Security Configuration Guide: Zone-Based Policy Firewall, Cisco IOS Release 15M&T
Zone-Based Firewall Logging Export Using NetFlow
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Zone-Based Firewall Logging Export Using NetFlow

Contents

Zone-Based Firewall Logging Export Using NetFlow

Zone-based firewalls support the logging of messages to an external collector using NetFlow Version 9 export format. NetFlow Version 9 export format uses templates to define the format of data that is exported. Template records are sent to the collector along with data records, and the collector interprets these records by using the structural information available in the template.

This module describes the various firewall logging counters and how to configure NetFlow Version 9 flow exporter for firewall message logging.

Finding Feature Information

Your software release may not support all the features documented in this module. For the latest caveats and feature information, see Bug Search Tool and the release notes for your platform and software release. To find information about the features documented in this module, and to see a list of the releases in which each feature is supported, see the feature information table at the end of this module.

Use Cisco Feature Navigator to find information about platform support and Cisco software image support. To access Cisco Feature Navigator, go to www.cisco.com/​go/​cfn. An account on Cisco.com is not required.

Restrictions for Zone-Based Firewall Logging Export Using NetFlow

The following features are not supported:
  • NetFlow-based logging of pass events
  • Layer 7 inspection events
  • IPFIX and NetFlow Version 5
  • Export of records to multiple collectors
  • IPv6 events

Information About Zone-Based Firewall Logging Export Using NetFlow

NetFlow Version 9 Logging Overview

Log messages help the monitoring or managing system to report, analyze, and correlate various events for network administrators. With the introduction of the Zone-Based Firewall Logging Export Using NetFlow feature, firewalls also support the export of record templates and events in Cisco NetFlow Version 9 export format.

Zone-based firewalls export some events (audits and alerts) to an external collector using NetFlow Version 9 export format. NetFlow is a Cisco proprietary network protocol that collects IP traffic to gather flow information, events, and statistics on a device and exports this information to a collector device as NetFlow records. The basic output of NetFlow is a flow record. The latest NetFlow flow-record format is NetFlow Version 9. NetFlow Version 9 format uses templates to define the format of the data that is exported. As template records are sent to an external collector along with data records, the collector can interpret the data records using the structural information available in templates.

NetFlow Version 9 records provide the following features:
  • Provides templates to format logging events that help collectors to consume and interpret data based on templates.
  • Data is binary-coded and easy to encode and decode (parse).
  • Scales better than traditional syslogs and provides better logging performance on the device and the management station.

For more information about NetFlow Version 9, see RFC 3954.


Note


An external collector application is required to parse templates and interpret the logged data for reporting and display.

Firewall Logging Events

Zone-based firewalls export the following event types by using NetFlow Version 9 export format:
  • Audit Events—Start Audit Record and Stop Audit Record. Logs messages when sessions are created and deleted.
  • Drop Events—Packet Drop notifications. Logs messages when the following events are dropped—unknown protocols, unseen flows, Out-of-Order (OoO) packets, and so on.
  • Alert Events—TCP Half Open Alert, Half Open Session Alert, Maximum-Open sessions. Logs TCP half-open alert messages when the TCP half-open alert threshold values exceed the configured limit.

NetFlow Version 9 Start Audit Records

This template describes the format of data records associated with Start Audit events. Records are generated when a firewall creates a new IPv4-to-IPv4 session. A record is created for every new flow that the firewall creates. The Start Record event is similar to the firewall syslog message (SESS_AUDIT_TRAIL_START).

Table 1 NetFlow Version 9 Start Audit Records

Field IDs

Type

Length

Description

FW_SRC_ADDR_IPV4

8

4

Source IPv4 address.

FW_DST_ADDR_IPV4

12

4

Destination IPv4 address.

FW_SRC_PORT

7

2

Source port.

FW_DST_PORT

11

2

Destination port.

FW_PROTOCOL

4

1

Internet Protocol value. Valid values are the following:
  • 0—Unknown
  • 0x01—Layer 4 Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
  • 0x06—Layer 4 TCP
  • 0x11—Layer 4 UDP

FW_ICMP_TYPE

176

1

ICMP type value that is set only for ICMP packets (for all other packets the value is zero).

FW_ICMP_CODE

177

1

ICMP code value.
Note    This field is not supported by Cisco IOS zone-based firewalls. The value of this field is zero.

FW_EVENT

233

1

Indicates a firewall event. Valid values are the following:
  • 0—Ignore (invalid)
  • 1—Flow created
  • 2—Flow deleted
  • 3—Flow denied
  • 4—Flow alert
  • 5—Flow update

FW_IPV4_IDENT

54

4

IPv4 ID. The value of the ID field in IPv4 packet. If no fragment header is available, the value is zero.

FW_TCP_SEQ

184

4

TCP sequence number.

FW_TCP_ACK

185

4

TCP acknowledgment sequence number. This value is zero for session creation.

FW_TCP_FLAGS

6

1

TCP flags.

FW_EVENT_TIME_MSEC

323

8

Time, in milliseconds, (time since 0000 hours Consolidated Universal Time [UTC] January 1, 1970) when the event occurred.

FW_INITIATOR_OCTETS

231

8

Size of the Layer 4 payload (in bytes) sent by the initiator.

FW_RESPONDER_OCTETS

232

8

Size of the Layer 4 payload (in bytes) arrived from the responder. This value is zero for session creation.

FW_EXT_EVENT

35001

2

Firewall feature extended event code. The values are defined in Table 8.

