Internet Key Exchange for IPsec VPNs Configuration Guide, Cisco IOS XE Release 3S (Cisco ASR 1000)
Encrypted Preshared Key
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Encrypted Preshared Key

Encrypted Preshared Key

Last Updated: September 14, 2012

The Encrypted Preshared Key feature allows you to securely store plain text passwords in type 6 (encrypted) format in NVRAM.

Finding Feature Information

Your software release may not support all the features documented in this module. For the latest caveats and feature information, see Bug Search Tool and the release notes for your platform and software release. To find information about the features documented in this module, and to see a list of the releases in which each feature is supported, see the feature information table at the end of this module.

Use Cisco Feature Navigator to find information about platform support and Cisco software image support. To access Cisco Feature Navigator, go to www.cisco.com/go/cfn. An account on Cisco.com is not required.

Restrictions for Encrypted Preshared Key

  • Old ROM monitors (ROMMONs) and boot images cannot recognize the new type 6 passwords. Therefore, errors are expected if you boot from an old ROMMON.

Information About Encrypted Preshared Key

Using the Encrypted Preshared Key Feature to Securely Store Passwords

Using the Encrypted Preshared Key feature, you can securely store plain text passwords in type 6 format in NVRAM using a command-line interface (CLI). Type 6 passwords are encrypted. Although the encrypted passwords can be seen or retrieved, it is difficult to decrypt them to find out the actual password. Use the key config-key password-encryptioncommand with the password encryption aescommand to configure and enable the password (symmetric cipher AES is used to encrypt the keys). The password (key) configured using the config-key password-encryption command is the master encryption key that is used to encrypt all other keys in the router.

If you configure the password encryption aescommand without configuring the key config-key password-encryptioncommand, the following message is printed at startup or during any nonvolatile generation (NVGEN) process, such as when the show running-config or copy running-config startup-config commands have been configured:

"Can not encrypt password. Please configure a configuration-key with 'key config-key'"

Changing a Password

If the password (master key) is changed, or reencrypted, using the key config-key password-encryptioncommand), the list registry passes the old key and the new key to the application modules that are using type 6 encryption.

Deleting a Password

If the master key that was configured using the key config-key password-encryptioncommand is deleted from the system, a warning is printed (and a confirm prompt is issued) that states that all type 6 passwords will become useless. As a security measure, after the passwords have been encrypted, they will never be decrypted in the Cisco IOS XE software. However, passwords can be reencrypted as explained in the previous paragraph.


Caution


If the password configured using the key config-key password-encryptioncommand is lost, it cannot be recovered. The password should be stored in a safe location.


Unconfiguring Password Encryption

If you later unconfigure password encryption using the no password encryption aes command, all existing type 6 passwords are left unchanged, and as long as the password (master key) that was configured using the key config-key password-encryptioncommand exists, the type 6 passwords will be decrypted as and when required by the application.

Storing Passwords

Because no one can "read" the password (configured using the key config-key password-encryptioncommand), there is no way that the password can be retrieved from the router. Existing management stations cannot "know" what it is unless the stations are enhanced to include this key somewhere, in which case the password needs to be stored securely within the management system. If configurations are stored using TFTP, the configurations are not standalone, meaning that they cannot be loaded onto a router. Before or after the configurations are loaded onto a router, the password must be manually added (using the key config-key password-encryptioncommand). The password can be manually added to the stored configuration but is not recommended because adding the password manually allows anyone to decrypt all passwords in that configuration.

Configuring New or Unknown Passwords

If you enter or cut and paste cipher text that does not match the master key, or if there is no master key, the cipher text is accepted or saved, but an alert message is printed. The alert message is as follows:

"ciphertext>[for username bar>] is incompatible with the configured master key."

If a new master key is configured, all the plain keys are encrypted and made type 6 keys. The existing type 6 keys are not encrypted. The existing type 6 keys are left as is.

If the old master key is lost or unknown, you have the option of deleting the master key using the no key config-key password-encryptioncommand. Deleting the master key using the no key config-key password-encryptioncommand causes the existing encrypted passwords to remain encrypted in the router configuration. The passwords will not be decrypted.

