Public Key Infrastructure Configuration Guide, Cisco IOS XE Release 3S
Storing PKI Credentials
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Storing PKI Credentials

Contents

Storing PKI Credentials

Public key infrastructure (PKI) credentials, such as Rivest, Shamir, and Adelman (RSA) keys and certificates can be stored in a specific location on the router, such as NVRAM and flash memory or on a USB eTtoken 64 KB smart card. USB tokens provide secure configuration distribution, RSA operations such as on-token key generation, signing, and authentication, and the storage of Virtual Private Network (VPN) credentials for deployment.

Finding Feature Information

Your software release may not support all the features documented in this module. For the latest caveats and feature information, see Bug Search Tool and the release notes for your platform and software release. To find information about the features documented in this module, and to see a list of the releases in which each feature is supported, see the feature information table at the end of this module.

Use Cisco Feature Navigator to find information about platform support and Cisco software image support. To access Cisco Feature Navigator, go to www.cisco.com/​go/​cfn. An account on Cisco.com is not required.

Prerequisites for Storing PKI Credentials

Prerequisites for Specifying a Local Certificate Storage Location

Before you can specify the local certificate storage location, your system should meet the following requirements:

  • A Cisco IOS Release 12.4(2)T PKI-enabled image or a later image
  • A platform that supports storing PKI credentials as separate files
  • A configuration that contains at least one certificate
  • An accessible local file system

Prerequisites for Specifying USB Token Storage for PKI Credentials

Before you can use a USB token, your system should meet the following requirements:

  • A Cisco 871 router, Cisco 1800 series, Cisco 2800 series, a Cisco 3800 series router, or a Cisco 7200VXR NPE-G2 platform
  • At least a Cisco IOS Release 12.3(14)T image running on any of the supported platforms
  • A Cisco supported USB token (Safenet/Aladdin eToken PRO 32 KB or 64 KB)
  • A k9 image

Restrictions for Storing PKI Credentials

Restrictions for Specifying a Local Certificate Storage Location

When storing certificates to a local storage location, the following restrictions are applicable:

  • Only local file systems may be used. An error message will be displayed if a remote file system is selected, and the command will not take effect.
  • A subdirectory may be specified if supported by the local file system. NVRAM does not support subdirectories.

Restrictions for Specifying USB Token Storage

When using a USB token to store PKI data, the following restrictions are applicable:

  • USB token support requires a 3DES (k9) Cisco IOS software image, which provides secure file storage.
  • You cannot boot an image from a USB token. (However, you can boot a configuration from a USB token.)
  • USB hubs are currently not supported. Thus, the number of supported devices is limited to the number of available USB ports.

Information About Storing PKI Credentials

Storing Certificates to a Local Storage Location

Certificates are stored to NVRAM by default; however, some routers do not have the required amount of NVRAM to successfully store certificates.

All Cisco platforms support NVRAM and flash local storage. Depending on your platform, you may have other supported local storage options including bootflash, slot, disk, USB flash, or USB token.

During run time, you can specify what active local storage device you would like to use to store certificates.

PKI Credentials and USB Tokens

To use a secure USB token on your router, you should understand the following concepts:

How a USB Token Works

A smart card is a small plastic card, containing a microprocessor and memory that allows you to store and process data. A USB token is a smart card with a USB interface. The token can securely store any type of file within its available storage space (32 KB). Configuration files that are stored on the USB token can be encrypted and accessed only via a user PIN. The device does not load the configuration file unless the proper PIN has been configured for secure deployment of device configuration files.

After you plug the USB token into the device, you must log into the USB token; thereafter, you can change default settings, such as the user PIN (default: 1234567890) and the allowed number of failed login attempts (default: 15 attempts) before future logins are refused. For more information on accessing and configuring the USB token, see the section “Logging Into and Setting Up the USB Token."

After you have successfully logged into the USB token, you can copy files from the device on to the USB token via the copy command. USB token RSA keys and associated IPsec tunnels remain available until the device is reloaded. To specify the length of time before the keys are removed and the IPsec tunnels are torn down, issue the crypto pki token removal timeout command. The default timeout is zero, which causes the RSA keys to be removed automatically after the eToken is removed from the device. The default appears in the running configuration as:

crypto pki token default removal timeout 0

The table below highlights the capabilities of the USB token.

Table 1 Functionality Highlights for USB Tokens

Function

USB Token

Accessibility

Used to securely store and transfer digital certificates, preshared keys, and device configurations from the USB token to the device.

Storage Size

32 KB or 64 KB

File Types

  • Typically used to store digital certificates, preshared keys, and device configurations for IPsec VPNs.
  • USB tokens cannot store Cisco IOS images.

Security

  • Files can be encrypted and accessed only with a user PIN.
  • Files can also be stored in a nonsecure format.

Boot Configurations

  • The device can use the configuration stored in the USB token during boot time.
  • The device can use the secondary configuration stored in the USB token during boot time. (A secondary configuration allows users to load their IPsec configuration.)

Benefits of USB Tokens

USB token support on a Cisco router provides the following application benefits:

Removable Credentials: Provide or Store VPN Credentials on an External Device for Deployment

A USB token can use smart card technology to store a digital certificate and configuration for IPsec VPN deployment. This ability enhances the capability of the router to generate RSA public keys to authenticate at least one IPsec tunnel. (Because a router can initiate multiple IPsec tunnels, the USB token can contain several certificates, as appropriate.)

Storing VPN credentials on an external device reduces the threat of compromising secure data.