FW_L7_PROTOCOL_ID

95

4

Layer 7 protocol ID. This field is specified as per RFC 6758. This field consists of two parts:
  • 1-byte of Classification Engine ID
  • 3-bytes of Selector ID

FW_XLATE_SRC_ADDR_IPV4

225

4

Translated source IPv4 address.

FW_XLATE_DST_ADDR_IPV4

226

4

Translated destination IPv4 address.

FW_XLATE_SRC_PORT

227

2

Translated source port.

FW_XLATE_DST_PORT

228

2

Translated destination port.

FW_SRC_INTF_ID

10

2

Source interface ifIndex.

FW_DST_INTF_ID

14

2

Destination interface ifIndex.

FW_SRC_VRF_ID

234

4

Ingress virtual routing and forwarding (VRF) ID. This value is zero if there is no VRF configuration on the source interface.

FW_DST_VRF_ID

235

4

Egress VRF ID. This value is zero if there is no VRF configuration on the destination interface.

FLOW_CLASS -or- FW_CLASS_ID

51

4

Class map ID (numeric representation of the class-map name) associated with this flow.

FW_ZONEPAIR_ID

35007

4

Zone pair ID (numeric representation of zone-pair name) associated with this flow.

FW_CTS_SRC_SGT

34000

2

Source security group tag (SGT) (if a match on SGT) for this flow.

NetFlow Version 9 Stop Audit Records

This template describes the format of data records associated with the Stop Audit event. This record is generated when a firewall deletes an existing IPv4-to-IPv4 session. This record is generated for every flow that is deleted or terminated by a firewall. This event is similar to the firewall syslog message (SESS_AUDIT_TRAIL).


Note


The export of this event is not rate limited.
Table 2 NetFlow Version 9 Stop Audit Records

Field IDs

Type

Length

Description

FW_SRC_ADDR_IPV4

8

4

Source IPv4 address.

FW_DST_ADDR_IPV4

12

4

Destination IPv4 address.

FW_SRC_PORT

7

2

Source port.

FW_DST_PORT

11

2

Destination port.

FW_PROTOCOL

4

1

Internet Protocol value. Valid values are the following:
  • 0—Unknown
  • 0x01—Layer 4 Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
  • 0x06—Layer 4 TCP
  • 0x11—Layer 4 UDP

FW_ICMP_TYPE

176

1

ICMP type value. The value is set only for ICMP packets; the value of all other packets is zero.

FW_ICMP_CODE

177

1

ICMP code value.
Note    This field is not supported by Cisco IOS zone-based firewalls. The value of this field is zero.

FW_EVENT

233

1

Indicates a firewall event. Valid values are the following:
  • 0—Ignore (invalid)
  • 1—Flow created
  • 2—Flow deleted
  • 3—Flow denied
  • 4—Flow alert
  • 5—Flow update

FW_IPV4_IDENT

54

4

IPv4 identification. This value is zero for a Stop Audit event.

FW_TCP_SEQ

184

4

TCP sequence number.

FW_TCP_ACK

185

4

TCP acknowledgment sequence number.

FW_TCP_FLAGS

6

1

TCP flags.

FW_EVENT_TIME_MSEC

323

8

Time, in milliseconds, (time since 0000 hours Consolidated Universal Time [UTC] January 1, 1970) when the event occurred.

FW_INITIATOR_OCTETS

231

8

Size of the Layer 4 payload (in bytes) sent by the initiator.

FW_RESPONDER_OCTETS

232

8

Size of the Layer 4 payload (in bytes) arrived from the responder.

FW_EXT_EVENT

35001

2

Firewall feature extended event code. The values are defined in Table 8.

FW_L7_PROTOCOL_ID

95

4

Layer 7 protocol ID as specified in RFC 6758. This ID consists of two parts:
  • 1-byte of Classification Engine ID
  • 3-bytes of Selector ID

FW_XLATE_SRC_ADDR_IPV4

225

4

Translated source IPv4 address.

FW_XLATE_DST_ADDR_IPV4

226

4

Translated destination IPv4 address.

FW_XLATE_SRC_PORT

227

2

Translated source port.

FW_XLATE_DST_PORT

228

2

Translated destination port.

FW_SRC_INTF_ID

10

2

Source interface ifIndex.

FW_DST_INTF_ID

14

2

Destination interface ifIndex.

FW_SRC_VRF_ID

234

4

Ingress virtual routing and forwarding (VRF) ID. This value is zero if there is no VRF configuration on the source interface.

FW_DST_VRF_ID

235

4

Egress VRF ID. This value is zero if there is no VRF configuration on the destination interface.

FLOW_CLASS or

FW_CLASS_ID

51

4

Class map ID associated with this flow.

FW_ZONEPAIR_ID

35007

4

Zone pair ID associated with this flow.

FW_CTS_SRC_SGT

34000

2

Source security group tag (SGT) (if a match on SGT) for this flow.

NetFlow Version 9 Flow-Denied Records

This template describes the format of the data records associated with a flow-denied event. This record is generated when a firewall denies an IPv4-to-IPv4 flow or packet. This record is generated for every flow that is denied or packet that is dropped by the firewall. The FW_EXT_EVENT specifies the reason for the flow drop or denial. This event matches the syslog message DROP_PKT.

Table 3 NetFlow Version 9 Flow-Denied Records

Field IDs

Type

Length

Description

FW_SRC_ADDR_IPV4

8

4

Source IPv4 address.

FW_DST_ADDR_IPV4

12

4

Destination IPv4 address.

