Cisco IOS Optimized Edge Routing Command Reference
H through R
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holddownhost-addressinside bgpinterface (OER)jitterkeepalive (OER)learnlink-grouplist (OER)local (OER)logging (OER)lossmastermatch ip address (OER)match oer learnmatch traffic-class access-listmatch traffic-class applicationmatch traffic-class application nbarmatch traffic-class prefix-listmax prefixmax range receivemaximum utilization receivemax-range-utilizationmax-xmit-utilizationmode (OER)monitor-periodmosoeroer-mapperiodic (OER)periodic-intervalpolicy-rulesport (OER)prefixesprotocol (OER)resolve

H through R

holddown

To configure the Optimized Edge Routing (OER) prefix route dampening timer to set the minimum period of time that a new exit must be used before an alternate exit can be selected, use the holddown command in OER master controller configuration mode. To return the prefix route dampening timer to the default value, use the no form of this command.

holddown timer
no holddown

Syntax Description

timer

Specifies the prefix route dampening time period, in seconds. The range for this argument is from 90 to 65535. The default value is 300.

Command Default

OER uses the following default value if this command is not configured or if the no form of this command is entered:

timer : 300

Command Modes

OER master controller configuration (config-oer-mc)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.3(8)T

This command was introduced.

12.2(33)SRB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRB.

Usage Guidelines

The holddown command is entered on a master controller. This command is used to configure the prefix route dampening timer to set the minimum period of time that a new exit must be used before an alternate exit can be selected. The master controller puts a prefix in a holddown state during an exit change to isolate the prefix during the transition period to prevent the prefix from flapping because of rapid state changes. OER does not implement policy changes while a prefix is in the holddown state. A prefix will remain in a holddown state for the default or configured time period. When the holddown timer expires, OER will select the best exit based on performance and policy configuration. However, an immediate route change will be triggered if the current exit for a prefix becomes unreachable.

Configuring a new timer value will immediately replace the existing value if the new value is less than the amount of the time remaining. If the new value is greater than the amount of the time remaining, the new timer value will be used when the existing timer is reset.

Examples

The following example sets the prefix route dampening timer to 120 seconds:

Router(config)# oer master
Router(config-oer-mc)# holddown 120

Related Commands

Command

Description

oer

Enables an OER process and configures a router as an OER border router or as an OER master controller.

set holddown

Configures an OER map to set the prefix route dampening timer to the minimum period of time that a new exit must be used before an alternate exit can be selected.

host-address

To configure information about a host device used by an application interface provider to communicate with an Optimized Edge Routing (OER) master controller, use the host-addresscommand in OER master controller application interface provider configuration mode. To remove a host application interface device, use the no form of this command.

host-address ip-address key-chain key-chain-name [ priority value ]
no host-address ip-address

Syntax Description

ip-address

IP address of the host device.

key-chain

Specifies the key used as a password to authenticate communication for the host device.

key-chain-name

Name of key chain used as a password for the host device.

priority

(Optional) Sets the priority of the host device.

value

(Optional) A number in the range from 1 to 65535. The lower the number, the higher the priority. The default priority is 65535.

Command Default

A host application interface device is not configured.

Command Modes

OER master controller application interface provider configuration (config-oer-mc-api-provider)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.4(15)T

This command was introduced.

Usage Guidelines

The OER application interface defines the mode of communication and messaging between applications and the network for the purpose of optimizing the traffic associated with the applications. A provider is defined as an entity outside the network in which the router configured as an OER master controller exists, for example, an ISP, or a branch office of the same company. The provider has one or more host devices running one or more applications that use the OER application interface to communicate with an OER master controller. A provider must be registered with an OER master controller before an application on a host device can interface with OER. Use the api provider command to register the provider, and use the host-addresscommand to configure a host device. After registration, a host device in the provider network can initiate a session with an OER master controller. The OER application interface provides an automated method for networks to be aware of applications and provides application-aware performance routing.

Use the optional priority keyword to specify a priority value for the host device when multiple host devices are configured. The number 1 assigns the highest priority to any requests from the host device. If you assign a priority, each host device must be assigned a different priority number. If you try to assign the same priority number to two different host devices, an error message is displayed on the console.