PIN Configuration for Secure File Deployment

A USB token can store a configuration file that can be used for enabling encryption on the router via a user-configured PIN. (That is, no digital certificates, preshared keys, or VPNs are used.)

Touchless or Low Touch Configuration

The USB token can provide remote software configuration and provisioning with little or no human interaction. Configuration is set up as an automated process. That is, the USB token can store a bootstrap configuration that the router can use to boot from after the USB token has been inserted into the router. The bootstrap configuration connects the router to a TFTP server, which contains a configuration that completely configures the router.

RSA Operations

A USB token may be used as a cryptographic device in addition to a storage device. Using a USB token as a cryptographic device allows RSA operations such as key generation, signing, and authentication to be performed on the token.

General-purpose, special-usage, encryption, or signature RSA key pairs with a modulus of 2048 bits or less may be generated from credentials located on your token storage device. Private keys are not distributed and remain on the token by default, however you may configure the private key storage location.

Keys that reside on a USB token are saved to persistent token storage when they are generated. Key deletion will remove the keys stored on the token from persistent storage immediately. (Keys that do not reside on a token are saved to or deleted from non-token storage locations when the write memory or a similar command is issued.)

Remote Device Configuration and Provisioning in a Secure Device Provisioning (SDP) Environment

SDP may be used to configure a USB token. The configured USB token may be transported to provision a device at a remote location. That is, a USB token may be used to transfer cryptographic information from one network device to another remote network device providing a solution for a staged USB token deployment.

For information about using USB tokens with SDP, see document titles in the “Additional References” section.

How to Configure PKI Storage

Specifying a Local Storage Location for Certificates

SUMMARY STEPS

    1.    enable

    2.    configure terminal

    3.    crypto pki certificate storage location-name

    4.    exit

    5.    copy source-url destination-url

    6.    show crypto pki certificates storage


DETAILED STEPS
     Command or ActionPurpose
    Step 1 enable


    Example:
    Device> enable
     

    Enables privileged EXEC mode.

    • Enter your password if prompted.
     
    Step 2 configure terminal


    Example:
    Device# configure terminal
     

    Enters global configuration mode.

     
    Step 3 crypto pki certificate storage location-name


    Example:
    Device(config)# crypto pki certificate storage flash:/certs
    
     

    Specifies the local storage location for certificates.

     
    Step 4 exit


    Example:
    Device(config)# exit
    
     

    Exits global configuration mode.

     
    Step 5 copy source-url destination-url


    Example:
    Device# 
    copy system:running-config nvram:startup-config
     

    (Optional) Saves the running configuration to the startup configuration.

    Note   

    Settings will only take effect when the running configuration is saved to the startup configuration.

     
    Step 6 show crypto pki certificates storage


    Example:
    Device# show crypto pki certificates storage
    
     

    (Optional) Displays the current setting for the PKI certificate storage location.

     

    Example

    The following is sample output from the show crypto pki certificates storage command, which shows that the certificates are stored in the certs subdirectory of disk0:

    Device# show crypto pki certificates storage
    Certificates will be stored in disk0:/certs/

    Setting Up and Using USB Tokens on Cisco Devices

    Storing the Configuration on a USB Token

    SUMMARY STEPS

      1.    enable

      2.    configure terminal

      3.    boot config usbtoken[0-9]:filename


    DETAILED STEPS
       Command or ActionPurpose
      Step 1 enable


      Example:
      Device> enable
       

      Enables privileged EXEC mode.

      • Enter your password if prompted.
       
      Step 2 configure terminal


      Example:
      Device# configure terminal
       

      Enters global configuration mode.

       
      Step 3 boot config usbtoken[0-9]:filename


      Example:
      Device(config)# boot config usbtoken0:file
      
       

      Specifies that the startup configuration file is stored in a secure USB token.

       

      Logging Into and Setting Up the USB Token

      How RSA Keys are Used with a USB Token
      • RSA keys are loaded after the USB token is successfully logged into the router.
      • By default, newly generated RSA keys are stored on the most recently inserted USB token. Regenerated keys should be stored in the same location where the original RSA key was generated.
      Configuring the Device for Manual Login
      Unlike automatic login, manual login requires that the user know the actual USB token PIN.

      Note


      Either the manual or automatic login is required.


      Manual login can be used when storing a PIN on the device is not desirable. Manual login may also be suitable for some initial deployment or hardware replacement scenarios for which the device is obtained from the local supplier or drop-shipped to the remote site. Manual login can be executed with or without privileges, and it creates files and RSA keys on the USB token available to the Cisco IOS software. If a secondary configuration file is configured, it is executed only with the privileges of the user who is performing the login. Thus, if you want to use manual login and set up the secondary configuration on the USB token to perform anything useful, you need to enable privileges.

      Manual login can also be used in recovery scenarios for which the device configuration has been lost. If the scenario contains a remote site that normally connects to the core network with a VPN, the loss of the configuration and RSA keys requires out-of-band services that the USB token can provide. The USB token can contain a boot configuration, a secondary configuration, or both, and RSA keys to authenticate the connection.

      SUMMARY STEPS

        1.    enable

        2.    crypto pki token token-name [admin] login [pin]

        3.    show usbtoken 0-9:filename


      DETAILED STEPS
         Command or ActionPurpose
        Step 1 enable


        Example:
        Device> enable
         

        Enables privileged EXEC mode.

        • Enter your password if prompted.
         
        Step 2crypto pki token token-name [admin] login [pin]


        Example:
        Device# crypto pki token usbtoken0 admin login 5678
         

        Manually logs into the USB token.