FW_SRC_PORT

7

2

Source port.

FW_DST_PORT

11

2

Destination port.

FW_PROTOCOL

4

1

Internet Protocol value. Valid values are the following:
  • 0—Unknown
  • 0x01—Layer 4 Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
  • 0x06—Layer 4 TCP
  • 0x11—Layer 4 UDP

FW_ICMP_TYPE

176

1

ICMP type value that is set only for ICMP packets (for all other packets the value is zero).

FW_ICMP_CODE

177

1

ICMP code value.
Note    This field is not supported by Cisco IOS zone-based firewalls. The value of this field is zero.

FW_EVENT

233

1

Indicates a firewall event. Valid values are the following:
  • 0—Ignore (invalid)
  • 1—Flow created
  • 2—Flow deleted
  • 3—Flow denied
  • 4—Flow alert
  • 5—Flow update

FW_IPV4_IDENT

54

4

IPv4 ID. The value of the ID field in an IPv4 packet. If no fragment header is available, the value is zero.

FW_TCP_SEQ

184

4

TCP sequence number.

FW_TCP_ACK

185

4

TCP acknowledgment sequence number. This value is zero for session creation.

FW_TCP_FLAGS

6

1

TCP flags.

FW_EVENT_TIME_MSEC

323

8

Time, in milliseconds, (time since 0000 hours Consolidated Universal Time [UTC] January 1, 1970) when the event occurred.

FW_INITIATOR_OCTETS

231

8

Size of the Layer 4 payload (in bytes) sent by the initiator.

FW_RESPONDER_OCTETS

232

8

Size of the Layer 4 payload (in bytes) arrived from the responder. This value is zero for session creation.

FW_EXT_EVENT

35001

2

Firewall feature extended event code. The values are defined in Table 8.

FW_L7_PROTOCOL_ID

95

4

Layer 7 protocol ID. This field is specified as per RFC 6758. This field consists of two parts:
  • 1-byte of Classification Engine ID
  • 3-bytes of Selector ID

FW_XLATE_SRC_ADDR_IPV4

225

4

Translated source IPv4 address.

FW_XLATE_DST_ADDR_IPV4

226

4

Translated destination IPv4 address.

FW_XLATE_SRC_PORT

227

2

Translated source port.

FW_XLATE_DST_PORT

228

2

Translated destination port.

FW_SRC_INTF_ID

10

2

Source interface ifIndex.

FW_DST_INTF_ID

14

2

Destination interface ifIndex.

FW_SRC_VRF_ID

234

4

Ingress virtual routing and forwarding (VRF) ID. This value is zero if there is no VRF configuration on the source interface.

FW_DST_VRF_ID

235

4

Egress VRF ID. This value is zero if there is no VRF configuration on the destination interface.

FLOW_CLASS or FW_CLASS_ID

51

4

Class map ID (numeric representation of the class-map name) associated with this flow.

FW_ZONEPAIR_ID

35007

4

Zone pair ID (numeric representation of zone-pair name) associated with this flow.

FW_CTS_SRC_SGT

34000

2

Source security group tag (SGT) (if a match on SGT) for this flow.

TCP Half-Open Alert Records

Zone-based firewalls provide protection for hosts against denial-of-service (DoS) attacks such as TCP SYN-flood attack. The threshold values to detect this event can be set using the following commands:

Device(config)# parameter-map type inspect pmap1
Device(config-profile)# tcp max-incomplete host 100

or

Device(config)# parameter-map type inspect pmap1
Device(config-profile)# tcp max-incomplete host 100 block-time 10

When the threshold values exceed the configured limit, the information for this event is exported as TCP Half-Open Alert Record. A TCP session that has not yet reached the established state is called a half-open session. The two scenarios that trigger the export of this record are the following:
  • TCP maximum-incomplete value is configured, and block time is not configured. When the maximum number of half-open sessions that reach a host exceeds the configured limit, the firewall generates NetFlow logs with the FW_EXT_EVENT set to FW_EXT_ALERT_HOST_TCP_ALERT_ON. This event is similar to firewall syslog message ID HOST_TCP_ALERT_ON.
  • TCP maximum-incomplete value and block time are configured:
    • When the maximum number of half-open sessions that reach a host exceeds the configured limit, the firewall blocks all subsequent TCP connection requests. After the configured blocking interval expires, TCP connection requests are allowed. NetFlow logs FW_EXT_EVENT that is set to FW_EXT_ALERT_BLOCK_HOST and FW_BLACKOUT_SECS (indicates the blocking interval in seconds). This event is similar to the syslog message ID BLOCK_HOST.
    • When the blocking interval expires and the firewall allows further connections to the host, NetFlow logs FW_EXT_EVENT that is set to FW_EXT_ALERT_UNBLOCK_HOST and FW_BLACKOUT_SECS. This event is similar to the syslog message ID UNBLOCK_HOST.

Note


The export of this event is not rate limited.
Table 4 TCP Half-Open Alert Records

Field ID

Type

Length

Offset

Description

FW_DST_ADDR_IPV4

12

4

0 to 3

Destination IPv4 address.

FW_PROTOCOL

4

1

4

Internet Protocol value or ID.

FW_EVENT

233

1

5

High level event code. A value is 4 indicates a flow alert.

FW_EXT_EVENT

35001

2

6 to 7

Extended firewall event code. Valid values are the following:
  • 0x1E—FW_EXT_ALERT_UNBLOCK_HOST
  • 0x1F—FW_EXT_ALERT_HOST_TCP_ALERT_ON
  • 0x20—FW_EXT_ALERT_BLOCK_HOST

FW_EVENT_TIME_MSEC

323

8

8 to 15

Time, in milliseconds, (time since 0000 hours Consolidated Universal Time [UTC] January 1, 1970) when the event occurred.

