCP value used in RSVP msgs:0x3F
     Number of refresh intervals to enforce blockade state:4
     Number of missed refresh messages:4
     Refresh interval:30

 PO1/3:
   Bandwidth:
     Curr allocated:0 bits/sec
     Max. allowed (total):50M bits/sec
     Max. allowed (per flow):50M bits/sec
     Max. allowed for LSP tunnels using sub-pools:0 bits/sec
     Set aside by policy (total):0 bits/sec
   Signalling:
     DSCP value used in RSVP msgs:0x3F
     Number of refresh intervals to enforce blockade state:4
     Number of missed refresh messages:4
     Refresh interval:30

 Lo0:
   Bandwidth:
     Curr allocated:0 bits/sec
     Max. allowed (total):200M bits/sec
     Max. allowed (per flow):200M bits/sec
     Max. allowed for LSP tunnels using sub-pools:0 bits/sec
     Set aside by policy (total):0 bits/sec
   Signalling:
     DSCP value used in RSVP msgs:0x3F
     Number of refresh intervals to enforce blockade state:4
     Number of missed refresh messages:4
     Refresh interval:30

Table 11 describes the significant fields shown in the detailed display for interface PO0/0. The fields for the other interfaces are similar.

Table 11 show ip rsvp interface detail Field Descriptions -Detailed RSVP Information Example

Field
Description

PO0/0

Interface name.

Bandwidth

The RSVP bandwidth parameters in effect including the following:

Curr allocated = amount of bandwidth currently allocated in bits per second.

Max. allowed (total) = maximum amount of bandwidth allowed in bits per second.

Max. allowed (per flow) = maximum amount of bandwidth allowed per flow in bits per second.

Max. allowed for LSP tunnels using sub-pools = maximum amount of bandwidth allowed for label switched path (LSP) tunnels in bits per second.

Set aside by policy (total) = the amount of bandwidth set aside by the local policy in bits per second.

Signalling

The RSVP signalling parameters in effect including the following:

DSCP value used in RSVP msgs = differentiated services code point (DSCP) used in RSVP messages.

Number of refresh intervals to enforce blockade state = how long in milliseconds before the blockade takes effect.

Number of missed refresh messages = how many refresh messages until the router state expires.

Refresh interval = how long in milliseconds until a refresh message is sent.


RSVP Compression Method Prediction Example

The following example from the show ip rsvp interface detail command shows the RSVP compression method prediction configuration for each interface on which RSVP is configured:

Router# show ip rsvp interface detail

 Et2/1:
   Bandwidth:
     Curr allocated:0 bits/sec
     Max. allowed (total):1158K bits/sec
     Max. allowed (per flow):128K bits/sec
     Max. allowed for LSP tunnels using sub-pools:0 bits/sec
     Set aside by policy (total):0 bits/sec
   Admission Control:
     Header Compression methods supported:
       rtp (36 bytes-saved), udp (20 bytes-saved)
   Neighbors:
     Using IP encap:0.  Using UDP encap:0
   Signalling:
     Refresh reduction:disabled
   Authentication:disabled 

 Se3/0:
   Bandwidth:
     Curr allocated:0 bits/sec
     Max. allowed (total):1158K bits/sec
     Max. allowed (per flow):128K bits/sec
     Max. allowed for LSP tunnels using sub-pools:0 bits/sec
     Set aside by policy (total):0 bits/sec
   Admission Control:
     Header Compression methods supported:
       rtp (36 bytes-saved), udp (20 bytes-saved)
   Neighbors:
     Using IP encap:1.  Using UDP encap:0
   Signalling:
     Refresh reduction:disabled
   Authentication:disabled 

Table 12 describes the significant fields shown in the display for interface Ethernet2/1. The fields for interface Serial3/0 are similar.

Table 12 show ip rsvp interface detail Field Descriptions—RSVP Compression Method Prediction Example

Field
Description

Et2/1: Se3/0

Interface name.

Bandwidth

The RSVP bandwidth parameters in effect including the following:

Curr allocated = amount of bandwidth currently allocated in bits per second.

Max. allowed (total) = maximum amount of bandwidth allowed in bits per second.

Max. allowed (per flow) = maximum amount of bandwidth allowed per flow in bits per second.

Max. allowed for LSP tunnels using sub-pools = maximum amount of bandwidth allowed for LSP tunnels in bits per second.

Set aside by policy (total) = the amount of bandwidth set aside by the local policy in bits per second.

Admission Control

The type of admission control in effect including the following:

Header Compression methods supported:

Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP) or User Data Protocol (UDP) compression schemes and the number of bytes saved per packet.

Neighbors

The number of neighbors using IP and UDP encapsulation.

Signalling

The type of signaling in effect; Refresh reduction is either enabled (active) or disabled (inactive).

Authentication

Authentication is either enabled (active) or disabled (inactive).


Cryptographic Authentication Example

The following example of the show ip rsvp interface detail command displays detailed information, including the cryptographic authentication parameters, for all RSVP-configured interfaces on the router:

Router# show ip rsvp interface detail

 Et0/0:
   Bandwidth:
    Curr allocated: 0 bits/sec
    Max. allowed (total): 7500K bits/sec
    Max. allowed (per flow): 7500K bits/sec
    Max. allowed for LSP tunnels using sub-pools: 0 bits/sec
    Set aside by policy (total):0 bits/sec
   Neighbors:
    Using IP encap: 0.  Using UDP encap: 0
   Signalling:
    Refresh reduction: disabled
   Authentication: enabled
    Key:           11223344
    Type:          sha-1
    Window size:   2
    Challenge:     enabled

Table 13 describes the significant fields shown in the display.

Table 13 show ip rsvp interface detail Field Descriptions—Cryptograhic
Authentication Example 

Field
Description

Et0/0

Interface name.

Bandwidth

The RSVP bandwidth parameters in effect including the following:

Curr allocated = amount of bandwidth currently allocated in bits per second.

Max. allowed (total) = maximum amount of bandwidth allowed in bits per second.

Max. allowed (per flow) = maximum amount of bandwidth allowed per flow in bits per second.

Max. allowed for LSP tunnels using sub-pools = maximum amount of bandwidth allowed for LSP tunnels in bits per second.

Set aside by policy (total) = the amount of bandwidth set aside by the local policy in bits per second.

Neighbors

The number of neighbors using IP and UDP encapsulation.

Signalling

The type of signaling in effect; Refresh reduction is either enabled (active) or disabled (inactive).

Authentication

Authentication is either enabled (active) or disabled (inactive). The parameters include the following:

Key = The key (string) for the RSVP authentication algorithm displayed in clear text (for example, 11223344) or encrypted <encrypted>.

Type = The algorithm to generate cryptographic signatures in RSVP messages; possible values are md5 and sha-1.

Window size = Maximum number of RSVP authenticated messages that can be received out of order.

Challenge = The challenge-response handshake performed with any new RSVP neighbors that are discovered on a network; possible values are enabled (active) or disabled (inactive).


Related Commands

Command
Description

show ip rsvp installed

Displays RSVP-related installed filters and corresponding bandwidth information.

show ip rsvp neighbor

Displays current RSVP neighbors.


show mpls traffic-eng autoroute

To display tunnels announced to the Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP), including interface, destination, and bandwidth, use the show mpls traffic-eng autoroute command in user EXEC or privileged EXEC mode.

show mpls traffic-eng autoroute

Defaults

No default behavior or values

Command Modes

User EXEC
Privileged EXEC

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.


Usage Guidelines

The enhanced shortest path first (SPF) calculation of the IGP has been modified so that it uses traffic engineering tunnels. This command shows which tunnels IGP is currently using in its enhanced SPF calculation (that is, which tunnels are up and have autoroute configured).

Examples

The following is sample output from the show mpls traffic-eng autoroute command.