        If the admin keyword is not specified initially you can re-enter the crypto pki token command again with this keyword option.

         
        Step 3 show usbtoken 0-9:filename


        Example:
        Device# show usbtoken0:usbfile
         

        (Optional) Verifies whether the USB token has been logged on to the device.

         
        What to Do Next

        After you have logged into the USB token, it is available for use.

        • To further configure the USB token, see the “Configuring the USB Token” section.
        • To perform USB token administrative tasks, such as changing the user PIN, copying files from the router to the USB token set key storage location, and changing USB tokens, see the “Setting Administrative Functions on the USB Token” section.

        Configuring the USB Token

        After you have set up automatic login, you may perform this task to further configure the USB token.

        PINs and Passphrases

        For additional PIN security with automatic login, you may encrypt your PIN stored in NVRAM and set up a passphrase for your USB token. Establishing a passphrase allows you to keep your PIN secure; another user needs only to know the passphrase, not the PIN.

        When the USB token is inserted into the device, the passphrase is needed to decrypt the PIN. Once the PIN is decrypted, the device can then use the PIN to log in to the USB token.


        Note


        The user needs a privilege level of 1 to log in.


        Unlocking and Locking the USB Token

        The USB token itself can be locked (encrypted) or unlocked (decrypted).

        Unlocking the USB token allows it to be used. Once unlocked, Cisco IOS software treats the token as if it were automatically logged in. Any keys on the USB token are loaded, and if a secondary configuration file is on the token, it is executed with full user privileges (privilege level 15) independent of the privilege level of the logged-in user.

        Locking the token, unlike logging out of the token, deletes any RSA keys loaded from the token and runs the secondary unconfiguration file, if configured.

        Secondary Configuration and Unconfiguration Files

        Configuration files that exist on a USB token are called secondary configuration files. If you create and configure a secondary configuration file, it is executed after the token is logged in. The existence of a secondary configuration file is determined by the presence of a secondary configuration file option in the Cisco IOS configuration stored in NVRAM. When the token is removed or logged out and the removal timer expires, a separate secondary unconfiguration file is processed to remove all secondary configuration elements from the running configuration. Secondary configuration and secondary unconfiguration files are executed at privilege level 15 and are not dependent on the level of the user logged in.

        SUMMARY STEPS

          1.    enable

          2.    crypto pki token token-name unlock [pin]

          3.    configure terminal

          4.    crypto pki token token-name encrypted-user-pin [write]

          5.    crypto pki token token-name secondary unconfig file

          6.    exit

          7.    crypto pki token token-name lock [pin]


        DETAILED STEPS
           Command or ActionPurpose
          Step 1 enable


          Example:
          Device> enable
           

          Enables privileged EXEC mode.

          • Enter your password if prompted.
           
          Step 2 crypto pki token token-name unlock [pin]


          Example:
          Device# crypto pki token mytoken unlock mypin
           

          (Optional) Allows the token to be used if the USB token has been locked.

          Once unlocked, Cisco IOS software treats the token as if it has been automatically logged in. Any keys on the token are loaded and if a secondary configuration file exists, it is executed.

           
          Step 3 configure terminal


          Example:
          Device# configure terminal
           

          Enters global configuration mode.

           
          Step 4 crypto pki token token-name encrypted-user-pin [write]


          Example:
          Device(config)# crypto pki token mytoken encrypted-user-pin write
           

          (Optional) Encrypts the stored PIN in NVRAM.

           
          Step 5 crypto pki token token-name secondary unconfig file


          Example:
          Device(config)# crypto pki token mytoken secondary unconfig configs/myunconfigfile.cfg
           

          (Optional) Specifies the secondary configuration file and its location.

           
          Step 6 exit


          Example:
          Device(config)# exit
          
           

          Enters privileged EXEC mode.

           
          Step 7 crypto pki token token-name lock [pin]


          Example:
          Device# crypto pki token mytoken lock mypin
           

          (Optional) Deletes any RSA keys loaded from the token and runs the secondary unconfiguration file, if it exists.

           
          Examples

          The following example shows both the configuration and encryption of a user PIN and then the device reloading and the user PIN being unlocked:

          ! Configuring the user PIN
          
          Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
          
          Device(config)# crypto pki token usbtoken0: userpin
          
          Enter password: mypassword
          
          ! Encrypt the user PIN 
          		
          Device(config)# crypto pki token usbtoken0: encrypted-user-pin
          
          Enter passphrase: mypassphrase
          		
          Device(config)# exit
          
          Device# 
          		
          Sep 20 21:51:38.076: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console
          
          Device# show running config
          
          crypto pki token usbtoken0 user-pin *encrypted*
          
          ! Reloading the router. 
          		
          Device> enable
          		
          Password: 
          		
          ! Decrypting the user pin. 
          		
          Device# crypto pki token usbtoken0: unlock
          
          Token eToken is usbtoken0 
          		
          Enter passphrase: mypassphrase
          		
          Token login to usbtoken0(eToken) successful 
          		
          Device# 
          		
          Sep 20 22:31:13.128: %CRYPTO-6-TOKENLOGIN: Cryptographic Token eToken
          
          Login Successful

          The following example shows a how a secondary unconfiguration file might be used to remove secondary configuration elements from the running configuration. For example, a secondary configuration file might be used to set up a PKI trustpoint. A corresponding unconfiguration file, named mysecondaryunconfigfile.cfg, might contain this command line:

          no crypto pki trustpoint token-tp

          If the token were removed and the following commands executed, the trustpoint and associated certificates would be removed from the device’s running configuration:

           Device# configure terminal
          Device(config)# no crypto pki token mytoken secondary unconfig mysecondaryunconfigfile.cfg
          What to Do Next

          After you have logged into and configured the USB token, it is available for use. If you want to perform USB token administrative tasks, such as changing the user PIN, copying files from the router to the USB token set key storage location, and changing USB tokens, see the “Setting Administrative Functions on the USB Token” section.