Examples

The following example shows how to configure a host application interface device on a master controller. In this example, more than one provider is registered, and a priority is set for each provider. For the single host device configured for provider 1, no priority is set and the default priority value of 65535 is assigned, giving this host device a lower priority than each of the host devices configured for provider 2.

Router(config)# oer master
Router(config-oer-mc)# api provider 1
Router(config-oer-mc-api-provider)# host-address 10.100.2.2 key-chain OER_HOST
Router(config-oer-mc-api-provider)# exit
Router(config-oer-mc)# api provider 2 priority 4000
Router(config-oer-mc-api-provider)# host-address 10.100.2.2 key-chain OER_HOST
priority 3000
Router(config-oer-mc-api-provider)# host-address 10.100.2.2 key-chain OER_HOST
priority 4000
Router(config-oer-mc-api-provider)# end

Related Commands

Command

Description

api provider

Registers an application interface provider with an OER master controller and enters OER master controller application interface provider configuration mode.

oer master

Enables an OER process and configures a router as an OER master controller.

show oer api provider

Displays information about application interface providers registered with OER.

inside bgp

To configure Optimized Edge Routing (OER) to learn the inside prefixes within a network, use the inside bgp command in OER Top Talker and Top Delay learning configuration mode. To disable prefix learning of inside prefixes, use the no form of this command.

inside bgp
no inside bgp

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Command Default

No inside prefixes are learned by OER.

Command Modes

OER Top Talker and Top Delay learning configuration

Command History

Release

Modification

12.4(9)T

This command was introduced.

12.2(33)SRB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRB.

Usage Guidelines

This command is used to implement OER Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) inbound optimization by identifying the prefixes within a network (inside prefixes). OER BGP inbound optimization supports best entrance selection for traffic that originates from prefixes outside an autonomous system destined for prefixes inside the autonomous system. External BGP (eBGP) advertisements from an autonomous system to another autonomous system (for example, an Internet service provider [ISP]) can influence the entrance path for traffic entering the network. OER uses eBGP advertisements to manipulate the best entrance selection.

Examples

The following example shows how to configure an OER master controller to automatically learn the inside prefixes in a network:

oer master
 learn
 inside bgp

Related Commands

Command

Description

learn

Enters OER Top Talker and Top Delay learning configuration mode to configure prefixes for OER to learn.

oer

Enables an OER process and configures a router as an OER border router or as an OER master controller.

interface (OER)

To configure a border router interface as an Optimized Edge Routing (OER) managed external or internal interface, use the interface command in OER managed border router configuration mode. To remove an interface from OER control, use the no form of this command.

interface type number { external | internal }
no interface type number { external | internal }

Syntax Description

type

Specifies the type of interface.

number

Specifies the interface or subinterface number.

external

Configures an interface as external. External interfaces are used for active monitoring and traffic forwarding. Entering the external keyword also enters OER border exit interface configuration mode.

internal

Configures an interface as internal. Internal interfaces are used for passive monitoring with NetFlow.

Command Default

No border router interfaces are configured as OER-managed interfaces.

Command Modes

OER managed border router configuration

Command History

Release

Modification

12.3(8)T

This command was introduced.

12.2(33)SRB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRB.

15.0(1)M

This command was modified. Loopback interfaces are supported as external or internal interfaces.

Usage Guidelines

The interface command is entered on a master controller. This command is used to configure external and internal interfaces on border routers to be under OER control. External interfaces are configured as OER managed exit links to forward traffic. External interfaces are used by the master controller to actively monitor prefix and link performance. Internal interfaces are used only for passive performance monitoring with NetFlow.

At least one external and one internal interface must be configured on each border router to allow NetFlow to monitor inbound and outbound traffic. At least two external interfaces are required in an OER managed network. You can configure a maximum of 20 external interfaces for a single master controller in an OER managed network.

In Cisco IOS 15.0(1)M, and later releases, loopback interfaces are supported as external or internal interfaces.


Note


PfR does not support Ethernet interfaces that are Layer 2 only, for example, Ethernet switched interfaces.