Note that the tunnels are organized by destination. All tunnels to a destination carry a share of the traffic tunneled to that destination.

Router# show mpls traffic-eng autoroute 

MPLS TE autorouting enabled
  destination 0002.0002.0002.00 has 2 tunnels
    Tunnel1021 (traffic share 10000, nexthop 10.2.2.2, absolute metric 11)
    Tunnel1022 (traffic share 3333, nexthop 10.2.2.2, relative metric -3)
  destination 0003.0003.0003.00 has 2 tunnels
    Tunnel1032 (traffic share 10000, nexthop 172.16.3.3)
    Tunnel1031 (traffic share 10000, nexthop 172.16.3.3, relative metric -1)

Table 14 describes the significant fields shown in the display.

Table 14 show mpls traffic-eng autoroute Field Descriptions 

Field
Description

MPLS TE autorouting enabled

IGP automatically routes traffic into tunnels.

destination

MPLS traffic engineering tailend router system ID.

traffic share

A factor based on bandwidth, indicating how much traffic this tunnel should carry, relative to other tunnels, to the same destination. If two tunnels go to a single destination, one with a traffic share of 200 and the other with a traffic share of 100, the first tunnel carries two-thirds of the traffic.

nexthop

MPLS traffic engineering tailend IP address of the tunnel.

absolute metric

MPLS traffic engineering metric with mode absolute of the tunnel.

relative metric

MPLS traffic engineering metric with mode relative of the tunnel.


Related Commands

Command
Description

show isis mpls traffic-eng tunnel

Displays information about tunnels considered in the IS-IS next hop calculation.

tunnel mpls traffic-eng autoroute announce

Causes the IGP to use the tunnel (if it is up) in its enhanced SPF calculation.

tunnel mpls traffic-eng autoroute metric

Specifies the MPLS traffic engineering tunnel metric that the IGP enhanced SPF calculation will use.


show mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute database

To display the contents of the Fast Reroute (FRR) database, use the show mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute database command in EXEC mode.

show mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute database [{network [mask | masklength] | labels low label [-high label] | interface ifname [backup-interface ifname ] | backup-interface ifname}] [state {active | ready | partial | complete}] [role {head | middle}][detail]

Syntax Description

network

IP address of the destination network. This functions as the prefix of the Fast Reroute rewrite.

mask

Bit combination indicating the portion of the IP address that is being used for the subnet address.

mask length

Number of bits in mask of destination.

labels

Shows only database entries that possess in-labels assigned by this router (local labels). You specify either a starting value or a range of values.

low label

Starting label value or lowest value in the range.

- high label

Highest label value in the range.

interface

Shows only database entries related to the primary outgoing interface.

ifname

Name of the primary outgoing interface.

backup-interface

(Optional) Shows only database entries related to the backup outgoing interface.

ifname

Name of the backup outgoing interface.

state

(Optional) Shows entries that match one of four possible states: partial, complete, ready, or active.

active

(Optional) The FRR rewrite has been put into the forwarding database (where it can be placed onto appropriate incoming packets).

ready

(Optional) The FRR rewrite has been created, but has not yet been moved into the forwarding database.

partial

(Optional) State before the FRR rewrite has been fully created; its backup routing information is still incomplete.

complete

State after the FRR rewrite has been assembled: it is either ready or active.

role

(Optional) Shows entries associated either with the tunnel head or tunnel midpoint.

head

(Optional) Entry associated with tunnel head.

middle

(Optional) Entry associated with tunnel midpoint.

detail

(Optional) Shows long-form information: LFIB-FRR total number of clusters, groups and items in addition to the short-form information of prefix, label and state.


Defaults

No default behavior or values.

Command Modes

EXEC

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(10)ST

This command was introduced.

12.2(18)S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(18)S.

12.2(18)SXD

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(18)SX.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.


Examples

The following example shows output from the show mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute database command at a tunnel head link:


Router# show mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute database 10.0.0.0

Tunnel head fast reroute information:

Prefix 	      Tunnel  In-label  Out intf/label  FRR intf/label  Status
10.0.0.0/16   Tu111   Tun hd    PO0/0:Untagged  Tu4000:16       ready  
10.0.0.0/16   Tu449   Tun hd    PO0/0:Untagged  Tu4000:736      ready  
10.0.0.0/16   Tu314   Tun hd    PO0/0:Untagged  Tu4000:757      ready  
10.0.0.0/16   Tu313   Tun hd    PO0/0:Untagged  Tu4000:756      ready 

Table 15 describes significant fields shown in the display.

Table 15 show mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute database Field Descriptions 

Field
Description

Prefix

Address to which packets with this label are going.

Tunnel

Tunnel's identifying number.

In Label

Label advertised to other routers to signify a particular prefix. The value "Tunnel head" occurs when no such label has been advertised.

Out intf/label

Out interface—short name of the physical interface through which traffic goes to the protected link.

Out label:

At a tunnel head, this is the label advertised by the tunnel destination device. The value "Untagged" occurs when no such label has been advertised.

At tunnel midpoints, this is the label selected by the next hop device. The "Pop Tag" value occurs when the next hop is the tunnel's final hop.

FRR intf/label

Fast Reroute interface—the backup tunnel interface.

Fast Reroute label

At a tunnel head, this is the label selected by the tunnel tail to indicate the destination network. The value "Untagged" occurs when no such label has been advertised.

At tunnel midpoints, this has the same value as the Out Label.

Status

State of the rewrite: partial, ready, or active. (These terms are defined above, in the "Syntax Description" section).


The following example shows output from the show mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute database command with the labels keyword specified at a midpoint link:

Router# show mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute database labels 250 - 255

Tunnel head fast reroute information:
Prefix   Tunnel   In-label   Outintf/label   FRR intf/label   Status

LSP midpoint frr information:

LSP identifier          In-label   Out intf/label  FRR intf/label  Status
10.110.0.10 229 [7334] 	255        PO0/0:694       Tu4000:694      active 
10.110.0.10 228 [7332] 	254        PO0/0:693       Tu4000:693      active 
10.110.0.10 227 [7331] 	253        PO0/0:692       Tu4000:692      active 
10.110.0.10 226 [7334] 	252        PO0/0:691       Tu4000:691      active 
10.110.0.10 225 [7333] 	251        PO0/0:690       Tu4000:690      active 
10.110.0.10 224 [7329] 	250        PO0/0:689       Tu4000:689      active 

The following example shows output from the show mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute database command with the detail keyword included at a tunnel head link:

Router# show mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute database 10.0.0.0. detail

LFIB FRR Database Summary:
  Total Clusters:      2
  Total Groups:        2
  Total Items:         789
Link 10:PO5/0 (Down, 1 group)
  Group 51:PO5/0->Tu4000 (Up, 779 members)
    Prefix 12.0.0.0/16, Tu313, active
      Input label Tun hd, Output label PO0/0:773, FRR label Tu4000:773
    Prefix 12.0.0.0/16, Tu392, active
      Input label Tun hd, Output label PO0/0:775, FRR label Tu4000:775
    Prefix 12.0.0.0/16, Tu111, active
      Input label Tun hd, Output label PO0/0:16, FRR label Tu4000:16
    Prefix 12.0.0.0/16, Tu394, active
      Input label Tun hd, Output label PO0/0:774, FRR label Tu4000:774

Table 16 describes significant fields when the detail keyword is used.

Table 16 show mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute database with detail Keyword Field Descriptions 

Field
Description

Total Clusters

A cluster is the physical interface upon which Fast Reroute link protection has been enabled.

Total Groups

A group is a database record that associates the link-protected physical interface with a backup tunnel. A cluster (physical interface) therefore can have one or more groups.