          Setting Administrative Functions on the USB Token

          Perform this task to change default settings, such as the user PIN, the maximum number of failed attempts on the USB token, or the credential storage location.

          SUMMARY STEPS

            1.    enable

            2.    crypto pki token token-name admin ] change-pin [pin]

            3.    crypto pki token token-name device-name: label token-label

            4.    configure terminal

            5.    crypto key storage device-name:

            6.    crypto key generate rsa [general-keys | usage-keys | signature | encryption] [label key-label] [exportable] [modulus modulus-size] [storage device-name:] [redundancy] [on device-name]:

            7.    crypto key move rsa keylabel [non-exportable | [on | storage]] location

            8.    crypto pki token {token-name | default} removal timeout [seconds]

            9.    crypto pki token {token-name | default} max-retries [number]

            10.    exit

            11.    copy usbflash[0-9]:filename destination-url

            12.    show usbtoken[0-9]:filename

            13.    crypto pki token token-name logout


          DETAILED STEPS
             Command or ActionPurpose
            Step 1 enable


            Example:
            Device> enable
             

            Enables privileged EXEC mode.

            • Enter your password if prompted.
             
            Step 2 crypto pki token token-name admin ] change-pin [pin]


            Example:
            Device# crypto pki token usbtoken0 admin change-pin
             

            (Optional) Changes the user PIN number on the USB token.

            • If the PIN is not changed, the default PIN 1234567890 is used.
            Note   

            After the PIN has been changed, you must reset the login failure count to zero (via the crypto pki token max-retries command). The maximum number of allowable login failures is set (by default) to 15.

             
            Step 3 crypto pki token token-name device-name: label token-label


            Example:
            Device# crypto pki token mytoken usb0: label newlabel
             

            (Optional) Sets or changes the name of the USB token.

            • The value of the token-label argument may be up to 31 alphanumeric characters in length including dashes and underscores.
            Tip   

            This command is useful when configuring multiple USB tokens for automatic login, secondary configuration files, or other token specific settings.

             
            Step 4 configure terminal


            Example:
            Device# configure terminal
             

            Enters global configuration mode.

             
            Step 5 crypto key storage device-name:


            Example:
            Device(config)# crypto key storage usbtoken0:
             

            (Optional) Sets the default RSA key storage location for newly created keys.

            Note   

            Regardless of configuration settings, existing keys are stored on the device from where they were originally loaded.

             
            Step 6 crypto key generate rsa [general-keys | usage-keys | signature | encryption] [label key-label] [exportable] [modulus modulus-size] [storage device-name:] [redundancy] [on device-name]:


            Example:
            Device(config)# crypto key generate rsa label tokenkey1 storage usbtoken0:
            
             

            (Optional) Generates the RSA key pair for the certificate server.

            • The storage keyword specifies the key storage location.
            • When specifying a label name by specifying the key-label argument, you must use the same name for the label that you plan to use for the certificate server (through the crypto pki server cs-label command). If a key-label argument is not specified, the default value, which is the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of the device, is used.

            If the exportable RSA key pair is manually generated after the CA certificate has been generated, and before issuing the no shutdown command, then use the crypto ca export pkcs12 command to export a PKCS12 file that contains the certificate server certificate and the private key.

            • By default, the modulus size of a CA key is 1024 bits. The recommended modulus for a CA key is 2048 bits. The range for a modulus size of a CA key is from 350 to 4096 bits.
            • The on keyword specifies that the RSA key pair is created on the specified device, including a Universal Serial Bus (USB) token, local disk, or NVRAM. The name of the device is followed by a colon (:).
            Note   

            Keys created on a USB token must be 2048 bits or less.

             
            Step 7 crypto key move rsa keylabel [non-exportable | [on | storage]] location


            Example:
            Device(config)# crypto key move rsa keypairname non-exportable on token
             

            (Optional) Moves existing Cisco IOS credentials from the current storage location to the specified storage location.

            By default, the RSA key pair remains stored on the current device.

            Generating the key on the device and moving it to the token takes less than a minute. Generating a key on the token, using the on keyword could take five to ten minutes, and is dependent on hardware key generation routines available on the USB token.

            When an existing RSA key pair is generated in Cisco IOS, stored on a USB token, and used for an enrollment, it may be necessary to move those existing RSA key pairs to an alternate location for permanent storage.

            This command is useful when using SDP with USB tokens to deploy credentials.

             
            Step 8 crypto pki token {token-name | default} removal timeout [seconds]


            Example:
            Device(config)# crypto pki token usbtoken0 removal timeout 60
             

            (Optional) Sets the time interval, in seconds, that the device waits before removing the RSA keys that are stored in the USB token after the USB token has been removed from the device.

            Note   

            If this command is not issued, all RSA keys and IPsec tunnels associated with the USB token are torn down immediately after the USB token is removed from the device.

             
            Step 9 crypto pki token {token-name | default} max-retries [number]


            Example:
            Device(config)# crypto pki token usbtoken0 max-retries 20
             

            (Optional) Sets the maximum number of consecutive failed login attempts allowed before access to the USB token is denied.