Enabling the Encrypted Preshared Key

The password encryption aes command is used to enable the encrypted password.

How to Configure an Encrypted Preshared Key

Configuring an Encrypted Preshared Key

To configure an encrypted preshared key, perform the following steps.

SUMMARY STEPS

1.    enable

2.    configure terminal

3.    key config-key password-encryption [text]

4.    password encryption aes


DETAILED STEPS
  Command or Action Purpose
Step 1
enable


Example:

Router> enable

 

Enables privileged EXEC mode.

  • Enter your password if prompted.
 
Step 2
configure terminal


Example:

Router# configure terminal

 

Enters global configuration mode.

 
Step 3
key config-key password-encryption [text]


Example:

Router (config)# key config-key password-encryption

 

Stores a type 6 encryption key in private NVRAM.

  • If you want to key in interactively (using the enter key) and an encrypted key already exists, you will be prompted for the following: Old key, New key, and Confirm key.
  • If you want to key in interactively but an encryption key is not present, you will be prompted for the following: New key and Confirm key.
  • If you want to remove the password that is already encrypted, you will see the following prompt: "WARNING: All type 6 encrypted keys will become unusable. Continue with master key deletion? [yes/no]:".
 
Step 4
password encryption aes


Example:

Router (config)# password-encryption aes

 

Enables the encrypted preshared key.

 

Troubleshooting Tips

If you see the warning message "ciphertext >[for username bar>] is incompatible with the configured master key," you have entered or cut and pasted cipher text that does not match the master key or there is no master key. (The cipher text will be accepted or saved.) The warning message will allow you to locate the broken configuration line or lines.

Monitoring Encrypted Preshared Keys

To get logging output for encrypted preshared keys, perform the following steps.

  1. enable
  2. password logging
SUMMARY STEPS

1.    enable

2.    password logging


DETAILED STEPS
  Command or Action Purpose
Step 1
enable


Example:

Router> enable

 

Enables privileged EXEC mode.

  • Enter your password if prompted.
 
Step 2
password logging


Example:

Router# password logging

 

Provides a log of debugging output for a type 6 password operation.

 

Examples

The following password logging debug output shows that a new master key has been configured and that the keys have been encrypted with the new master key:

Router (config)# key config-key password-encrypt 
New key: 
Confirm key: 
Router (config)#
01:40:57: TYPE6_PASS: New Master key configured, encrypting the keys with 
the new master keypas
Router (config)# key config-key password-encrypt 
Old key: 
New key: 
Confirm key: 
Router (config)#
01:42:11: TYPE6_PASS: Master key change heralded, re-encrypting the keys 
with the new master key
01:42:11: TYPE6_PASS: Mac verification successful
01:42:11: TYPE6_PASS: Mac verification successful
01:42:11: TYPE6_PASS: Mac verification successful

Examples

The following password logging debug output shows that a new master key has been configured and that the keys have been encrypted with the new master key:

Router (config)# key config-key password-encrypt
 
New key: 
Confirm key: 
Router (config)#
01:40:57: TYPE6_PASS: New Master key configured, encrypting the keys with 
the new master keypas
Router (config)# key config-key password-encrypt
 
Old key: 
New key: 
Confirm key: 
Router (config)#
01:42:11: TYPE6_PASS: Master key change heralded, re-encrypting the keys 
with the new master key
01:42:11: TYPE6_PASS: Mac verification successful
01:42:11: TYPE6_PASS: Mac verification successful
01:42:11: TYPE6_PASS: Mac verification successful

What To Do Next

You can perform any of the following procedures. Each procedure is independent of the others.

Configuring an ISAKMP Preshared Key

To configure an ISAKMP preshared key, perform the following procedure.

SUMMARY STEPS

1.    enable

2.    configure terminal

3.    crypto isakmp key keystring address peer-address

4.    crypto isakmp key keystring hostname hostname


DETAILED STEPS
  Command or Action Purpose
Step 1
enable


Example:

Router# enable

 

Enables privileged EXEC mode.

  • Enter your password if prompted.
 
Step 2
configure terminal


Example:

Router# configure terminal

 

Enters global configuration mode.