For example, the cluster Ethernet4/0/1 is protected by backup Tunnel1 and backup Tunnel2, and so has two groups.

Total Items

An item is a database record that associates a rewrite with a group. A group therefore can have one or more items.

Link 10:PO5/0 (Down, 1 group)

This describes a cluster (physical interface):

"10" is the interface's unique IOS-assigned ID number.

":" is followed by the interface's short name.

Parentheses contain the operating state of the interface (Up or Down) and the number of groups associated with it.

Group 51:PO5/0->Tu4000 (Up, 779 members)

This describes a group:

"51" is the ID number of the backup interface.

":" is followed by the group's physical interface short name.

"->" is followed by the backup tunnel interface short name.

Parentheses contain the operating state of the tunnel interface (Up or Down) and the number of items—also called "members"— associated with it.


Related Commands

Command
Description

show mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute log reroutes

Displays contents of Fast Reroute event log.


show mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute log reroutes

To display the contents of the Fast Reroute event log, use the show mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute log reroutes command in EXEC mode.

show mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute log reroutes

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Defaults

No default behavior or values.

Command Modes

EXEC

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(10)ST

This command was introduced.

12.2(18)S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(18)S.

12.2(18)SXD

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(18)SX.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.


Examples

The following example shows output from the show mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute log reroutes command:

Router# show mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute log reroutes

When      Interface  Event   Rewrites  Duration  CPU msecs  Suspends  Errors
00:27:39  PO0/0      Down    1079      30 msecs  30         0         0
00:27:35  PO0/0      Up      1079      40 msecs  40         0         0 

Table 17 describes significant fields shown in the display.

Table 17 show mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute log reroutes Field Descriptions 

Display Field
Description

When

Indicates how long ago the logged event occurred (before this line was displayed on your screen). Displayed as hours, minutes, seconds.

Interface

The physical or tunnel interface where the logged event occurred.

Event

The change to Up or Down by the affected interface.

Rewrites

Total number of reroutes accomplished because of this event.

Duration

Time elapsed during the rerouting process.

CPU msecs

CPU time spent processing those reroutes. (This is less than or equal to the Duration value).

Suspends

Number of times that reroute processing for this event was interrupted to let the CPU handle other tasks.

Errors

Number of unsuccessful reroute attempts.


show mpls traffic-eng link-management admission-control

To show which tunnels were admitted locally and their parameters (such as, priority, bandwidth, incoming and outgoing interface, and state), use the show mpls traffic-eng link-management admission-control command in user EXEC or privileged EXEC mode.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management admission-control [interface-name]

Syntax Description

interface-name

(Optional) Displays only tunnels that were admitted on the specified interface.


Command Modes

User EXEC
Privileged EXEC

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.

12.1(3)T

The command output changed. The BW field now shows bandwidth in kBps, and it is followed by the status (reserved or held) of the bandwidth.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.


Examples

The following is sample output from the show mpls traffic-eng link-management admission-control command:

Router2# show mpls traffic-eng link-management admission-control

System Information::
    Tunnels Count:       4
    Tunnels Selected:    4
TUNNEL ID              UP IF     DOWN IF  PRIORITY STATE           	BW (kbps) 
10.106.0.6 1000_1      AT1/0.2   -        0/0      Resv Admitted   0          
10.106.0.6 2000_1      Et4/0/1   -        1/1      Resv Admitted   0          
10.106.0.6 1_2         Et4/0/1   Et4/0/2  1/1      Resv Admitted   3000       R
10.106.0.6 2_2         AT1/0.2   AT0/0.2  1/1      Resv Admitted   3000       R

Table 18 describes the significant fields shown in the display.

Table 18 show mpls traffic-eng link-management admission-control Field Descriptions 

Field
Description

Tunnels Count

Total number of tunnels admitted.

Tunnels Selected

Number of tunnels to be displayed.

TUNNEL ID

Tunnel identification.

UP IF

Upstream interface that the tunnel used.

DOWN IF

Downstream interface that the tunnel used.

PRIORITY

Setup priority of the tunnel followed by the hold priority.

STATE

Admission status of the tunnel.

BW (kbps)

Bandwidth of the tunnel (in kBps). If an "R" follows the bandwidth number, the bandwidth is reserved. If an "H" follows the bandwidth number, the bandwidth is temporarily being held for a path message.


Related Commands

Command
Description

show mpls traffic-eng link-management advertisements

Displays local link information that MPLS traffic engineering link management is currently flooding into the global traffic engineering topology.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management bandwidth-allocation

Displays current local link information.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management igp-neighbors

Displays IGP neighbors.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management interfaces

Displays per-interface resource and configuration information.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management summary

Displays a summary of link management information.


show mpls traffic-eng link-management advertisements

To show local link information that MPLS traffic engineering link management is currently flooding into the global traffic engineering topology, use the show mpls traffic-eng link-management advertisements command in user EXEC or privileged EXEC mode.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management advertisements

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Command Modes

User EXEC
Privileged EXEC

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.

12.1(3)T

The command output was modified.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.


Examples

The following is sample output from the show mpls traffic-eng link-management advertisements command:

Router1# show mpls traffic-eng link-management advertisements 

Flooding Status:     ready
Configured Areas:    1
IGP Area[1] ID:: isis level-1
  System Information::
    Flooding Protocol:   ISIS
  Header Information::
    IGP System ID:       0001.0000.0001.00
    MPLS TE Router ID:   10.106.0.6
    Flooded Links:       1
  Link ID:: 0
    Link IP Address:     10.1.0.6
    IGP Neighbor:        ID 0001.0000.0001.02
    Admin. Weight:       10
    Physical Bandwidth:  10000 kbits/sec
    Max Reservable BW:   5000 kbits/sec
    Downstream::
      Reservable Bandwidth[0]:       5000 kbits/sec
      Reservable Bandwidth[1]:       2000 kbits/sec
      Reservable Bandwidth[2]:       2000 kbits/sec
      Reservable Bandwidth[3]:       2000 kbits/sec
      Reservable Bandwidth[4]:       2000 kbits/sec
      Reservable Bandwidth[5]:       2000 kbits/sec
      Reservable Bandwidth[6]:       2000 kbits/sec
      Reservable Bandwidth[7]:       2000 kbits/sec
    Attribute Flags:     0x00000000

Table 19 describes the significant fields shown in the display.

Table 19 show mpls traffic-eng link-management advertisements Field Descriptions 

Field
Description

Flooding Status

Status of the link management flooding system.

Configured Areas

Number of the IGP areas configured.

IGP Area [1] ID

Name of the first IGP area.

Flooding Protocol

IGP that is flooding information for this area.

IGP System ID

Identification that IGP flooding uses in this area to identify this node.

MPLS TE Router ID

MPLS traffic engineering router ID.

Flooded Links

Number of links that are flooded in this area.

Link ID

Index of the link that is being described.

Link IP Address

Local IP address of this link.

IGP Neighbor

IGP neighbor on this link.

Admin. Weight

Administrative weight associated with this link.

Physical Bandwidth

Link bandwidth capacity (in kBps).

Max Reservable BW

Amount of reservable bandwidth on this link.

Reservable Bandwidth

Amount of bandwidth that is available for reservation.

Attribute Flags

Attribute flags of the link are being flooded.


Related Commands

Command
Description

show mpls traffic-eng link-management bandwidth-allocation

Displays current local link information.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management igp-neighbors

Displays IGP neighbors.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management interfaces

Displays per-interface resource and configuration information.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management summary

Displays a summary of link management information.


show mpls traffic-eng link-management bandwidth-allocation

To show current local link information, use the show mpls traffic-eng link-management bandwidth-allocation command in user EXEC or privileged EXEC mode.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management bandwidth-allocation [interface-name]

Syntax Description

interface-name

(Optional) Displays only tunnels that were admitted on the specified interface.