            • By default, the value is set at 15.
             
            Step 10 exit


            Example:
            Device(config)# exit
             

            Exits global configuration mode.

             
            Step 11 copy usbflash[0-9]:filename destination-url


            Example:
            Device# copy usbflash0:file1 nvram:
            
             

            Copies files from USB token to the device.

            • destination-url—See the copy command page documentation for a list of supported options.
             
            Step 12 show usbtoken[0-9]:filename


            Example:
            Device# show usbtoken:usbfile
             

            (Optional) Displays information about the USB token. You can use this command to verify whether the USB token has been logged in to the device.

             
            Step 13crypto pki token token-name logout


            Example:
            Device# crypto pki token usbtoken0 logout
             

            Logs the device out of the USB token.

            Note   

            If you want to save any data to the USB token, you must log back into the token.

             

            Troubleshooting USB Tokens

            This section contains descriptions of the following Cisco IOS commands that can be used to help troubleshoot possible problems that may arise while using a USB token:

            Troubleshooting the USB Port Connection

            Use the show file systems command to determine whether the router recognizes that there is a USB module plugged into a USB port. The USB module should appear on the list of file systems. If the module does not appear on the list, it can indicate any of the following problems:

            • A connection problem with the USB module.
            • The Cisco IOS image running on the router does not support a USB module.
            • A hardware problem with the USB module itself.

            Sample output from the show file systems command showing a USB token appears below. The USB module listing appears in the last line of the examples.

            Device# show file systems
            File Systems:
                 Size(b)     Free(b)      Type  Flags  Prefixes
                       -           -    opaque     rw   archive:
                       -           -    opaque     rw   system:
                       -           -    opaque     rw   null:
                       -           -   network     rw   tftp:
            *  129880064    69414912      disk     rw   flash:#
                  491512      486395     nvram     rw   nvram:
                       -           -    opaque     wo   syslog:
                       -           -    opaque     rw   xmodem:
                       -           -    opaque     rw   ymodem:
                       -           -   network     rw   rcp:
                       -           -   network     rw   pram:
                       -           -   network     rw   ftp:
                       -           -   network     rw   http:
                       -           -   network     rw   scp:
                       -           -   network     rw   https:
                       -           -    opaque     ro   cns:
                63158272    33037312  usbflash     rw   usbflash0:
                   32768         858  usbtoken     rw   usbtoken1:

            Determining if a USB Token is Supported by Cisco

            Use the show usb device command to determine if a USB token is supported by Cisco. The following output from this command indicates whether or not the module is supported is bold in the sample output below:

            Router# show usb device
            Host Controller:1
            Address:0x11
            Device Configured:YES
            Device Supported:YES
            Description:eToken Pro 4254
            Manufacturer:AKS
            Version:1.0
            Serial Number:
            Device Handle:0x1010000
            USB Version Compliance:1.0
            Class Code:0xFF
            Subclass Code:0x0
            Protocol:0x0
            Vendor ID:0x529
            Product ID:0x514
            Max. Packet Size of Endpoint Zero:8
            Number of Configurations:1
            Speed:Low
            Selected Configuration:1
            Selected Interface:0
            Configuration:
                Number:1
                Number of Interfaces:1
                Description:
                Attributes:None
                Max Power:60 mA
                Interface:
                    Number:0
                    Description:
                    Class Code:255
                    Subclass:0
                    Protocol:0
                    Number of Endpoints:0

            Determining USB Token Device Problems

            Use the show usb controllers command to determine if there is a hardware problem with a USB flash module. If the show usb controllers command displays an error, the error indicates a hardware problem in the USB module.

            You can also use the show usb controllers command to verify that copy operations onto a USB flash module are occurring successfully. Issuing the show usb controllers command after performing a file copy should display successful data transfers.

            The following sample output for the show usb controllers command displays a working USB flash module:

            Router# show usb controllers 
            Name:1362HCD
            Controller ID:1
            Controller Specific Information:
                Revision:0x11
                Control:0x80
                Command Status:0x0
                Hardware Interrupt Status:0x24
                Hardware Interrupt Enable:0x80000040
                Hardware Interrupt Disable:0x80000040
                Frame Interval:0x27782EDF
                Frame Remaining:0x13C1
                Frame Number:0xDA4C
                LSThreshold:0x628
                RhDescriptorA:0x19000202
                RhDescriptorB:0x0
                RhStatus:0x0
                RhPort1Status:0x100103
                RhPort2Status:0x100303
                Hardware Configuration:0x3029
                DMA Configuration:0x0
                Transfer Counter:0x1
                Interrupt:0x9
                Interrupt Enable:0x196
                Chip ID:0x3630
                Buffer Status:0x0
                Direct Address Length:0x80A00
                ATL Buffer Size:0x600
                ATL Buffer Port:0x0
                ATL Block Size:0x100
                ATL PTD Skip Map:0xFFFFFFFF
                ATL PTD Last:0x20
                ATL Current Active PTD:0x0
                ATL Threshold Count:0x1
                ATL Threshold Timeout:0xFF
            Int Level:1
            Transfer Completion Codes:
                     Success              :920              CRC             :0       
                     Bit Stuff            :0                Stall           :0       
                     No Response          :0                Overrun         :0       
                     Underrun             :0                Other           :0       
                     Buffer Overrun       :0                Buffer Underrun :0       
            Transfer Errors:
                     Canceled Transfers   :2                Control Timeout :0       
            Transfer Failures:
                     Interrupt Transfer   :0                Bulk Transfer   :0       
                     Isochronous Transfer :0                Control Transfer:0       
            Transfer Successes:
                     Interrupt Transfer   :0                Bulk Transfer   :26      
                     Isochronous Transfer :0                Control Transfer:894     
            USBD Failures:
                     Enumeration Failures :0                No Class Driver Found:0       
                     Power Budget Exceeded:0       
            USB MSCD SCSI Class Driver Counters:
                     Good Status Failures :3                Command Fail    :0       
                     Good Status Timed out:0                Device not Found:0       
                     Device Never Opened  :0                Drive Init Fail :0       
                     Illegal App Handle   :0                Bad API Command :0       
                     Invalid Unit Number  :0                Invalid Argument:0       
                     Application Overflow :0                Device in use   :0       
                     Control Pipe Stall   :0                Malloc Error    :0       
                     Device Stalled       :0                Bad Command Code:0       
                     Device Detached      :0                Unknown Error   :0       
                     Invalid Logic Unit Num:0       
            USB Aladdin Token Driver Counters:
                     Token Inserted       :1                Token Removed   :0       
                     Send Insert Msg Fail :0                Response Txns   :434     
                     Dev Entry Add Fail   :0                Request Txns    :434     
                     Dev Entry Remove Fail:0                Request Txn Fail:0       
                     Response Txn Fail    :0                Command Txn Fail:0       
                     Txn Invalid Dev Handle:0       
            USB Flash File System Counters:
                     Flash Disconnected   :0                Flash Connected :1       
                     Flash Device Fail    :0                Flash Ok        :1       
                     Flash startstop Fail :0                Flash FS Fail   :0       
            USB Secure Token File System Counters:
                     Token Inserted       :1                Token Detached  :0       
                     Token FS success     :1                Token FS Fail   :0       
                     Token Max Inserted   :0                Create Talker Failures:0       
                     Token Event          :0                Destroy Talker Failures:0       
                     Watched Boolean Create Failures:0 

            Displaying USB Token Infomation

            Use the dir command with the filesystem keyword option usbtoken0-9: to display all files, directories, and their permission strings on the USB token.

            The following sample output displays directory information for the USB token:

            Device# dir usbtoken1:
            Directory of usbtoken1:/
                2  d---          64  Dec 22 2032 05:23:40 +00:00  1000
                5  d---        4096  Dec 22 2032 05:23:40 +00:00  1001
                8  d---           0  Dec 22 2032 05:23:40 +00:00  1002
               10  d---         512  Dec 22 2032 05:23:42 +00:00  1003
               12  d---           0  Dec 22 2032 05:23:42 +00:00  5000
               13  d---           0  Dec 22 2032 05:23:42 +00:00  6000
               14  d---           0  Dec 22 2032 05:23:42 +00:00  7000
               15  ----         940  Jun 27 1992 12:50:42 +00:00  mystartup-config
               16  ----        1423  Jun 27 1992 12:51:14 +00:00  myrunning-config
            32768 bytes total (858 bytes free)
            

            The following sample output displays directory information for all devices to which the device is aware:

            Device# dir all-filesystems
            Directory of archive:/
            No files in directory
            No space information available
            Directory of system:/
                2  drwx           0                    <no date>  its
              115  dr-x           0                    <no date>  lib
              144  dr-x           0                    <no date>  memory
                1  -rw-        1906                    <no date>  running-config
              114  dr-x           0                    <no date>  vfiles
            No space information available
            Directory of flash:/
                1  -rw-    30125020  Dec 22 2032 03:06:04 +00:00  c3825-entservicesk9-mz.123-14.T
            129880064 bytes total (99753984 bytes free)
            Directory of nvram:/
              476  -rw-        1947                    <no date>  startup-config
              477  ----          46                    <no date>  private-config
              478  -rw-        1947                    <no date>  underlying-config
                1  -rw-           0                    <no date>  ifIndex-table
                2  ----           4                    <no date>  rf_cold_starts
                3  ----          14                    <no date>  persistent-data
            491512 bytes total (486395 bytes free)
            Directory of usbflash0:/
                1  -rw-    30125020  Dec 22 2032 05:31:32 +00:00  c3825-entservicesk9-mz.123-14.T
            63158272 bytes total (33033216 bytes free)
            Directory of usbtoken1:/
                2  d---          64  Dec 22 2032 05:23:40 +00:00  1000
                5  d---        4096  Dec 22 2032 05:23:40 +00:00  1001
                8  d---           0  Dec 22 2032 05:23:40 +00:00  1002
               10  d---         512  Dec 22 2032 05:23:42 +00:00  1003
               12  d---           0  Dec 22 2032 05:23:42 +00:00  5000
               13  d---           0  Dec 22 2032 05:23:42 +00:00  6000
               14  d---           0  Dec 22 2032 05:23:42 +00:00  7000
               15  ----         940  Jun 27 1992 12:50:42 +00:00  mystartup-config
               16  ----        1423  Jun 27 1992 12:51:14 +00:00  myrunning-config
            32768 bytes total (858 bytes free)

            Configuration Examples for PKI Storage

            Example: Storing Certificates to a Specific Local Storage Location

            The following configuration example shows how to store certificates to the certs subdirectory. The certs subdirectory does not exist and is automatically created.