FW_HALFOPEN_CNT

35012

4

16 to 19

Number of half-open TCP sessions.

FW_BLACKOUT_SECS

35004

4

20 to 23

Time duration, in seconds, when a destination is blacked out or unavailable.

FW_DST_INTF_ID

14

2

24 to 26

SNMP ifIndex of the egress interface.

FW_DST_VRF_ID

235

4

27 to 30

Unique ID of the destination virtual routing and forwarding (VRF) instance.

FLOW_CLASS or FW_CLASS_ID

51

4

31 to 34

Class map ID associated with this flow.

FW_ZONEPAIR_ID

35007

4

35 to 38

Zone pair ID associated with this flow.

Half-Open Session Alert Records

This template describes the format of data records for Half Open Session Alert. This record is generated when the number of existing half-open sessions exceed the configured high limit value or drop below the low bound value. The export of this event is not rate limited.

Use the following commands to configure the half-open session limit:

Device(config)# parameter-map type inspect param-name
Device(config-profile)# max-incomplete high 20000
Device(config-profile)# max-incomplete low 10000

Table 5 Half-Open Session Alert Records

Field ID

Type

Length

Description

FW_EVENT

233

1

High level event code. A value of 4 indicates Flow Alert.

FW_EXT_EVENT

35001

2

Extended Firewall event code. Valid values are the following:
  • 0x21—FW_EXT_SESS_RATE_ALERT_ON
  • 0x22—FW_EXT_SESS_RATE_ALERT_OFF

FW_EVENT_TIME_MSEC

323

8

Time, in milliseconds, (time since 0000 hours Consolidated Universal Time [UTC] January 1, 1970) when the event occurred.

FW_EVENT_LEVEL

33003

1

Extended firewall event code. Valid values are the following:
  • 0x01—Per box
  • 0x02—Virtual routing and forwarding (VRF)
  • 0x03—Zone
  • 0x04—Class map
  • Other values are undefined

FW_EVENT_LEVEL_ID

33004

4

Defines the identifier for the FW_EVENT_LEVEL event. Valid values are the following:
  • 0x02—VRF_ID.
  • 0x03—ZONE_ID.
  • 0x04—CLASS_ID.
  • In all other cases and if FW_EVENT_LEVEL is not present the field ID is zero.

FW_CONFIGURED_VALUE

33005

4

Specifies the configured half-open session high-limit value or low-bound value.

Maximum Session Alert Records

This template describes the format of data records for the Maximum Session Alert event. This record is generated when the number of firewall sessions exceed the configured limit. The export of this event is not rate limited and is generated when sessions exceed the configured limit. Use the following commands to configure the maximum limit for firewall sessions:

Device (config)# parameter-map type inspect param-map
Device(config-profile)# sessions maximum 20000

Table 6 Maximum Session Alert Records

Field ID

Type

Length

Offset

Description

FW_EVENT

233

1

0

High level event code. A value of 4 indicates flow alert.

FW_EXT_EVENT

35001

2

1 to 2

Extended firewall event code. A value of 0x23 indicates FW_EXT_L4_SESSION_LIMIT.

FW_EVENT_TIME_MSEC

323

8

3 to 10

Time, in milliseconds, (time since 0000 hours Consolidated Universal Time [UTC] 4 January 1, 1970) when the event occurred.

FW_MAX_SESSIONS

35008

4

11 to 14

Maximum sessions allowed for this zone pair or class ID.

FW_ZONEPAIR_ID

35007

4

15 to 18

Zone pair ID associated with this flow.

FLOW_CLASS or

FW_CLASS_ID

51

4

19 to 22

Class map ID associated with this flow.

NetFlow Version 9 Option Template Records

This template provides information about the data that is exported as part of data records. For example, a data record exports the Interface-ID field, which is a numerical representation of the interface. To obtain the corresponding name on the device, the device exports option template data records that consists of the Interface-ID-to-Interface-Name value mapping. Option template data records are exported periodically based on the configured option template timeout value.

Protocol ID-to-Name Mapping

The protocol ID-to-name mapping is obtained by exporting the inspect-protocol-table option template and enabling the debug policy-firewall exporter command.

The following is sample output from the debug policy-firewall exporter command. In the following output, protocol ID is 6xxyyzz where xxyyzz is the 3-byte protocol ID in hexadecimal notation.

FW-EXPORT: Sent Opt Rec Protocol Id:(6000001) <--> Name:(ftp)
FW-EXPORT: Sent Opt Rec Protocol Id:(6000002) <--> Name:(telnet)
FW-EXPORT: Sent Opt Rec Protocol Id:(6000003) <--> Name:(smtp)
FW-EXPORT: Sent Opt Rec Protocol Id:(6000004) <--> Name:(http)
FW-EXPORT: Sent Opt Rec Protocol Id:(6000005) <--> Name:(tacacs)
FW-EXPORT: Sent Opt Rec Protocol Id:(6000006) <--> Name:(dns)
FW-EXPORT: Sent Opt Rec Protocol Id:(6000007) <--> Name:(sql-net)
FW-EXPORT: Sent Opt Rec Protocol Id:(6000008) <--> Name:(https)
FW-EXPORT: Sent Opt Rec Protocol Id:(6000009) <--> Name:(tftp)
FW-EXPORT: Sent Opt Rec Protocol Id:(600000A) <--> Name:(gopher)
FW-EXPORT: Sent Opt Rec Protocol Id:(600000B) <--> Name:(finger)
FW-EXPORT: Sent Opt Rec Protocol Id:(600000C) <--> Name:(kerberos)
FW-EXPORT: Sent Opt Rec Protocol Id:(600000D) <--> Name:(pop2)
FW-EXPORT: Sent Opt Rec Protocol Id:(600000E) <--> Name:(pop3)
!
!
!