Command Modes

User EXEC
Privileged EXEC

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.

12.1(3)T

The command output was modified.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.


Usage Guidelines

Advertised information might differ from the current information, depending on how flooding was configured.

Examples

The following is sample output from the show mpls traffic-eng link-management bandwidth-allocation command:

Router1# show mpls traffic-eng link-management bandwidth-allocation Et4/0/1

System Information::
    Links Count:         2
    Bandwidth Hold Time: max. 15 seconds
Link ID:: Et4/0/1 (10.1.0.6)
    Link Status:
      Physical Bandwidth:  10000 kbits/sec
      Max Reservable BW:   5000 kbits/sec (reserved:0% in, 60% out)
      BW Descriptors:      1
      MPLS TE Link State:  MPLS TE on, RSVP on, admin-up, flooded
      Inbound Admission:   reject-huge
      Outbound Admission:  allow-if-room
      Admin. Weight:       10 (IGP)
      IGP Neighbor Count:  1
      Up Thresholds:       15 30 45 60 75 80 85 90 95 96 97 98 99 100 (default)
      Down Thresholds:     100 99 98 97 96 95 90 85 80 75 60 45 30 15 (default)
    Downstream Bandwidth Information (kbits/sec):
      KEEP PRIORITY     BW HELD  BW TOTAL HELD   BW LOCKED  BW TOTAL LOCKED
                  0           0              0           0                0
                  1           0              0        3000             3000
                  2           0              0           0             3000
                  3           0              0           0             3000
                  4           0              0           0             3000
                  5           0              0           0             3000
                  6           0              0           0             3000
                  7           0              0           0             3000

Table 20 describes the significant fields shown in the display.

Table 20 show mpls traffic-eng link-management bandwidth-allocation Field Descriptions 

Field
Description

Links Count

Number of links configured for MPLS traffic engineering.

Bandwidth Hold Time

Amount of time that bandwidth can be held.

Link ID

Interface name and IP address of the link being described.

Physical Bandwidth

Link bandwidth capacity (in bits per second).

Max Reservable BW

Amount of reservable bandwidth on this link.

BW Descriptors

Number of bandwidth allocations on this link.

MPLS TE Link State

Status of the link's MPLS traffic engineering-related functions.

Inbound Admission

Link admission policy for incoming tunnels.

Outbound Admission

Link admission policy for outgoing tunnels.

Admin. Weight

Link administrative weight.

IGP Neighbor Count

List of the IGP neighbors directly reachable over this link.

Up Thresholds

Link's bandwidth thresholds for allocations.

Down Thresholds

Link's bandwidth thresholds for deallocations.

KEEP PRIORITY

Priority levels for the link's bandwidth allocations.

BW HELD

Amount of bandwidth (in kBps) temporarily held at this priority for path messages.

BW TOTAL HELD

Bandwidth held at this priority and those above it.

BW LOCKED

Amount of bandwidth reserved at this priority.

BW TOTAL LOCKED

Bandwidth locked at this priority and those above it.


Related Commands

Command
Description

show mpls traffic-eng link-management advertisements

Displays local link information currently being flooded by MPLS traffic engineering link management into the global traffic engineering topology.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management igp-neighbors

Displays IGP neighbors.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management interfaces

Displays per-interface resource and configuration information.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management summary

Displays a summary of link management information.


show mpls traffic-eng link-management igp-neighbors

To show Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) neighbors, use the show mpls traffic-eng link-management igp-neighbors command in user EXEC or privileged EXEC mode.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management igp-neighbors [igp-id [isis isis-address | ospf ospf-id] | ip ip-address]

Syntax Description

igp-id

(Optional) Displays the IGP neighbors that are using a specified IGP identification.

isis isis-address

(Optional) Displays the specified IS-IS neighbor when you display neighbors by IGP ID.

ospf ospf-id

(Optional) Displays the specified OSPF neighbor when you display neighbors by IGP ID.

ip ip-address

(Optional) Displays the IGP neighbors that are using a specified IGP IP address.


Command Modes

User EXEC
Privileged EXEC

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.


Examples

The following is sample output from the show mpls traffic-eng link-management igp-neighbors command:

Router# show mpls traffic-eng line-management igp-neighbors 

Link ID::  Et0/2
    Neighbor ID:  0000.0024.0004.02 (area: isis level-1, IP: 10.0.0.0)
Link ID::  PO1/0/0
    Neighbor ID:  0000.0026.0001.00 (area: isis level-1, IP: 172.16.1.2)

Table 21 describes the significant fields shown in the display.

Table 21 show mpls traffic-eng link-management igp-neighbors Field Descriptions 

Field
Description

Link ID

Link by which the neighbor is reached.

Neighbor ID

IGP identification information for the neighbor.


Related Commands

Command
Description

show mpls traffic-eng link-management advertisements

Displays local link information currently being flooded by MPLS traffic engineering link management into the global traffic engineering topology.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management bandwidth-allocation

Displays current local link information.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management interfaces

Displays per-interface resource and configuration information.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management summary

Displays a summary of link management information.


show mpls traffic-eng link-management interfaces

To show interface resource and configuration information, use the show mpls traffic-eng link-management interfaces command in user EXEC or privileged EXEC mode.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management interfaces [interface-name]

Syntax Description

interface-name

(Optional) Displays information only for the specified interface.


Command Modes

User EXEC
Privileged EXEC

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.

12.1(3)T

The command output was modified.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.


Usage Guidelines

Displays resource and configuration information for all configured interfaces.

Examples

The following is sample output from the show mpls traffic-eng link-management interfaces command:

Router1# show mpls traffic-eng link-management interfaces Et4/0/1

System Information::
    Links Count:         2
Link ID:: Et4/0/1 (10.1.0.6)
    Link Status:
      Physical Bandwidth:  10000 kbits/sec
      Max Reservable BW:   5000 kbits/sec (reserved:0% in, 60% out)
      MPLS TE Link State:  MPLS TE on, RSVP on, admin-up, flooded
      Inbound Admission:   reject-huge
      Outbound Admission:  allow-if-room
      Admin. Weight:       10 (IGP)
      IGP Neighbor Count:  1
      IGP Neighbor:        ID 0001.0000.0001.02, IP 10.0.0.0 (Up)
    Flooding Status for each configured area [1]:
      IGP Area[1]: isis level-1: flooded

Table 22 describes the significant fields shown in the display.

Table 22 show mpls traffic-eng link management interfaces Field Descriptions 

Field
Description

Links Count

Number of links that were enabled for use with Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) traffic engineering.

Link ID

Index of the link.

Physical Bandwidth

Link's bandwidth capacity (in kbps).

Max Reservable BW

Amount of reservable bandwidth on this link.

MPLS TE Link State

The status of the MPLS link.

Inbound Admission

Link admission policy for inbound tunnels.

Outbound Admission

Link admission policy for outbound tunnels.

Admin. Weight

Administrative weight associated with this link.

IGP Neighbor Count

Number of Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) neighbors directly reachable over this link.

IGP Neighbor

IGP neighbor on this link.

Flooding Status for each configured area

Flooding status for the specified configured area.


Related Commands

Command
Description

show mpls traffic-eng link-management advertisements

Displays local link information currently being flooded by MPLS traffic engineering link management into the global traffic engineering topology.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management bandwidth-allocation

Displays current local link information.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management igp-neighbors

Displays IGP neighbors.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management summary

Displays a summary of link management information.


show mpls traffic-eng link-management summary

To show a summary of link management information, use the show mpls traffic-eng link-management summary command in user EXEC or privileged EXEC mode.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management summary [interface-name]

Syntax Description

interface-name

(Optional) Displays information only for the specified interface.


Command Modes

User EXEC
Privileged EXEC

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.