            Router# dir nvram:
             114  -rw-        4687                    <no date>  startup-config
             115  ----        5545                    <no date>  private-config
             116  -rw-        4687                    <no date>  underlying-config
               1  ----          34                    <no date>  persistent-data
               3  -rw-         707                    <no date>  ioscaroot#7401CA.cer
               9  -rw-         863                    <no date>  msca-root#826E.cer
              10  -rw-         759                    <no date>  msca-root#1BA8CA.cer
              11  -rw-         863                    <no date>  msca-root#75B8.cer
              24  -rw-        1149                    <no date>  storagename#6500CA.cer
              26  -rw-         863                    <no date>  msca-root#83EE.cer
            129016 bytes total (92108 bytes free)
            Router# configure terminal
            Enter configuration commands, one per line.  End with CNTL/Z.
            Router(config)# crypto pki certificate storage disk0:/certs
            Requested directory does not exist -- created
            Certificates will be stored in disk0:/certs/
            Router(config)# end
            Router# write
            *May 27 02:09:00:%SYS-5-CONFIG_I:Configured from console by consolemem
            Building configuration...
            [OK]
            Router# directory disk0:/certs
            Directory of disk0:/certs/
              14  -rw-         707  May 27 2005 02:09:02 +00:00  ioscaroot#7401CA.cer
              15  -rw-         863  May 27 2005 02:09:02 +00:00  msca-root#826E.cer
              16  -rw-         759  May 27 2005 02:09:02 +00:00  msca-root#1BA8CA.cer
              17  -rw-         863  May 27 2005 02:09:02 +00:00  msca-root#75B8.cer
              18  -rw-        1149  May 27 2005 02:09:02 +00:00  storagename#6500CA.cer
              19  -rw-         863  May 27 2005 02:09:02 +00:00  msca-root#83EE.cer
            47894528 bytes total (20934656 bytes free)
            ! The certificate files are now on disk0/certs:

            Example: Logging Into a USB Token and Saving RSA Keys to the USB Token

            The following configuration example shows to how log in to the USB token, generate RSA keys, and store the RSA keys on the USB token:

            ! Configure the router to automatically log into the eToken
            configure terminal
             crypto pki token default user-pin 0 1234567890
            ! Generate RSA keys and enroll certificates with the CA.
            crypto pki trustpoint IOSCA
             enrollment url http://10.23.2.2
             exit
            crypto ca authenticate IOSCA
            Certificate has the following attributes:
                   Fingerprint MD5:23272BD4 37E3D9A4 236F7E1A F534444E
                  Fingerprint SHA1:D1B4D9F8 D603249A 793B3CAF 8342E1FE 3934EB7A
            % Do you accept this certificate? [yes/no]:yes
            Trustpoint CA certificate accepted.
            crypto pki enroll
            crypto pki enroll IOSCA
            %
            % Start certificate enrollment ..
            % Create a challenge password. You will need to verbally provide this
               password to the CA Administrator in order to revoke your certificate.
               For security reasons your password will not be saved in the configuration.
               Please make a note of it.
            Password:
            Re-enter password:
            % The subject name in the certificate will include:c2851-27.cisco.com
            % Include the router serial number in the subject name? [yes/no]:no
            % Include an IP address in the subject name? [no]:no
            Request certificate from CA? [yes/no]:yes
            % Certificate request sent to Certificate Authority
            % The 'show crypto ca certificate IOSCA verbose' command will show the fingerprint.
            *Jan 13 06:47:19.413:CRYPTO_PKI: Certificate Request Fingerprint MD5:E6DDAB1B
             0E30EFE6 54529D8A DA787DBA
            *Jan 13 06:47:19.413:CRYPTO_PKI: Certificate Request Fingerprint SHA1:3B0F33B
            7 57C02A10 3935042B C4B6CD3D 61039251
            *Jan 13 06:47:21.021:%PKI-6-CERTRET:Certificate received from Certificate Authority
            ! Issue the write memory command, which will automatically save the RSA keys to the eToken ! instead of private NVRAM.
            Router# write memory
            Building configuration...
            [OK]
            *Jan 13 06:47:29.481:%CRYPTO-6-TOKENSTOREKEY:Key c2851-27.cisco.com stored on
            Cryptographic Token eToken Successfully
            

            The following sample output from the show crypto key mypubkey rsa command displays stored credentials after they are successfully loaded from the USB token. Credentials that are stored on the USB token are in the protected area. When storing the credentials on the USB token, the files are stored in a directory called /keystore. However, the key files are hidden from the command-line interface (CLI).

            Router# 
            show crypto key mypubkey rsa
            % Key pair was generated at:06:37:26 UTC Jan 13 2005
            Key name:c2851-27.cisco.com
             Usage:General Purpose Key
             Key is not exportable.
             Key Data:
              305C300D 06092A86 4886F70D 01010105 00034B00 30480241 00E3C644 43AA7DDD
              732E0F4E 3CA0CDAB 387ABF05 EB8F22F2 2431F1AE 5D51FEE3 FCDEA934 7FBD3603
              7C977854 B8E999BF 7FC93021 7F46ABF8 A4BA2ED6 172D3D09 B5020301 0001
            % Key pair was generated at:06:37:27 UTC Jan 13 2005
            Key name:c2851-27.cisco.com.server
             Usage:Encryption Key
             Key is not exportable.
             Key Data:
              307C300D 06092A86 4886F70D 01010105 00036B00 30680261 00DD96AE 4BF912EB
              2C261922 4784EF98 2E70E837 774B3778 7F7AEB2D 87F5669B BF5DDFBC F0D521A5
              56AB8FDC 9911968E DE347FB0 A514A856 B30EAFF4 D1F453E1 003CFE65 0CCC6DC7
              21FBE3AC 2F8DEA16 126754BC 1433DEF9 53266D33 E7338C95 BB020301 0001
            

            Additional References

            Related Documents

            Related Topic

            Document Title

            Connecting the USB modules to the router

            Cisco Access Router USB Flash Module and USB eToken Hardware Installation Guide

            eToken and USB flash data sheet

            USB eToken and USB Flash Features Support

            RSA keys

            Deploying RSA Keys Within a PKI

            File management (loading, copying, and rebooting files)

            Cisco Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide on Cisco.com

            USB Token RSA Operations: Certificate server configuration

            “Configuring and Managing a Cisco IOS Certificate Server for PKI Deployment” feature document.