Configuring an interface as external enters OER Border Exit configuration mode. Under OER border exit interface configuration mode, you can configure maximum link utilization on a per interface basis with the max-xmit-utilization command.


Note


Entering the interface command without the external or internal keyword, places the router in Global configuration mode and not OER Border Exit configuration mode. The no form of this command should be applied carefully so that active interfaces are not removed from the router configuration.

Examples

The following example configures one internal interface and two external interfaces on a border router:

Router(config)# oer master
Router(config-oer-mc)# border 10.4.9.6
 key-chain BR-KEY
Router(config-oer-mc-br)# interface FastEthernet0/1 internal 
    
Router(config-oer-mc-br)# interface FastEthernet0/0 external
 
Router(config-oer-mc-br)# interface Serial 1/0 external 

Related Commands

Command

Description

border

Enters OER managed border router configuration mode to establish communication with an OER border router.

local (OER)

Identifies a local interface on an OER border router as the source for communication with an OER master controller.

max-xmit-utilization

Configures maximum utilization on a single OER managed exit link.

oer

Enables an OER process and configures a router as an OER border router or as an OER master controller.

jitter

To specify the threshold jitter value that Optimized Edge Routing (OER) will permit for an exit link, use the jitter command in OER master controller configuration mode. To reset the maximum jitter value to its default value, use the no form of this command.

jitter threshold maximum
no jitter threshold maximum

Syntax Description

threshold

Specifies a maximum absolute threshold value for jitter. Jitter is a measure of voice quality.

maximum

Number (in milliseconds) in the range from 1 to 1000, where 1 represents the highest voice quality, and 1000 represents the lowest voice quality. The default value is 30.

Command Default

No jitter values are specified.

Command Modes

OER master controller configuration

Command History

Release

Modification

12.4(6)T

This command was introduced.

12.2(33)SRB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRB.

Usage Guidelines

The jitter command is used to specify the maximum tolerable jitter value permitted on an exit link. Jitter is a measure of voice quality where the lower the jitter value, the better the voice quality. If the jitter value is greater than the user-defined or the default value, OER determines that the exit link is out-of-policy and searches for an alternate exit link.

Another measure of voice quality is the estimated Mean Opinion Score (MOS). Use the mos command and the jitter command in an OER policy to define voice quality.

Examples

The following example shows how to configure the master controller to search for a new exit link if the jitter threshold value exceeds 20 milliseconds:

Router(config)# oer master
Router(config-oer-map)# jitter threshold 20

Related Commands

Command

Description

mos

Specifies the threshold and percentage Mean Opinion Score (MOS) values that OER will permit for an exit link.

oer

Enables an OER process and configures a router as an OER border router or as an OER master controller.

set jitter

Configures an OER map to set the threshold jitter value that OER will permit for an exit link.

keepalive (OER)

To configure the length of time that an Optimized Edge Routing (OER) master controller will maintain connectivity with an OER border router after no keepalive packets have been received, use the keepalive command in OER master controller configuration mode. To return the keepalive timer to the default time interval, use the no form of this command.

keepalive [ timer]
no keepalive

Syntax Description

timer

(Optional) Sets the keepalive time interval, in seconds. The configurable range for this argument is from 0 to 1000. The default time interval is 5.

Command Default

OER uses the following default value if this command is not configured or if the no form of this command is entered:

timer : 5

Command Modes

OER master controller configuration

Command History

Release

Modification

12.3(8)T

This command was introduced.

12.2(33)SRB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRB.

Usage Guidelines

The keepalive command is entered on a master controller. The OER master controller sends keepalive packets to border routers to maintain connectivity between the master controller and the border router. If the master controller does not receive keepalive packets from a border router before the keepalive timer expires and this situation happens three times in a row, then the master controller will not maintain the connection.

Examples

The following example sets the keepalive time interval to 10 seconds:

Router(config)# oer master
Router(config-oer-mc)# keepalive 10
 

Related Commands

Command

Description

oer

Enables an OER process and configures a router as an OER border router or as an OER master controller.

learn

To enter OER Top Talker and Top Delay learning configuration mode to configure Optimized Edge Routing (OER) to learn prefixes, use the learn command in OER master controller configuration mode. To disable prefix learning, use the no form of this command.

learn
no learn

Syntax Description

This command has no keywords or values.