VRF Name Options Record

NetFlow Version 9 supports the export of the vrf-table option template. The external collectors must correlate the virtual routing and forwarding (VRF) IDs in the firewall records with the VRF names specified in vrf-table option records received from the exporter.

The following is a sample output from the show flow exporter templates command:

Device# show flow exporter templates 

Flow Exporter tfoo
  Client: Option options vrf-id-name-table
  Exporter Format: NetFlow Version 9
  Template ID    : 256
  Source ID      : 0
  Record Size    : 40
  Template layout
 _____________________________________________________________________
|                 Field                   |  Type | Offset |  Size  |
---------------------------------------------------------------------
| v9-scope system                         |     1 |     0  |     4  |
| routing vrf input                       |   234 |     4  |     4  |
| routing vrf name                        |   236 |     8  |    32  |
---------------------------------------------------------------------

Interface ID-to-Name Mapping

There is no option template to export interface ID-to-name mapping. External collectors must query the ifIndex MIB via Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) to correlate SRC_IF_INDEX and DST_IF_INDEX to the interface description or name.

Class-Name Option Records

This template describes the format of option templates that map FW_CLASS_ID to a class name.

Table 7 Class-Name Options Records

Field ID

Type

Length

Offset

Description

v9-scope-system

1

4

0 to 3

Provides information about the NetFlow process to which the option record refers. Valid values are the following:
  • 0x0001—System
  • 0x0002—Interface
  • 0x0003—Line card
  • 0x0004—NetFlow cache
  • 0x0005—Template

FLOW_CLASS or FW_CLASS_ID

51

4

4 to 7

Class map ID on the device.

FW_CLASS_NAME

100

64

8 to 71

Name of the class.

Firewall Extended Event Records

The following table describes the FW_EXT_EVENT_ID fields associated with the logging of drop events. The firewall extended event records map extended-event IDs to names.

Table 8 Firewall Extended Event Records

Value

FW_EXT_EVENT_ID

Description

0

INSP_L4_NO_ERROR

No specific extended event.

1

INSP_L4_INVAL_HLEN

Invalid Layer 4 header length.

2

INSP_L4_C3PL_LOOKUP_FAIL

Policy match failure.

3

INSP_L4_POLICE_RATE_LIMIT

Police rate limiting

4

INSP_L4_SESSION_LIMIT

Session limit exceeded.

5

INSP_L4_ICMP_INVAL_RET

Invalid return packet.

6

INSP_L4_ICMP_INVAL_DEST

Invalid destination address for unreachable or time-exceeded packets.

7

INSP_L4_UDP_DISA_BIDIR

Bidirectional traffic disabled.

8

INSP_L4_SYN_INVAL_FLDATA

Synchronize (SYN) packet with data or with push (PSH) or urgent (URG) flags.

9

INSP_L4_INVALID_CONN_SEG

Segment does not match any TCP connection.

10

INSP_L4_INVALID_SEG

Invalid TCP segment.

11

INSP_L4_INVALID_SEQ

Invalid TCP sequence number.

12

INSP_L4_INVALID_ACK

Invalid TCP acknowledgment (ACK) or no ACK.

13

INSP_L4_INVALID_FLAGS

Invalid TCP flags.

14

INSP_L4_INVALID_CHKSM

Invalid TCP checksum.

15

INSP_L4_SYN_IN_WIN

SYN inside current window. A SYN packet is seen within the window of an already established TCP connection.

16

INSP_L4_RST_IN_WIN

Reset (RST) inside current window. An RST packet is seen within the window of an already established TCP connection.

17

INSP_L4_OOO_SEG

Out-of-Order (OoO) segment.

18

INSP_L4_OOO_INVALID_FLAGS

OoO segment with invalid flag.

19

INSP_L4_RETRANS_SEG

Retransmitted segment.

20

INSP_L4_RETRANS_INVALID_FLAGS

Retransmitted segment with invalid flag.

21

INSP_L4_STRAY_SEQ

Stray TCP segment.

22

INSP_L4_INTERNAL_ERR

Firewall internal error.

23

INSP_L4_INVALID_WINDOW_SCALE

Invalid window scale option.

24

INSP_L4_INVALID_TCP_OPTION

Invalid TCP option.

25

INSP_UNKNOWN_ERR

Unknown error.

26

INSP_L4_C3PL_LOOKUP_FAIL_NO_ZONE_PAIR

Lookup failure because zone pairs are not available between zones.

27

INSP_L4_C3PL_LKP_FAIL_ZONE_TO_NONZONE

Lookup failure because only one interface is the member of a zone and other interface is not a member of any zone.

28

INSP_L4_C3PL_LOOKUP_FAIL_NO_POLICY

Policy not present in the zone pair.

29

INSP_L4_DROP_CONFIGURED

Drop action configured in a policy map.

30

FW_EXT_ALERT_UNBLOCK_HOST

Blocking of TCP attempts to a specified host is removed.