12.1(3)T

The command output was modified.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.


Examples

The following is sample output from the show mpls traffic-eng link-management summary command:

Router1# show mpls traffic-eng link-management summary

System Information::
    Links Count:         2
    Flooding System:     enabled
IGP Area ID:: isis level-1
    Flooding Protocol:   ISIS
    Flooding Status:     data flooded
    Periodic Flooding:   enabled (every 180 seconds)
    Flooded Links:       1
    IGP System ID:       0001.0000.0001.00
    MPLS TE Router ID:   10.106.0.6
    IGP Neighbors:       1
Link ID:: Et4/0/1 (10.1.0.6)
    Link Status:
      Physical Bandwidth:  10000 kbits/sec
      Max Reservable BW:   5000 kbits/sec (reserved:0% in, 60% out)
      MPLS TE Link State:  MPLS TE on, RSVP on, admin-up, flooded
      Inbound Admission:   reject-huge
      Outbound Admission:  allow-if-room
      Admin. Weight:       10 (IGP)
      IGP Neighbor Count:  1
Link ID:: AT0/0.2 (10.42.0.6)
    Link Status:
      Physical Bandwidth:  155520 kbits/sec
      Max Reservable BW:   5000 kbits/sec (reserved:0% in, 0% out)
      MPLS TE Link State:  MPLS TE on, RSVP on
      Inbound Admission:   allow-all
      Outbound Admission:  allow-if-room
      Admin. Weight:       10 (IGP)
      IGP Neighbor Count:  0

Table 23 describes the significant fields shown in the display.

Table 23 show mpls traffic-eng link-management summary Field Descriptions 

Field
Description

Links Count

Number of links configured for MPLS traffic engineering.

Flooding System

Enable status of the MPLS traffic engineering flooding system.

IGP Area ID

Name of the IGP area being described.

Flooding Protocol

IGP being used to flood information for this area.

Flooding Status

Status of flooding for this area.

Periodic Flooding

Status of periodic flooding for this area.

Flooded Links

Number of links that were flooded.

IGP System ID

IGP for this node associated with this area.

MPLS TE Router ID

MPLS traffic engineering router ID for this node.

IGP Neighbors

Number of reachable IGP neighbors associated with this area.

Link ID

Interface name and IP address of the link being described.

Physical Bandwidth

Link bandwidth capacity (in kbps).

Max Reservable BW

Amount of reservable bandwidth on this link.

MPLS TE Link State

Status of the link's MPLS traffic engineering-related functions.

Inbound Admission

Link admission policy for incoming tunnels.

Outbound Admission

Link admission policy for outgoing tunnels.

Admin. Weight

Link administrative weight.

IGP Neighbor Count

List of the IGP neighbors directly reachable over this link.


Related Commands

Command
Description

show mpls traffic-eng link-management advertisements

Displays local link information currently being flooded by MPLS traffic engineering link management into the global traffic engineering topology.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management bandwidth-allocation

Displays current local link information.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management igp-neighbors

Displays IGP neighbors.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management interfaces

Displays per-interface resource and configuration information.


show mpls traffic-eng topology

To show the MPLS traffic engineering global topology as currently known at this node, use the show mpls traffic-eng topology command in privileged EXEC mode.

show mpls traffic-eng topology {ip-address | igp-id {isis nsap-address | ospf ip-address}}[brief]

Syntax Description

A.B.C.D

Specifies the node by the IP address (router identifier to interface address).

igp-id

Specifies the node by IGP router identifier.

isis nsap-address

Specifies the node by router identification (nsap-address) if using IS-IS.

ospf ip-address

Specifies the node by router identifier if using OSPF.

brief

(Optional) Provides a less detailed version of the topology.


Command Modes

Privileged EXEC

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.

12.0(11)ST

The single "Reservable" column was replaced by two columns: one each for "global pool" and for "subpool."

12.2(8)T

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(8)T.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.


Examples

The following example shows output from the show mpls traffic-eng topology command:

Router# show mpls traffic-eng topology

My_System_id: 0000.0025.0003.00
 
IGP Id: 0000.0024.0004.00, MPLS TE Id:172.16.4.4 Router Node
      link[0 ]:Intf Address: 10.1.1.4
                  Nbr IGP Id: 0000.0024.0004.02, 
                admin_weight:10, affinity_bits:0x0
                max_link_bw:10000 max_link_reservable: 10000
	 	globalpool	subpool
               	total allocated	reservable 		reservable
               	--------------- 	---------- 	----------
	bw[0]: 	0 	1000	500
	bw[1]:	10 	990	490
	bw[2]: 	600 	390	390
	bw[3]: 	0 	390	390
	bw[4]: 	0 	390	390
	bw[5]: 	0 	390	390

Table 24 describes the significant fields shown in the display.

Table 24 show mpls traffic-eng topology Field Descriptions 

Field
Description

My-System_id

Unique identifier of the IGP.

IGP Id

Identification of advertising router.

MPLS TE Id

Unique MPLS traffic engineering identification.

Intf Address

The interface address of the link.

Nbr IGP Id

Neighbor IGP router identifier.

admin_weight

Cost of the link.

affinity_bits

Requirements on the attributes of the links that the traffic crosses.

max_link_bw

Physical line rate.

max_link_reservable

Maximum amount of bandwidth that can be reserved on a link.

total allocated

Amount of bandwidth allocated at that priority.

reservable

Amount of available bandwidth reservable at that priority for each of the two pools: global and sub.


Related Commands

Command
Description

show mpls traffic-eng tunnels

Displays information about tunnels.


show mpls traffic-eng tunnels

To show information about tunnels, use the show mpls traffic-eng tunnels command in user EXEC or privileged EXEC mode.

show mpls traffic-eng tunnels tunnel-interface [brief] protect

show mpls traffic-eng tunnels tunnel-interface
[destination address]
[source-id {number | ip-address | ip-address number}]
[role {all | head | middle | tail | remote}]
[up | down]
[name string]
[suboptimal constraints {none | current | max}]
[interface in physical-interface] [interface out physical-interface] | interface physical-interface [brief] protect

Syntax Description

tunnel-interface

Displays information for the specified tunneling interface.

brief

(Optional) Displays the information in brief format.

protect

Displays the status of the protected path.

destination address

(Optional) Restricts the display to tunnels destined to the specified IP address.

source-id

(Optional) Restricts the display to tunnels with a matching source IP address or tunnel number.

number

(Optional) Tunnel number.

ip-address

(Optional) Source IP address.

ip-address number

(Optional) Source IP address and tunnel number.

role

(Optional) Restricts the display to tunnels with the indicated role (all, head, middle, tail, or remote).

all

(Optional) Displays all tunnels.

head

(Optional) Displays tunnels with their heads at this router.

middle

(Optional) Displays tunnels with their midpoints at this router.

tail

(Optional) Displays tunnels with their tails at this router.

remote

(Optional) Displays tunnels with their heads at another router; this is a combination of the middle and tail keyword values.

up

(Optional) Displays tunnels if the tunnel interface is up. Tunnel midpoints and tails are typically up or not present.

down

(Optional) Displays tunnels that are down.

name string

(Optional) Displays tunnels with the specified name. The tunnel name is derived from the interface description, if specified; otherwise, it is the interface name. The tunnel name is included in the signalling message so it is available at all hops.

suboptimal constraints none

(Optional) Displays tunnels whose path metric is greater than the shortest unconstrained path. Selected tunnels have a longer path than the IGP's shortest path.

suboptimal constraints current

(Optional) Displays tunnels whose path metric is greater than the current shortest path, constrained by the tunnel's configured options. Selected tunnels would have a shorter path if they were reoptimized immediately.

suboptimal constraints max

(Optional) Displays tunnels whose path metric is greater than the current shortest path, constrained by the tunnel's configured options, and considering only the network's capacity. Selected tunnels would have a shorter path if no other tunnels were consuming network resources.

interface in physical-interface

(Optional) Displays tunnels that use the specified input interface.

interface out physical-interface

(Optional) Displays tunnels that use the specified output interface.

interface physical-interface

(Optional) Displays tunnels that use the specified interface as an input or output interface.