 
Step 3
crypto isakmp key keystring address peer-address


Example:

Router (config)# crypto isakmp key cisco address 10.2.3.4

 

Configures a preshared authentication key.

  • The peer-address argument specifies the IP address of the remote peer.
 
Step 4
crypto isakmp key keystring hostname hostname


Example:

Router (config)# crypto isakmp key keystring1 hostname keystring1.com

 

Configures a preshared authentication key.

  • The hostnameargument specifies the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of the peer.
 

Example

The following sample output shows that an encrypted preshared key has been configured:

crypto isakmp key 6 _Hg[^^ECgLGGPF^RXTQfDDWQ][YAAB address 10.2.3.4
crypto isakmp key 6 `eR\eTRaKCUZPYYQfDgXRWi_AAB hostname example.com 

Configuring an ISAKMP Preshared Key in ISAKMP Keyrings

To configure an ISAKMP preshared key in ISAKMP keyrings, which are used in IPSec Virtual Route Forwarding (VRF) configurations, perform the following procedure.

SUMMARY STEPS

1.    enable

2.    configure terminal

3.    crypto keyring keyring-name

4.    pre-shared-key address address key key

5.    pre-shared-key hostname hostname key key


DETAILED STEPS
  Command or Action Purpose
Step 1
enable


Example:

Router# enable

 

Enables privileged EXEC mode.

  • Enter your password if prompted.
 
Step 2
configure terminal


Example:

Router# configure terminal

 

Enters global configuration mode.

 
Step 3
crypto keyring keyring-name


Example:

Router (config)# crypto keyring keyring1

 

Defines a crypto keyring to be used during Internet Key Exchange (IKE) authentication and enters keyring configuration mode.

 
Step 4
pre-shared-key address address key key


Example:

Router (config-keyring)# pre-shared-key address 10.2.3.5 key cisco

 

Defines a preshared key to be used for IKE authentication.

  • The address argument specifies the IP address of the remote peer.
 
Step 5
pre-shared-key hostname hostname key key


Example:

Router (config-keyring)# pre-shared-key hostname example.com key cisco

 

Defines a preshared key to be used for IKE authentication.

  • The hostname argument specifies the FQDN of the peer.
 

Example

The following is sample output from the show-running-config command. The output shows that an encrypted preshared key in ISAKMP keyrings has been configured.

crypto keyring keyring1
  pre-shared-key address 10.2.3.5 key 6 `WHCJYR_Z]GRPF^RXTQfDcfZ]GPAAB
  pre-shared-key hostname keyring1.com key 6 aE_REHDcOfYCPF^RXTQfDJYVVNSAAB

Configuring ISAKMP Aggressive Mode

To configure ISAKMP aggressive mode, perform the following steps.

SUMMARY STEPS

1.    enable

2.    configure terminal

3.    crypto isakmp peer ip-address ip-address

4.    set aggressive-mode client-endpoint client-endpoint

5.    set aggressive-mode password password


DETAILED STEPS
  Command or Action Purpose
Step 1
enable


Example:

Router# enable

 

Enables privileged EXEC mode.

  • Enter your password if prompted.
 
Step 2
configure terminal


Example:

Router# configure terminal

 

Enters global configuration mode.

 
Step 3
crypto isakmp peer ip-address ip-address


Example:

Router (config)# crypto isakmp peer ip-address 10.2.3.4

 

To enable an IP Security (IPSec) peer for IKE querying of authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA) for tunnel attributes in aggressive mode and to enter ISAKMP peer configuration mode.

 
Step 4
set aggressive-mode client-endpoint client-endpoint


Example:

Router (config-isakmp-peer)# set aggressive-mode client-endpoint fqdn cisco.com

 

Specifies the Tunnel-Client-Endpoint attribute within an ISAKMP peer configuration.

 
Step 5
set aggressive-mode password password


Example:

Router (config-isakmp-peer)# set aggressive-mode password cisco

 

Specifies the Tunnel-Password attribute within an ISAKMP peer configuration.