31

FW_EXT_ALERT_HOST_TCP_ALERT_ON

Maximum incomplete host limit of half-open TCP connections exceeded.
Note    Once this message is sent to the host, the traffic from that host can be blocked by sending the FW_EXT_ALERT_BLOCK_HOST message for the time period configured.

32

FW_EXT_ALERT_BLOCK_HOST

Maximum incomplete host threshold of half-open TCP connections exceeded.

33

FW_EXT_SESS_RATE_ALERT_ON

Exceeded either the maximum incomplete high threshold of half-open connections or the new connection initiation rate ID.

34

FW_EXT_SESS_RATE_ALERT_OFF

Either the number of half-open connections or the new connection initiation rate is below the maximum incomplete low threshold.

35

FW_EXT_MAX_SESS_LIMIT

Number of established sessions has crossed the configured threshold.

Firewall Extended Event-Named Option Records

This template describes the format of option templates that map FW_EXT_EVENT to an event name or a description

Field ID

Type

Length

Offset

Description

v9-scope-system

1

4

0 to 3

This field provides information about the NetFlow process to which the options record refers. Valid values are the following:
  • 0x0001—System
  • 0x0002—Interface
  • 0x0003—Line card
  • 0x0004—NetFlow cache
  • 0x0005—Template

FW_EXT_EVENT

35001

2

4 to 5

Extended event code.

FW_EXT_EVENT_DESC

35010

64

6 to 69

Description of the extended event.

Extended Event ID-to-Name Mapping

The extended event ID-to-name mapping records are obtained by exporting the inspect-ext-event-table option template and enabling the debug policy-firewall exporter command.

The following is sample output from the debug policy-firewall exporter command:

*Dec 20 05:24:50.917: FW-EXPORT: Sent Optional Record Ext Event id:(0x0) <--> Name:(NO_ERROR)
*Dec 20 05:24:50.917: FW-EXPORT: Sent Optional Record Ext Event id:(0x1) <--> Name:(INVALID_HEADER_LENGTH)
*Dec 20 05:24:50.917: FW-EXPORT: Sent Optional Record Ext Event id:(0x2) <--> Name:(POLICY_MATCH_FAILURE)
*Dec 20 05:24:50.917: FW-EXPORT: Sent Optional Record Ext Event id:(0x3) <--> Name:(POLICE_RATE_LIMITING)
*Dec 20 05:24:50.917: FW-EXPORT: Sent Optional Record Ext Event id:(0x4) <--> Name:(SESSION_LIMITING)
*Dec 20 05:24:50.917: FW-EXPORT: Sent Optional Record Ext Event id:(0x5) <--> Name:(INVALID_RETURN_PACKET)
!
!
!

Protocol-Name Option Records

This template describes the format of option templates that map the FW_PROTOCOL_ID to the protocol name. As per RFC 6759, the protocol ID or application ID (that is, the IANA Flow Field Type 95) is represented as a 4-byte number with the following two parts:
  • 1-byte of Classification Engine ID. For NetFlow logging this value is always equal to 6, which specifies that this value is user defined.
  • 3-bytes of Selector ID. This value represents the actual protocol ID or application ID as defined by the device.

Note


All values are not exported; only protocols that the zone-based firewall supports are exported.
Table 9 Protocol-Name Option Records

Field IDs

Type

Length

Offset

Description

v9-scope-system

1

4

0 to 3

This field refers to the NetFlow process to which the options record refers.

Valid values are the following:
  • 0x0001—System
  • 0x0002—Interface
  • 0x0003—Line card
  • 0x0004—NetFlow cache
  • 0x0005—Template

FW_L7_PROTOCOL_ID

95

4

4 to 7

Layer 7 protocol ID as specified in RFC 6758. The ID consists of the following two parts:
  • 1-byte of Classification Engine ID
  • 3-bytes of Selector ID

FLOW_FIELD_L7_PROTOCOL_NAME

96

64

8 to 72

Specifies the name of the protocol or application.

Zone-Pair Name Option Records

This template describes the format of option templates that map FW_ZONEPAIR_ID event to a zone-pair name configured on the device.

Table 10 Zone-Pair Name Options Records

Field ID

Type

Length

Offset

Description

v9-scope-system

1

4

0 to 3

This field provides information about the NetFlow process to which the options record refers. Valid values are the following:
  • 0x0001—System
  • 0x0002—Interface
  • 0x0003—Line card
  • 0x0004—NetFlow cache
  • 0x0005—Template

FW_ZONEPAIR_ID

35007

4

4 to 7

Zone-pair ID configured on the device.

FW_ZONEPAIR_NAME

35009

64

8 to 71

Name of the zone pair that corresponds to the zone-pair ID.

How to Configure Zone-Based Firewall Logging Export Using NetFlow

Perform the following tasks to configure zone-based firewall logging export using NetFlow:
  1. Define a flow exporter.
  2. Attach the flow exporter to a global parameter map.
  3. Define option templates.

Defining a Flow Exporter

SUMMARY STEPS

    1.    enable

    2.    configure terminal

    3.    flow exporter name

    4.    export-protocol netflow-v9

    5.    destination {ipv4-address | ipv6-address} [vrf vrf-name]

    6.    transport udp port-number

    7.    end


DETAILED STEPS
     Command or ActionPurpose
    Step 1 enable


    Example:
    Device> enable
     
    Enables privileged EXEC mode.
    • Enter your password if prompted.
     
    Step 2 configure terminal


    Example:
    Device# configure terminal
     

    Enters global configuration mode.