Command Modes

User EXEC
Privileged EXEC

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.

12.1(3)T

The new brief format includes input and output interface information. The suboptimal and interface keywords were added to the nonbrief format. The nonbrief, nonsummary formats each include the history of LSP selection.

12.0(30)S

The protect keyword was added.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.


Examples

The following is sample output from the show mpls traffic-eng tunnels brief command:

Router1# show mpls traffic-eng tunnels brief 

Signalling Summary:
    LSP Tunnels Process:           running
    RSVP Process:                  running
    Forwarding:                    enabled
    Periodic reoptimization:       every 3600 seconds, next in 1706 seconds
TUNNEL NAME                      DESTINATION      UP IF     DOWN IF   STATE/PROT
Router1_t1                       10.112.0.12      -         Et4/0/1   up/up     
tagsw-r11_t2                     10.112.0.12      -         unknown   up/down   
tagsw-r11_t3                     10.112.0.12      -         unknown   admin-down
tagsw-r11_t1000                  10.110.0.10      -         unknown   up/down   
tagsw-r11_t2000                  10.110.0.10      -         Et4/0/1   up/up     
Displayed 5 (of 5) heads, 0 (of 0) midpoints, 0 (of 0) tails

The following is sample output from the show mpls traffic-eng tunnels protect brief command:

Router# show mpls traffic-eng tunnels 500 protect brief 

Router#_t500
  LSP Head, Tunnel500, Admin: up, Oper: up
  Src 172.16.0.5, Dest 172.16.0.8, Instance 17
  Fast Reroute Protection: None
  Path Protection: 1 Common Link(s) , 1 Common Node(s)
    Primary lsp path:192.168.6.6 192.168.7.7
                     192.168.8.8 192.168.0.8

    Protect lsp path:172.16.7.7 192.168.8.8
                     10.0.0.8
    Path Protect Parameters:
      Bandwidth: 50       kbps (Global)  Priority: 7  7   Affinity: 0x0/0xFFFF
      Metric Type: TE (default)
    InLabel  :  -
    OutLabel : Serial5/3, 46
    RSVP Signalling Info:
         Src 172.16.0.5, Dst 172.16.0.8, Tun_Id 500, Tun_Instance 18
      RSVP Path Info:
        My Address: 172.16.0.5
        Explicit Route: 192.168.7.7 192.168.8.8
        Record   Route:   NONE
        Tspec: ave rate=50 kbits, burst=1000 bytes, peak rate=50 kbits
      RSVP Resv Info:
        Record   Route:   NONE
        Fspec: ave rate=50 kbits, burst=1000 bytes, peak rate=50 kbits

Table 25 describes the significant fields shown in the display.

Table 25 show mpls traffic-eng tunnels Field Descriptions 

Field
Description

LSP Tunnels Process

Status of the LSP tunnels process.

RSVP Process

Status of the RSVP process.

Forwarding

Status of forwarding (enabled or disabled).

Periodic reoptimization

Schedule for periodic reoptimization.

TUNNEL NAME

Name of the interface that is configured at the tunnel head.

DESTINATION

Identifier of the tailend router.

UP IF

Upstream interface that the tunnel used.

DOWN IF

Downstream interface that the tunnel used.

STATE/PROT

For tunnel heads, admin-down or up. For nonheads, signalled.


Related Commands

Command
Description

mpls traffic-eng reoptimize timers frequency

Controls the frequency with which tunnels with established LSPs are checked for better LSPs.

mpls traffic-eng tunnels (configuration)

Enables MPLS traffic engineering tunnel signalling on a device.

mpls traffic-eng tunnels (interface)

Enables MPLS traffic engineering tunnel signalling on an interface.


tunnel destination

To specify the destination for a tunnel interface, use the tunnel destination command in interface configuration mode. To remove the destination, use the no form of this command.

tunnel destination {host-name | ip-address | ipv6-address}

no tunnel destination

Syntax Description

host-name

Name of the host destination.

ip-address

IP address of the host destination expressed in dotted decimal notation.

ipv6-address

IPv6 address of the host destination expressed in IPv6 address format.


Defaults

No tunnel interface destination is specified.

Command Modes

Interface configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

10.0

This command was introduced.

12.3(7)T

The address field was modified to accept an ipv6-address argument to allow IPv6 nodes to be configured as a tunnel destination.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.


Usage Guidelines

You cannot configure two tunnels to use the same encapsulation mode with exactly the same source and destination address. The work around is to create a loopback interface and configure the packet source off of the loopback interface. Refer to the Cisco IOS AppleTalk, DECnet, ISO CLNS, and Novell IPX Configuration Guide for more information on AppleTalk Cayman tunneling.

Examples

Tunnel Destination Address for Cayman Tunnel Example

The following example shows how to configure the tunnel destination address for Cayman tunneling:

Router(config)# interface tunnel0
Router(config-if)# tunnel source ethernet0
Router(config-if)# tunnel destination 10.108.164.19
Router(config-if)# tunnel mode cayman

Tunnel Destination Address for GRE Tunneling Example

The following example shows how to configure the tunnel destination address for GRE (generic routing encapsulation) tunneling:

Router(config)# interface tunnel0
Router(config-if)# appletalk cable-range 4160-4160 4160.19
Router(config-if)# appletalk zone Engineering
Router(config-if)# tunnel source ethernet0
Router(config-if)# tunnel destination 10.108.164.19
Router(config-if)# tunnel mode gre ip

Tunnel Destination Address for IPv6 Tunnel Example

The following example shows how to configure the tunnel destination address for GRE (generic routing encapsulation) tunneling of IPv6 packets:

Router(config)# interface Tunnel0
Router(config-if)#  no ip address
Router(config-if)#  ipv6 router isis 
Router(config-if)#  tunnel source Ethernet0/0
Router(config-if)#  tunnel destination 2001:0DB8:1111:2222::1/64
Router(config-if)#  tunnel mode gre ipv6
Router(config-if)# exit
!
Router(config)# interface Ethernet0/0
Router(config-if)#  ip address 10.0.0.1 255.255.255.0
Router(config-if)# exit
!
Router(config)# ipv6 unicast-routing

Router(config)# router isis 
Router(config)#  net 49.0000.0000.000a.00

Related Commands

Command
Description

appletalk cable-range

Enables an extended AppleTalk network.

appletalk zone

Sets the zone name for the connected AppleTalk network.

tunnel mode

Sets the encapsulation mode for the tunnel interface.

tunnel source

Sets the source address of a tunnel interface.


tunnel mode mpls traffic-eng

To set the mode of a tunnel to Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) for traffic engineering, use the tunnel mode mpls traffic-eng command in interface configuration mode. To disable this feature, use the no form of this command.

tunnel mode mpls traffic-eng

no tunnel mode mpls traffic-eng

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Defaults

Disabled.

Command Modes

Interface configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.


Usage Guidelines

This command specifies that the tunnel interface is for an MPLS traffic engineering tunnel and enables the various tunnel MPLS configuration options.