Command Default

No default behavior or values

Command Modes

OER master controller configuration

Command History

Release

Modification

12.3(8)T

This command was introduced.

12.2(33)SRB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRB.

Usage Guidelines

The learn command is entered on a master controller and is used to enter OER Top Talker and Top Delay learning configuration mode to configure a master controller to learn and optimize prefixes based on the highest throughput or the highest delay. Under the Top Talker and Top Delay learning configuration mode, you can configure prefix learning based on delay and throughput statistics. You can configure the length of the prefix learning period, the interval between prefix learning periods, the number of prefixes to learn, and the prefix learning based on protocol.

Examples

The following example enters OER Top Talker and Top Delay learning configuration mode:

Router(config)# oer master
Router(config-oer-mc)# learn 
Router(config-oer-mc-learn)#

Related Commands

Command

Description

aggregation-type

Configures an OER master controller to aggregate learned prefixes based on traffic flow type.

delay

Configures OER to learn prefixes based on the lowest delay.

expire after

Configures the length of time that learned prefixes are kept in the central policy database.

match oer learn

Creates a match clause entry in an OER map to match OER learned prefixes.

max prefix

Sets the maximum number of prefixes that the master controller will monitor or learn.

monitor-period

Sets the time period that an OER master controller learns traffic flows.

oer

Enables an OER process and configures a router as an OER border router or as an OER master controller.

periodic-interval

Sets the time interval between prefix learning periods.

protocol (OER)

Configures an OER master controller to learn Top Talker or Top Delay prefixes based on the protocol type or number.

throughput

Configures OER to learn the top prefixes based on the highest outbound throughput.

link-group

To configure an Optimized Edge Routing (OER) border router exit interface as a member of a link group, use the link-group command in OER border exit interface configuration mode. To remove a link group from the interface, use the no form of this command.

link-group link-group-name [ link-group-name [ link-group-name] ]
no link-group link-group-name [ link-group-name [ link-group-name] ]

Syntax Description

link-group-name

Name of link group.

Command Default

No link groups are configured for an OER border router exit interface.

Command Modes

OER border exit interface configuration (config-oer-mc-br-if)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.4(15)T

This command was introduced.

Usage Guidelines

Link groups are used to define a group of exit links as a preferred set of links or a fallback set of links for OER to use when optimizing a specified traffic class. Up to three link groups can be specified for each interface. Configure this command on a master controller to define the link group for an interface and use the set link-group command to define the primary link group and a fallback link group for a specified traffic class in an OER map.

Use the show oer master link-group command to view information about configured OER link groups.

Examples

The following example configures one external interface on a border router as a member of the link group named VIDEO, and another external interface as a member of two link groups named VOICE and DATA:

Router(config)# oer master
Router(config-oer-mc)# border 10.4.9.6
 key-chain BR-KEY
Router(config-oer-mc-br)# interface Serial 1/0 external 
Router(config-oer-mc-br-if)# link-group VIDEO
Router(config-oer-mc-br-if)# exit
Router(config-oer-mc-br)# interface Serial 2/0 external 
Router(config-oer-mc-br-if)# link-group VOICE DATA
Router(config-oer-mc-br-if)# exit
Router(config-oer-mc-br)# interface FastEthernet0/1 internal

Related Commands

Command

Description

border

Enters OER managed border router configuration mode to establish communication with an OER border router.

interface (OER)

Configures a border router interface as an OER managed external or internal interface.

oer

Enables an OER process and configures a router as an OER border router or as an OER master controller.

set link-group

Specifies a link group for traffic classes defined in an OER policy.

show oer master link-group

Displays information about OER link groups.

list (OER)

To create an Optimized Edge Routing (OER) learn list to specify criteria for learning traffic classes and to enter learn list configuration mode, use the list command in OER Top Talker and Top Delay learning configuration mode. To remove the learn list, use the no form of this command.

list seq number refname refname
no list seq number refname refname

Syntax Description

seq

Applies a sequence number to a learn list.

number

Number representing a sequence that is used to determine the order in which learn list criteria are applied. The range of sequence numbers that can be entered is from 1 to 65535.

refname

Specifies a reference name for the OER learn list.

refname

Reference name for the learn list. The name must be unique within all the configured OER learn lists.