 

Example

The following show-running-config sample output shows that an encrypted preshared key in ISAKMP aggressive mode has been configured.

crypto isakmp peer address 10.2.3.4
 set aggressive-mode password 6 ^aKPIQ_KJE_PPF^RXTQfDTIaLNeAAB
 set aggressive-mode client-endpoint fqdn cisco.com

Configuring a Unity Server Group Policy

To configure a unity server group policy, perform the following steps.

SUMMARY STEPS

1.    enable

2.    configure terminal

3.    crypto isakmp client configuration group group-name

4.    pool name

5.    domain name

6.    key name


DETAILED STEPS
  Command or Action Purpose
Step 1
enable


Example:

Router# enable

 

Enables privileged EXEC mode.

  • Enter your password if prompted.
 
Step 2
configure terminal


Example:

Router# configure terminal

 

Enters global configuration mode.

 
Step 3
crypto isakmp client configuration group group-name


Example:

Router (config)# crypto isakmp client configuration group group1

 

Specifies the policy profile of the group that will be defined and enters ISAKMP group configuration mode.

 
Step 4
pool name


Example:

Router (config-isakmp-group)# pool group1

 

Defines a local pool address.

 
Step 5
domain name


Example:

Router (config-isakmp-group)# domain cisco.com

 

Specifies the Domain Name Service (DNS) domain to which a group belongs.

 
Step 6
key name


Example:

Router (config-isakmp-group)# key cisco

 

Specifies the IKE preshared key for group policy attribute definition.

 

Example

The following show-running-config sample output shows that an encrypted key has been configured for a unity server group policy:

crypto isakmp client configuration group group1
 key 6 cZZgDZPOE\dDPF^RXTQfDTIaLNeAAB
 domain cisco.com
 pool group1

Configuring an Easy VPN Client

To configure an Easy VPN client, perform the following steps.

SUMMARY STEPS

1.    enable

2.    configure terminal

3.    crypto ipsec client ezvpn name

4.    peer ipaddress

5.    mode client

6.    group group-name key group-key

7.    connect manual


DETAILED STEPS
  Command or Action Purpose
Step 1
enable


Example:

Router# enable

 

Enables privileged EXEC mode.

  • Enter your password if prompted.
 
Step 2
configure terminal


Example:

Router# configure terminal

 

Enters global configuration mode.

 
Step 3
crypto ipsec client ezvpn name


Example:

Router (config)# crypto ipsec client ezvpn ezvpnname1

 

Creates a Cisco Easy VPN remote configuration and enters Cisco Easy VPN remote configuration mode.

 
Step 4
peer ipaddress


Example:

Router (config-isakmp-peer)# peer 10.2.3.4

 

Sets the peer IP address for the VPN connection.

 
Step 5
mode client


Example:

Router (config-isakmp-ezpvy)# mode client

 

Automatically configures the router for Cisco Easy VPN Client mode operation, which uses Network Address Translation (NAT) or Peer Address Translation (PAT) address translations.

 
Step 6
group group-name key group-key


Example:

Router (config-isakmp-ezvpn)# group ezvpnname1 key cisco

 

Specifies the group name and key value for the VPN connection.

 
Step 7
connect manual


Example:

Router (config-isakmp-ezvpn)# connect manual

 

Specifies the manual setting for directing the Cisco Easy VPN remote client to wait for a command or application program interface (API) call before attempting to establish the Cisco Easy VPN remote connection.

 

Example

The following show-running-config sample output shows that an Easy VPN client has been configured. The key has been encrypted.

crypto ipsec client ezvpn ezvpnname1
 connect manual
 group ezvpnname1 key 6 gdMI`S^^[GIcPF^RXTQfDFKEO\RAAB
 mode client
 peer 10.2.3.4

Configuration Examples for Encrypted Preshared Key

Encrypted Preshared Key Example

The following is an example of a configuration for which a type 6 preshared key has been encrypted. It includes the prompts and messages that a user might see.