Examples

The following example shows how to set the mode of the tunnel to MPLS traffic engineering:

Router(config-if)# tunnel mode mpls traffic-eng

Related Commands

Command
Description

tunnel mpls traffic-eng affinity

Configures an affinity for an MPLS traffic engineering tunnel.

tunnel mpls traffic-eng autoroute announce

Instructs the IGP to use the tunnel in its enhanced SPF algorithm calculation (if the tunnel is up).

tunnel mpls traffic-eng bandwidth

Configures the bandwidth required for an MPLS traffic engineering tunnel.

tunnel mpls traffic-eng path-option

Configures a path option.

tunnel mpls traffic-eng priority

Configures setup and reservation priority for an MPLS traffic engineering tunnel.


tunnel mpls traffic-eng affinity

To configure an affinity (the properties the tunnel requires in its links) for a Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) traffic engineering tunnel, use the tunnel mpls traffic-eng affinity command in interface configuration mode. To disable the MPLS traffic engineering tunnel affinity, use the no form of this command.

tunnel mpls traffic-eng affinity properties [mask mask-value]

no tunnel mpls traffic-eng affinity properties [mask mask-value]

Syntax Description

properties

Attribute values required for links carrying this tunnel. A 32-bit decimal number. Valid values are from 0x0 to 0xFFFFFFFF, representing 32 attributes (bits), where the value of an attribute is 0 or 1.

mask mask-value

(Optional) Link attribute to be checked. A 32-bit decimal number. Valid values are from 0x0 to 0xFFFFFFFF, representing 32 attributes (bits), where the value of an attribute is 0 or 1.


Defaults

properties: 0X00000000
mask value: 0X0000FFFF

Command Modes

Interface configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.


Usage Guidelines

The affinity determines the attributes of the links that this tunnel will use (that is, the attributes for which the tunnel has an affinity). The attribute mask determines which link attribute the router should check. If a bit in the mask is 0, an attribute value of a link or that bit is irrelevant. If a bit in the mask is 1, the attribute value of a link and the required affinity of the tunnel for that bit must match.

A tunnel can use a link if the tunnel affinity equals the link attributes and the tunnel affinity mask.

Any properties set to 1 in the affinity should also be 1 in the mask. In other words, affinity and mask should be set as follows:

tunnel_affinity = (tunnel_affinity and tunnel_affinity_mask)

Examples

The following example shows how to set the affinity of the tunnel to 0x0101 mask 0x303:

Router(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng affinity 0x0101 mask 0x303

Related Commands

Command
Description

mpls traffic-eng attribute-flags

Sets the attributes for the interface.

tunnel mode mpls traffic-eng

Sets the mode of a tunnel to MPLS for traffic engineering.


tunnel mpls traffic-eng autoroute announce

To specify that the Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) should use the tunnel (if the tunnel is up) in its enhanced shortest path first (SPF) calculation, use the tunnel mpls traffic-eng autoroute announce command in interface configuration mode. To disable this feature, use the no form of this command.

tunnel mpls traffic-eng autoroute announce

no tunnel mpls traffic-eng autoroute announce

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Defaults

The IGP does not use the tunnel in its enhanced SPF calculation.

Command Modes

Interface configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.


Usage Guidelines

Currently, the only way to forward traffic onto a tunnel is by enabling this feature or by explicitly configuring forwarding (for example, with an interface static route).

Examples

The following example shows how to specify that the IGP should use the tunnel in its enhanced SPF calculation if the tunnel is up:

Router(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng autoroute announce

The following example shows how to specify that if the IGP is using this tunnel in its enhanced SPF calculation, the IGP should give it an absolute metric of 10:

Router(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng autoroute announce metric absolute 10

Related Commands

Command
Description

ip route

Establishes static routes.

tunnel mode mpls traffic-eng

Sets the mode of a tunnel to MPLS for traffic engineering.


tunnel mpls traffic-eng autoroute metric

To specify the Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) traffic engineering tunnel metric that the Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) enhanced shortest path first (SPF) calculation uses, use the tunnel mpls traffic-eng autoroute metric command in interface configuration mode. To disable the specified MPLS traffic engineering tunnel metric, use the no form of this command.

tunnel mpls traffic-eng autoroute metric {absolute | relative} value

no tunnel mpls traffic-eng autoroute metric

Syntax Description

absolute

Absolute metric mode; you can enter a positive metric value.

relative

Relative metric mode; you can enter a positive, negative, or zero value.

value

The metric that the IGP enhanced SPF calculation uses. The relative value can be from -10 to 10.

Note Even though the value for a relative metric can be from -10 to 10, configuring a tunnel metric with a negative value is considered a misconfiguration. If from the routing table the metric to the tunnel tail appears to be 4, then the cost to the tunnel tail router is actually 3 because 1 is added to the cost for getting to the loopback address. In this instance, the lowest value that you can configure for the relative metric is-3.


Defaults

The default is metric relative 0.

Command Modes

Interface configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.


Examples

The following example shows how to specify the use of MPLS traffic engineering tunnel metric negative 1 for the IGP enhanced SPF calculation:

Router(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng autoroute metric relative -1

Related Commands

Command
Description

show mpls traffic-eng autoroute

Shows the tunnels announced to IGP, including interface, destination, and bandwidth.

tunnel mpls traffic-eng autoroute announce

Instructs the IGP to use the tunnel (if it is up) in its enhanced SPF calculation.


tunnel mpls traffic-eng bandwidth

To configure bandwidth required for a Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) traffic engineering tunnel, use the tunnel mpls traffic-eng bandwidth command in interface configuration mode. To disable this bandwidth configuration, use the no form of this command.

tunnel mpls traffic-eng bandwidth [sub-pool | global] kbps

no tunnel mpls traffic-eng bandwidth [sub-pool | global] kbps

Syntax Description

sub-pool

(Optional) Indicates a subpool tunnel.

global

(Optional) Indicates a global pool tunnel. Entering this keyword is not necessary, for all tunnels are global pool in the absence of the sub-pool keyword. But if users of pre-DiffServ-aware Traffic Engineering (DS-TE) images enter this keyword, it is accepted.

kbps

Bandwidth, in kilobits per second, set aside for the MPLS traffic engineering tunnel. Range is between 1 and 4294967295.


Defaults

Default bandwidth is 0.
Default is a global pool tunnel.

Command Modes

Interface configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.

12.0(11)ST

The sub-pool keyword was added.

12.2(8)T

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(8)T.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.


Usage Guidelines

Enter the bandwidth for either a global pool or subpool tunnel, not both. Only the ip rsvp bandwidth command specifies the two bandwidths within one command.

To set up only a global pool tunnel, leave out the keyword sub-pool. If you enter global as a keyword, the system will accept it, but will not write it to NVRAM. This is to avoid the problem of having your configuration not understood if you upgrade to an image that contains the DS-TE capability and then return to a non-DS-TE image.

Examples

The following example shows how to configure 100 kbps of bandwidth for the MPLS traffic engineering tunnel:

Router(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng bandwidth 100

Related Commands

Command
Description

show mpls traffic-eng tunnel

Displays information about tunnels.


tunnel mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute

To enable an MPLS traffic engineering (TE) tunnel to use an established backup tunnel in the event of a link or node failure, use the tunnel mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute command in interface configuration mode. To disable this feature, use the no form of this command.

tunnel mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute [bw-protect]

no tunnel mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute

Syntax Description

bw-protect

(Optional) Sets the "bandwidth protection desired" bit so that backup bandwidth protection is enabled.


Defaults

There is no backup bandwidth protection.

Command Modes

Interface configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(10)ST

This command was introduced.

12.0(29)S

The bw-protect keyword was added.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.


Usage Guidelines

If you specify the bw-protect keyword, all path messages for the tunnel's label-switched path (LSP) are sent with the bandwidth protection bit set.

After you enter the command, with or without the bw-protect keyword, the requested action/change propagates quickly along all hops of the LSP. Midpoint routers that are point of local repairs (PLRs) for the LSP take the appropriate action based on whether the bit was just set or cleared. If the bit was just set or cleared, a new backup tunnel selection happens for the LSP since it now has a higher or lower priority in the backup tunnel selection process.

