Wide-Area Networking Configuration Guide: Multilink PPP, Cisco IOS XE Release 3S
Wide-Area Networking Overview
Wide-Area Networking Overview
Last Updated: December 19, 2012
Cisco IOS software provides a range of wide-area networking capabilities to fit almost every network environment need. Cisco offers cell relay via the Switched Multimegabit Data Service (SMDS), circuit switching via ISDN, packet switching via Frame Relay, and the benefits of both circuit and packet switching via Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). LAN emulation (LANE) provides connectivity between ATM and other LAN types. The Cisco IOS Wide-Area Networking Configuration Guide presents a set of general guidelines for configuring the following software components:
This module gives a high-level description of each technology. For specific configuration information, see the appropriate module.
The Cisco Frame Relay implementation currently supports routing on IP, DECnet, AppleTalk, XNS, Novell IPX, CLNS, Banyan VINES, and transparent bridging.
Although Frame Relay access was originally restricted to leased lines, dialup access is now supported. For more information, for dialer profiles or for legacy dial-on-demand routing (DDR) see the see the module Dial-on-Demand Routing Configuration.
To install software on a new router or access server by downloading software from a central server over an interface that supports Frame Relay, see the module Loading and Maintaining System Images.
To configure access between Systems Network Architecture (SNA) devices over a Frame Relay network, see the module Configuring SNA Frame Relay Access Support.
The Frame Relay software provides the following capabilities:
SVCs allow access through a Frame Relay network by setting up a path to the destination endpoints only when the need arises and tearing down the path when it is no longer needed.
Frame Relay switching is used when all traffic arriving on one DLCI can be sent out on another DLCI to the same next-hop address. In such cases, the Cisco IOS software need not examine the frames individually to discover the destination address, and, as a result, the processing load on the router decreases.
The Cisco implementation of Frame Relay switching provides the following functionality:
FRF.12 fragmentation is defined by the FRF.12 Implementation Agreement. This standard was developed to allow long data frames to be fragmented into smaller pieces (fragments) and interleaved with real-time frames. End-to-end FRF.12 fragmentation is recommended for use on PVCs that share links with other PVCs that are transporting voice and on PVCs transporting Voice over IP (VoIP).
When VoFR (FRF.11) and fragmentation are both configured on a PVC, the Frame Relay fragments are sent in the FRF.11 Annex C format. This fragmentation is used when FRF.11 voice traffic is sent on the PVC, and it uses the FRF.11 Annex C format for data.
See the module Configuring Voice over Frame Relay in the Cisco IOS Voice, Video, and Fax Configuration Guide for configuration tasks and examples for Frame Relay fragmentation using FRF.11 Annex C.
Cisco proprietary fragmentation is used on data packets on a PVC that is also used for voice traffic.
See the module Configuring Voice over Frame Relay in the Cisco IOS Voice, Video, and Fax Configuration Guide for configuration tasks and examples for Cisco proprietary fragmentation.
Frame Relay-ATM Internetworking
Cisco IOS software supports the Frame Relay Forum implementation agreements for Frame Relay-ATM Interworking. Frame Relay-ATM Interworking enables Frame Relay and ATM networks to exchange data, despite differing network protocols. There are two types of Frame Relay-ATM Interworking:
FRF.5 Frame Relay-ATM Network Interworking
FRF.5 provides network interworking functionality that allows Frame Relay end users to communicate over an intermediate ATM network that supports FRF.5. Multiprotocol encapsulation and other higher-layer procedures are transported transparently, just as they would be over leased lines.
FRF.5 describes network interworking requirements between Frame Relay Bearer Services and Broadband ISDN (BISDN) permanent virtual circuit (PVC) services.
The FRF.5 standard is defined by the Frame Relay Forum Document Number FRF.5: Frame Relay/ATM PVC Network Interworking Implementation Agreement. For information about which sections of this implementation agreement are supported by Cisco IOS software, see Frame Relay-ATM Interworking Supported Standards.
FRF.8 Frame Relay-ATM Service Interworking
FRF.8 provides service interworking functionality that allows a Frame Relay end user to communicate with an ATM end user. Traffic is translated by a protocol converter that provides communication among dissimilar Frame Relay and ATM equipment.
FRF.8 describes a one-to-one mapping between a Frame Relay PVC and an ATM PVC.
The FRF.8 standard is defined by the Frame Relay Forum Document Number FRF.8: Frame Relay/ATM PVC Network Service Interworking Implementation Agreement. For information about which sections of this implementation agreement are supported by Cisco IOS software, see Frame Relay-ATM Interworking Supported Standards.
Layer 2 Virtual Private Network
L2VPN services are point-to-point. They provide Layer 2 point-to-point connectivity over either an MPLS or a pure IP (L2TPv3) core.
Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol Version 3
The Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol Version 3 feature expands Cisco's support of Layer 2 VPNs. Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol Version 3 (L2TPv3) is an IETF l2tpext working group draft that provides several enhancements to L2TP to tunnel any Layer 2 payload over L2TP. Specifically, L2TPv3 defines the L2TP protocol for tunneling Layer 2 payloads over an IP core network by using Layer 2 VPNs.
L2VPN Pseudowire Redundancy
L2VPNs can provide pseudowire resiliency through their routing protocols. When connectivity between end-to-end PE routers fails, an alternative path to the directed LDP session and the user data can take over. However, there are some parts of the network where this rerouting mechanism does not protect against interruptions in service. The L2VPN Pseudowire Redundancy feature provides the ability to ensure that the CE2 router in can always maintain network connectivity, even if one or all the failures in the figure occur. The L2VPN Pseudowire Redundancy feature enables you to set up backup pseudowires. You can configure the network with redundant pseudowires (PWs) and redundant network elements.
Layer 2 Virtual Private Network Interworking
Layer 2 transport over MPLS and IP already exists for like-to-like attachment circuits, such as Ethernet-to-Ethernet or PPP-to-PPP. L2VPN Interworking builds on this functionality by allowing disparate attachment circuits to be connected. An interworking function facilitates the translation between the different Layer 2 encapsulations. The L2VPN Interworking feature supports Ethernet, 802.1Q (VLAN), Frame Relay, ATM AAL5, and PPP attachment circuits over MPLS and L2TPv3.
Layer 2 Local Switching
Local switching allows you to switch Layer 2 data between two interfaces of the same type (for example, ATM to ATM, or Frame Relay to Frame Relay) or between interfaces of different types (for example, Frame Relay to ATM) on the same router. The interfaces can be on the same line card or on two different cards. During these kinds of switching, the Layer 2 address is used, not any Layer 3 address. Same-port local switching allows you to switch Layer 2 data between two circuits on the same interface.
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Any Internet Protocol (IP) addresses and phone numbers used in this document are not intended to be actual addresses and phone numbers. Any examples, command display output, network topology diagrams, and other figures included in the document are shown for illustrative purposes only. Any use of actual IP addresses or phone numbers in illustrative content is unintentional and coincidental.
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