            See the “Generating a Certificate Server RSA Key Pair” section, the “Configuring a Certificate Server Trustpoint” section, and related examples.

            USB Token RSA Operations: Using USB tokens for RSA operations upon initial autoenrollment

            See the “Configuring Certificate Enrollment or Autoenrollment” section of the “Configuring Certificate Enrollment for a PKI ” feature document.

            SDP setup, configuration and use with USB tokens

            See the feature information section for the feature names on using SDP and USB tokens to deploy PKI credentials in the “Setting Up Secure Device Provisioning (SDP) for Enrollment in a PKI” feature document.

            Technical Assistance

            Description

            Link

            The Cisco Support and Documentation website provides online resources to download documentation, software, and tools. Use these resources to install and configure the software and to troubleshoot and resolve technical issues with Cisco products and technologies. Access to most tools on the Cisco Support and Documentation website requires a Cisco.com user ID and password.

            http:/​/​www.cisco.com/​cisco/​web/​support/​index.html

            Feature Information for Storing PKI Credentials

            The following table provides release information about the feature or features described in this module. This table lists only the software release that introduced support for a given feature in a given software release train. Unless noted otherwise, subsequent releases of that software release train also support that feature.

            Use Cisco Feature Navigator to find information about platform support and Cisco software image support. To access Cisco Feature Navigator, go to www.cisco.com/​go/​cfn. An account on Cisco.com is not required.

            Table 2 Feature Information for Storing PKI Credentials

            Feature Name

            Releases

            Feature Information

            USB Token and Secure Device Provisioning (SDP) Integration

            12.4(15)T

            This feature provides the ability to provision remote devices with USB tokens using SDP.

            The following sections in this document provide information about this feature:

            • Benefits of USB Tokens
            • Setting Administrative Functions on the USB Token

            The following commands were introduced by this feature: binary file, crypto key move rsa, template file.

            Note   

            This document introduces the benefits of using USB tokens and SDP for a deployment solution.

            Cisco IOS USB Token PKI Enhancements -- Phase 2

            12.4(11)T

            This feature enhances USB token functionality by using the USB token as a cryptographic device. USB tokens may be used for RSA operations such as key generation, signing, and authentication.

            The following sections in this document provide information about this feature:

            • Benefits of USB Tokens
            • Logging Into and Setting Up the USB Token
            • Setting Administrative Functions on the USB Token
            Note   

            This document introduces the benefits of using USB tokens and the keys on the token for RSA operations.

            USB Storage PKI Enhancements

            12.4(4)T

            12.4(11)T

            This feature enhances the USB token PIN security for automatic login and increases the flexibility of USB token configuration and the RSA key storage.

            Cisco IOS Release 12.4(11)T introduced support for USB Storage on NPE-G2.

            The following sections provide information about this feature:

            • Configuring the USB Token
            • Setting Administrative Functions on the USB Token

            The following commands were introduced or modified by this feature: crypto key storage, crypto pki generate rsa, crypto pki token encrypted-user-pin, crypto pki token label, crypto pki token lock, crypto pki token secondary unconfig, crypto pki token unlock

            Certificate -- Storage Location Specification

            12.2(33)SXH

            12.2(33)SRA

            12.4(2)T

            This feature allows you to specify the storage location of local certificates for platforms that support storing certificates as separate files. All Cisco platforms support NVRAM, which is the default location, and flash local storage. Depending on your platform, you may have other supported local storage options including bootflash, slot, disk, USB flash, or USB token.

            The following sections provide information about this feature:

            • Storing Certificates to a Local Storage Location
            • Specifying a Local Storage Location for Certificates
            • Storing Certificates to a Specific Local Storage Location Example

            The following commands were introduced by this feature: crypto pki certificate storage, show crypto pki certificates storage

            USB Storage

            12.3(14)T

            12.4(11)T

            This feature enables certain models of Cisco routers to support USB tokens. USB tokens provide secure configuration distribution and allow users to VPN credentials for deployment.

            Cisco IOS Release 12.4(11)T introduced support for USB Storage on NPE-G2.

            The following sections provide information about this feature:

            • PKI Credentials and USB Tokens
            • Setting Up and Using USB Tokens on Cisco Routers
            • Troubleshooting USB Tokens
            • Logging Into a USB Token and Saving RSA Keys to the USB Token Example

            The following commands were introduced or modified by this feature: copy, crypto pki token change-pin, crypto pki token login, crypto pki token logout, crypto pki token max-retries, crypto pki token removal timeout, crypto pki token secondary config, crypto pki token user-pin, debug usb driver, dir, show usb controllers, show usb device, show usb driver, show usbtoken

            RSA 4096-bit Key Generation in Software Crypto Engine Support

            15.1(1)T

            The range value for the modulus keyword value for the crypto key generate rsa command is extended from 360 to 2048 bits to 360 to 4096 bits.