Router (config)# crypto isakmp key cisco address 10.0.0.2
Router (config)# exit
Router# show running-config | include crypto isakmp key
 crypto isakmp key cisco address 10.0.0.2
Router#
Router# configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line.  End with CNTL/Z.
Router (config)# password encryption aes
 
Router (config)# key config-key password-encrypt
 
New key:
Confirm key:
Router (config)#
01:46:40: TYPE6_PASS: New Master key configured, encrypting the keys with
the new master key
Router (config)# exit
Router # show running-config | include crypto isakmp key
crypto isakmp key 6 CXWdhVTZYB_Vcd^`cIHDOahiFTa address 10.0.0.2

No Previous Key Present Example

In the following configuration example, no previous key is present:

Router (config)# key config-key password-encryption testkey 123

Key Already Exists Example

In the following configuration example, a key already exists:

Router (config)# key config-key password-encryption testkey123
Old key:
Router (config)#

Key Already Exists But the User Wants to Key In Interactively Example

In the following configuration example, the user wants to key in interactively, but a key already exists. The Old key, New key, and Confirm key prompts will show on your screen if you enter the key config-key password-encryptioncommand and press the enter key to get into interactive mode.

Router (config)# key config-key password-encryption
Old key:
New key:
Confirm key:

No Key Present But the User Wants to Key In Interactively Example

In the following example, the user wants to key in interactively, but no key is present. The New key and Confirm key prompts will show on your screen if you are in interactive mode.

Router (config)# key config-key password-encryption
 
New key:
Confirm key:

Removal of the Password Encryption Example

In the following configuration example, the user wants to remove the encrypted password. The "WARNING: All type 6 encrypted keys will become unusable. Continue with master key deletion? [yes/no]:" prompt will show on your screen if you are in interactive mode.

Router (config)# no key config-key password-encryption
WARNING: All type 6 encrypted keys will become unusable. Continue with master key deletion ? [yes/no]: y

Where to Go Next

Configure any other preshared keys.

Additional References

Related Documents

Related Topic

Document Title

Configuring passwords

Cisco IOS Security Command Reference

Standards

Standards

Title

None

--

MIBs

MIBs

MIBs Link

No new or modified MIBs are supported by this feature, and support for existing MIBs has not been modified by this feature.

To locate and download MIBs for selected platforms, Cisco IOS XE software releases, and feature sets, use Cisco MIB Locator found at the following URL:

http://www.cisco.com/go/mibs

RFCs

RFCs

Title

None

--

Technical Assistance

Description

Link

The Cisco Support and Documentation website provides online resources to download documentation, software, and tools. Use these resources to install and configure the software and to troubleshoot and resolve technical issues with Cisco products and technologies. Access to most tools on the Cisco Support and Documentation website requires a Cisco.com user ID and password.

http://www.cisco.com/cisco/web/support/index.html

Feature Information for Encrypted Preshared Key

The following table provides release information about the feature or features described in this module. This table lists only the software release that introduced support for a given feature in a given software release train. Unless noted otherwise, subsequent releases of that software release train also support that feature.

Use Cisco Feature Navigator to find information about platform support and Cisco software image support. To access Cisco Feature Navigator, go to www.cisco.com/go/cfn. An account on Cisco.com is not required.

Table 1 Feature Information for Encrypted Preshared Key

Feature Name

Releases

Feature Information

Encrypted Preshared Key

Cisco IOS XE Release 2.1

The Encrypted Preshared Key feature allows you to securely store plain text passwords in type 6 (encrypted) format in NVRAM.

The following commands were introduced or modified: crypto ipsec client ezvpn (global), crypto isakmp client configuration group, crypto isakmp key, key config-key password-encryption, password encryption aes password logging, pre-shared-key, set aggressive-mode password.

Cisco and the Cisco logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of Cisco and/or its affiliates in the U.S. and other countries. To view a list of Cisco trademarks, go to this URL: www.cisco.com/go/trademarks. Third-party trademarks mentioned are the property of their respective owners. The use of the word partner does not imply a partnership relationship between Cisco and any other company. (1110R)

Any Internet Protocol (IP) addresses and phone numbers used in this document are not intended to be actual addresses and phone numbers. Any examples, command display output, network topology diagrams, and other figures included in the document are shown for illustrative purposes only. Any use of actual IP addresses or phone numbers in illustrative content is unintentional and coincidental.

© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.