     
    Step 3 flow exporter name


    Example:
    Device(config)# flow exporter v9-flow
     

    Creates or modifies a Flexible NetFlow flow exporter and enters flow exporter configuration mode.

     
    Step 4 export-protocol netflow-v9


    Example:
    Device(config-flow-exporter)# export-protocol netflow-v9
     

    Configures the export protocol for a Flexible NetFlow flow exporter.

     
    Step 5 destination {ipv4-address | ipv6-address} [vrf vrf-name]


    Example:
    Device(config-flow-exporter)# destination 10.1.1.1
     

    Configures an export destination for a Flexible NetFlow flow exporter.

     
    Step 6 transport udp port-number


    Example:
    Device(config-flow-exporter)# transport udp 200
     

    Specifies UDP as the transport protocol for a flow exporter.

     
    Step 7 end


    Example:
    Device(config-flow-exporter)# end
     

    Exits flow exporter configuration mode and returns to privileged EXEC mode.

     

    Attaching a Flow Exporter to a Global Parameter Map

    You must attach the NetFlow flow exporter (v9-flow) that you configured to a global parameter map. You cannot attach a flow exporter to a default or user-defined parameter map.

    Note


    After attaching the flow exporter to a global parameter map, you can configure the audit-trail command for a default or user-defined parameter map; log messages will be exported.
    SUMMARY STEPS

      1.    enable

      2.    configure terminal

      3.    parameter-map type inspect global

      4.    exporter exporter-name

      5.    alert {on | off}

      6.    end


    DETAILED STEPS
       Command or ActionPurpose
      Step 1 enable


      Example:
      Device> enable
       
      Enables privileged EXEC mode.
      • Enter your password if prompted.
       
      Step 2 configure terminal


      Example:
      Device# configure terminal
       

      Enters global configuration mode.

       
      Step 3 parameter-map type inspect global


      Example:
      Device(config)# parameter-map type inspect global
       

      Configures an inspect-type global parameter map for connecting thresholds, timeouts, and other parameters pertaining to the inspect action and enters parameter-map type inspect configuration mode.

       
      Step 4 exporter exporter-name


      Example:
      Device(config-profile)# exporter v9-flow
       
      Configures a flow exporter.
      • The flow exporters that you previously configured are listed as options for this command. In this example, you can see v9-flow as an option.
       
      Step 5 alert {on | off}


      Example:
      Device(config-profile)# alert on
       

      Enables or disables the console display of stateful packet inspection alert messages.

       
      Step 6 end


      Example:
      Device(config-profile)# end
       

      Exits parameter-map type inspect configuration mode and returns to global configuration mode.

       

      Defining Flow Exporter Option Templates

      You must define a flow exporter and then attach it to a parameter map before you can configure the option templates.

      SUMMARY STEPS

        1.    enable

        2.    configure terminal

        3.    flow exporter name

        4.    option inspect-class-table [timeout timeout-value]

        5.    option inspect-protocol-table [timeout timeout-value]

        6.    option inspect-ext-event-table [timeout timeout-value]

        7.    option zone-pair-table [timeout timeout-value]

        8.    end


      DETAILED STEPS
         Command or ActionPurpose
        Step 1 enable


        Example:
        Device> enable
         
        Enables privileged EXEC mode.
        • Enter your password if prompted.
         
        Step 2 configure terminal


        Example:
        Device# configure terminal
         

        Enters global configuration mode.

         
        Step 3 flow exporter name


        Example:
        Device(config)# flow exporter v9-flow
         

        Creates or modifies a Flexible NetFlow flow exporter and enters flow exporter configuration mode.

         
        Step 4 option inspect-class-table [timeout timeout-value]


        Example:
        Device(config-flow-exporter)# option inspect-class-table timeout 2000
         

        Configures a policy-firewall class table for a flow exporter.

         
        Step 5 option inspect-protocol-table [timeout timeout-value]


        Example:
        Device(config-flow-exporter)# option inspect-protocol-table timeout 3000
         

        Configures a policy-firewall inspect protocol table for a flow exporter.

         
        Step 6 option inspect-ext-event-table [timeout timeout-value]


        Example:
        Device(config-flow-exporter)# option inspect-ext-event-table timeout 1200
         

        Configures a policy-firewall extended event table for a flow exporter.

         
        Step 7 option zone-pair-table [timeout timeout-value]


        Example:
        Device(config-flow-exporter)# option zone-pair-table timeout 2500
         

        Configures a policy-firewall zone-pair table for a flow exporter.

         
        Step 8 end


        Example:
        Device(config-flow-exporter)# end
         

        Exits flow exporter configuration mode and returns to privileged EXEC mode.

         

        Verifying Zone-Based Firewall Logging Export Using NetFlow

        Use the following commands to troubleshoot your configuration:

        SUMMARY STEPS

          1.    enable

          2.    debug policy-firewall exporter

          3.    show parameter-map type inspect global

          4.    show flow exporter exporter-name [statistics | templates]

          5.    show flow exporter {templates | statistics | export-ids netflow-v9}

          6.    show running-config flow exporter export-ids netflow-v9


        DETAILED STEPS
          Step 1   enable
          Enables privileged EXEC mode.
          • Enter your password if prompted.


          Example:
          Device> enable
          Step 2   debug policy-firewall exporter

          Enables logging of firewall NetFlow Version 9 messages.



          Example:
          Device# debug policy-firewall exporter
          Step 3   show parameter-map type inspect global

          Displays global inspect type parameter map values.