To unconfigure only backup bandwidth protection, enter tunnel mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute.

To disable an MPLS TE tunnel from using an established backup tunnel in the event of a link or node failure, enter the no format of the command.

Examples

In the following example, backup bandwidth protection is enabled.

Router(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute bw-protect 

Related Commands

Command
Description

mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute backup-prot-preemption

Changes the backup protection preemption algorithm to minimize the amount of bandwidth that is wasted.


tunnel mpls traffic-eng path-option

To configure a path option for a Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) traffic engineering (TE) tunnel, use the tunnel mpls traffic-eng path-option command in interface configuration mode. To disable the specified path option, use the no form of this command.

tunnel mpls traffic-eng path-option [protect] number {dynamic | explicit | {name path-name | path-number}} [lockdown]

no tunnel mpls traffic-eng path-option [protect] number {dynamic | explicit | {name path-name | path-number}} [lockdown]

Syntax Description

protect

(Optional) Backup label-switched path (LSP.)

number

When multiple path options are configured, lower numbered options are preferred.

dynamic

Part of the LSP is dynamically calculated.

explicit

Part of the LSP is an IP explicit path.

name path-name

Path name of the IP explicit path that the tunnel uses with this option.

path-number

Path number of the IP explicit path that the tunnel uses with this option.

lockdown

(Optional) The LSP cannot be reoptimized.


Defaults

Disabled.

Command Modes

Interface configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.

12.0(30)S

The protect keyword was added.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.


Usage Guidelines

You can configure multiple path options for a single tunnel. For example, there can be several explicit path options and a dynamic option for one tunnel. Path setup preference is for lower (not higher) numbers, so option 1 is preferred.

Dynamic path protection is not recommended.

You should not configure the lockdown option with protected paths.

Examples

The following example shows how to configure the tunnel to use a named IP explicit path:

Router(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng path-option protect 10 explicit path750 

In the following example, tunnel 10 is protected with path3441:

Router(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng path-option protect 10 explicit path3441 

Related Commands

Command
Description

ip explicit-path

Enters the subcommand mode for IP explicit paths and creates or modifies the specified path.

show ip explicit-paths

Displays the configured IP explicit paths.

tunnel mpls traffic-eng priority

Configures the setup and reservation priority for an MPLS traffic engineering tunnel.


tunnel mpls traffic-eng priority

To configure the setup and reservation priority for an Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) traffic engineering (TE) tunnel, use the tunnel mpls traffic-eng priority command in interface configuration mode. To remove the specified setup and reservation priority, use the no form of this command.

tunnel mpls traffic-eng priority setup-priority [hold-priority]

no tunnel mpls traffic-eng priority setup-priority [hold-priority]

Syntax Description

setup-priority

The priority used when signalling an LSP for this tunnel to determine which existing tunnels can be preempted. Valid values are from 0 to 7, where a lower number indicates a higher priority. Therefore, an LSP with a setup priority of 0 can preempt any LSP with a non-0 priority.

hold-priority

(Optional) The priority associated with an LSP for this tunnel to determine if it should be preempted by other LSPs that are being signalled. Valid values are from 0 to 7, where a lower number indicates a higher priority.


Defaults

setup-priority: 7
hold-priority: The same value as the setup-priority

Command Modes

Interface configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.


Usage Guidelines

When a label switched path (LSP) is being signaled and an interface does not currently have enough bandwidth available for that LSP, the call admission software preempts lower-priority LSPs so that the new LSP can be admitted. (LSPs are preempted if that allows the new LSP to be admitted.)

In the described determination, the new LSP's priority is its setup priority and the existing LSP's priority is its hold priority. The two priorities make it possible to signal an LSP with a low setup priority (so that the LSP does not preempt other LSPs on setup) but a high hold priority (so that the LSP is not preempted after it is established).

Setup priority and hold priority are typically configured to be equal, and setup priority cannot be better (numerically smaller) than the hold priority.

Examples

The following example shows how to configure a tunnel with a setup and hold priority of 1:

Router(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng priority 1

Related Commands

Command
Description

tunnel mode mpls traffic-eng

Sets the mode of a tunnel to MPLS for traffic engineering.


Glossary

This section defines acronyms and words that may not be readily understood.

AS—Autonomous System. A collection of networks under a common administration, sharing a common routing strategy and identified by a unique 16-bit number (assigned by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority).

BGP—Border Gateway Protocol. The predominant interdomain routing protocol. It is defined by RFC 1163. Version 4 uses route aggregation mechanisms to reduce the size of routing tables.

CBR—Constraint Based Routing. The computation of traffic paths that simultaneously satisfy label-switched path attributes and current network resource limitations.

Cisco Express Forwarding—A means for accelerating the forwarding of packets within a router, by storing route lookup information in several data structures instead of in a route cache.

CLI—Command Line Interface. Cisco's interface for configuring and managing its routers.

DS-TE—Diff Serv-aware Traffic Engineering. The capability to configure two bandwidth pools on each link, a global pool and a sub-pool. MPLS traffic engineering tunnels using the sub-pool bandwidth can be configured with Quality of Service mechanisms to deliver guaranteed bandwidth services end-to-end across the network. Simultaneously, tunnels using the global pool can convey DiffServ traffic.

flooding—A traffic passing technique used by switches and bridges in which traffic received on an interface is sent out through all of the interfaces of that device except the interface on which the information was originally received.

GB queue—Guaranteed Bandwidth queue. A per-hop behavior (PHB) used exclusively by the strict guarantee traffic. If delay/jitter guarantees are sought, the diffserv Expedited Forwarding queue (EF PHB) is used. If only bandwidth guarantees are sought, the diffserv Assured Forwarding PHB (AF PHB) is used.

Global Pool—The total bandwidth allocated to an MPLS traffic engineering link.

IGP—Interior Gateway Protocol. An internet protocol used to exchange routing information within an autonomous system. Examples of common internet IGPs include IGRP, OSPF, and RIP.

label-switched path (LSP) tunnel—A configured connection between two routers, using label switching to carry the packets.

IS-IS—Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System. A link-state hierarchical routing protocol, based on DECnet Phase V routing, whereby nodes exchange routing information based on a single metric, to determine network topology.

LCAC—Link-level (per-hop) call admission control.

LSP—Label-switched path (see above).
Also Link-state packet—A broadcast packet used by link-state protocols that contains information about neighbors and path costs. LSPs are used by the receiving routers to maintain their routing tables. Also called link-state advertisement (LSA).

MPLS—Multi-Protocol Label Switching (formerly known as Tag Switching). A method for directing packets primarily through Layer 2 switching rather than Layer 3 routing, by assigning the packets short fixed-length labels at the ingress to an MPLS cloud, using the concept of forwarding equivalence classes. Within the MPLS domain, the labels are used to make forwarding decisions mostly without recourse to the original packet headers.

MPLS TE—MPLS Traffic Engineering (formerly known as "RRR" or Resource Reservation Routing). The use of label switching to improve traffic performance along with an efficient use of network resources.

OSPF—Open Shortest Path First. A link-state, hierarchical IGP routing algorithm, derived from the IS-IS protocol. OSPF features include least-cost routing, multipath routing, and load balancing.

RSVP—Resource reSerVation Protocol. An IETF protocol used for signaling requests (to set aside internet services) by a customer before that customer is permitted to transmit data over that portion of the network.

Sub-pool—The more restrictive bandwidth in an MPLS traffic engineering link. The sub-pool is a portion of the link's overall global pool bandwidth.

TE—Traffic engineering. The application of scientific principles and technology to measure, model, and control internet traffic in order to simultaneously optimize traffic performance and network resource utilization.


Note See Internetworking Terms and Acronyms for terms not included in this glossary.