          Example:
          Device# show parameter-map type inspect global
          
          alert on
            sessions maximum 2147483647
            waas disabled
            l2-transparent dhcp-passthrough disabled
            log dropped-packets disabled
            log summary disabled
            max-incomplete low 18000
            max-incomplete high 20000
            one-minute low 2147483647
            one-minute high 2147483647
            tcp reset-PSH disabled
            exporter v9-flow
          
          
          Step 4   show flow exporter exporter-name [statistics | templates]

          Displays the status and statistics for the Flexible NetFlow user-configured flow exporter.



          Example:
          Device# show flow exporter v9-flow
          
          Flow Exporter v9-flow:
            Description:              User defined
            Export protocol:          NetFlow Version 9
            Transport Configuration:
              Destination IP address: 10.1.1.1
              Source IP address:      10.4.5.2
              Transport Protocol:     UDP
              Destination Port:       9995
              Source Port:            0
              DSCP:                   0x0
              TTL:                    255
              Output Features:        Not Used
          
          
          Step 5   show flow exporter {templates | statistics | export-ids netflow-v9}

          Displays flow exporter statistics.



          Example:
          Device# show flow exporter statistics
          
          Flow Exporter netflow-v9:
            Packet send statistics (last cleared 00:02:27 ago):
              Successfully sent:         0                     (0 bytes)
              No FIB:                    13                    (16010 bytes)
          
            Client send statistics:
              Client: Option Start audit v4 (session creation)
                Records added:           0
                Bytes added:             0
          
              Client: Option Stop audit v4 (session deletion)
                Records added:           0
                Bytes added:             0
          
              Client: Option Drop audit v4 (Pak drop)
                Records added:           0
                Bytes added:             0
          
              Client: Option Alert TCP halfopen
                Records added:           0
                Bytes added:             0
          
              Client: Option Alert halfopen 
                Records added:           0
                Bytes added:             0
          
              Client: Option Alert max session
                Records added:           0
                Bytes added:             0
          
              Client: Option Template for FW class-id
                Records added:           2
                  - failed to send:      2
                Bytes added:             136
                  - failed to send:      136
          
              Client: Option Template for FW protocol-id
                Records added:           172
                  - failed to send:      172
                Bytes added:             11696
                  - failed to send:      11696
          
              Client: Option Template for FW Extended Event
                Records added:           36
                  - failed to send:      36
                Bytes added:             2376
          
          
          Step 6   show running-config flow exporter export-ids netflow-v9

          Displays flow exporter configuration.



          Example:
          Device# show running-config flow exporter export-ids netflow-v9
          

          Configuration Examples for Zone-Based Firewall Logging Export Using NetFlow

          Example: Defining a Flow Exporter

          Device# configure terminal
          Device(config)# flow exporter v9-flow
          Device(config-flow-exporter)# export-protocol netflow-v9
          Device(config-flow-exporter)# destination 10.1.1.1
          Device(config-flow-exporter)# transport udp 200
          Device(config-flow-exporter)# end
          
          

          Example: Attaching a Flow Exporter to a Global Parameter Map

          Device# configure terminal
          Device(config)# parameter-map type inspect global
          Device(config-profile)# exporter v9-flow
          Device(config-profile)# alert on
          Device(config-profile)# end
          
          

          Example: Defining Flow Exporter Option Templates

          Device# configure terminal
          Device(config)# flow exporter v9-flow
          Device(config-flow-exporter)# option inspect-class-table timeout 2000
          Device(config-flow-exporter)# option inspect-protocol-table timeout 3000
          Device(config-flow-exporter)# option inspect-ext-event-table timeout 1200
          Device(config-flow-exporter)# option zone-pair-table timeout 2500
          Device(config-flow-exporter)# end
          
          

          Additional References for Zone-Based Firewall Logging Export Using NetFlow

          MIBs

          MIB MIBs Link

          ifIndex

          To locate and download MIBs for selected platforms, Cisco IOS releases, and feature sets, use Cisco MIB Locator found at the following URL:

          http:/​/​www.cisco.com/​go/​mibs

          Technical Assistance

          Description Link

          The Cisco Support website provides extensive online resources, including documentation and tools for troubleshooting and resolving technical issues with Cisco products and technologies.

          To receive security and technical information about your products, you can subscribe to various services, such as the Product Alert Tool (accessed from Field Notices), the Cisco Technical Services Newsletter, and Really Simple Syndication (RSS) Feeds.

          Access to most tools on the Cisco Support website requires a Cisco.com user ID and password.

          http:/​/​www.cisco.com/​support

          Feature Information for Zone-Based Firewall Logging Export Using NetFlow

          The following table provides release information about the feature or features described in this module. This table lists only the software release that introduced support for a given feature in a given software release train. Unless noted otherwise, subsequent releases of that software release train also support that feature.

          Use Cisco Feature Navigator to find information about platform support and Cisco software image support. To access Cisco Feature Navigator, go to www.cisco.com/​go/​cfn. An account on Cisco.com is not required.

          Table 11 Feature Information for Zone-Based Firewall Logging Export Using NetFlow

          Feature Name

          Releases

          Feature Information

          Zone-Based Firewall Logging Export Using NetFlow

          15.4(2)T

          Zone-based firewalls support the logging of messages to an external collector using NetFlow Version 9 export format. NetFlow version 9 export format uses templates to define the format of data that is exported. Template records are sent to collector along with data records, the collector interprets these records by using the structural information available in template.

          The following commands were introduced or modified by this feature: debug policy-firewall exporter, option (FlexibleNetFlow), and show flow internal.