Command Default

No OER learn lists are created.

Command Modes

OER Top Talker and Top Delay learning configuration (config-oer-mc-learn)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.4(15)T

This command was introduced.

Usage Guidelines

In Cisco IOS Release 12.4(15)T, the learn list configuration mode was introduced. Learn lists are a way to categorize learned traffic classes. In each learn list, different criteria for learning traffic classes including prefixes, application definitions, filters, and aggregation parameters can be configured. A traffic class is automatically learned by OER based on each learn list criteria, and each learn list is configured with a sequence number. The sequence number determines the order in which learn list criteria are applied. Learn lists allow different OER policies to be applied to each learn list; in previous releases the traffic classes could not be divided, and an OER policy was applied to all the traffic classes profiled during one learning session.

New traffic-class commands were introduced under learn list mode to simplify the learning of traffic classes. Three types of traffic classes--to be automatically learned--can be profiled:

  • Traffic classes based on destination prefixes.
  • Traffic classes representing custom application definitions using access lists.
  • Traffic classes based on a static application mapping name with an optional prefix list filtering to define destination prefixes.

Only one type of traffic-class command can be specified per learn list, and the throughput and delay commands are also mutually exclusive within a learn list.

Examples

The following example shows how to configure a master controller to learn top prefixes based on the highest throughput for a learn list named LEARN_REMOTE_LOGIN_TC that learns Telnet and Secure Shell (SSH) application TCF entries:

Router(config)# oer master 
Router(config-oer-mc)# learn 
Router(config-oer-mc-learn)# list seq 10 refname LEARN_REMOTE_LOGIN_TC
Router(config-oer-mc-learn-list)# traffic-class application telnet ssh
Router(config-oer-mc-learn-list)# aggregation-type prefix-length 24 
Router(config-oer-mc-learn-list)# throughput

Related Commands

Command

Description

learn

Enters OER Top Talker and Top Delay learning configuration mode to configure OER to automatically learn traffic classes.

local (OER)


Note


Effective with Cisco IOS Release 15.0(1)SY, the local command is hidden. Although this command is still available in Cisco IOS software, the CLI interactive Help does not display it if you attempt to view it by entering a question mark at the command line. This command will be completely removed in a future release.

To identify a local interface on an Optimized Edge Routing (OER) border router as the source for communication with an OER master controller, use the local command in OER border router configuration mode. To remove the interface from the OER border router configuration and disable border router to master controller communication, use the no form of this command.

local type number
no local type number

Syntax Description

type

Specifies the interface type.

number

Specifies the interface number.

Command Default

No default behavior or values

Command Modes

OER border router configuration (config-oer-br)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.3(8)T

This command was introduced.

12.2(33)SRB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRB.

12.2SX

This command is supported in the Cisco IOS Release 12.2SX train. Support in a specific 12.2SX release of this train depends on your feature set, platform, and platform hardware.

15.0(1)SY

This command was modified. This command was hidden.

Usage Guidelines

The local command is configured on an OER border router. This command is used to specify the source interface IP address that will be used for communication between a border router and master controller.

The IP address that is configured for the local interface must also be configured on the master controller with the border OER master controller configuration command and the interface(OER) OER managed border router configuration command.

The no form of this command cannot be entered while the border router process is active. The border router process must first be stopped with the shutdown(OER) command. If you stop the border router process to deconfigure the local interface with the no form of this command, you must configure another local interface before the border router process will reestablish communication with the master controller.

Examples

The following example configures the FastEthernet 0/0 interface as a local interface:

Router(config)# oer border
 
Router(config-oer-br)# local FastEthernet0/0

Related Commands

Command

Description

border

Enters OER managed border router configuration mode to establish communication with an OER border router.

interface (OER)

Configures a border router interface as an OER managed external or internal interface.

oer

Enables an OER process and configures a router as an OER border router or as an OER master controller.

port (OER)

Configures a dynamic port for communication between an OER master controller and border router.

logging (OER)


Note


Effective with Cisco IOS Release 15.0(1)SY, the logging command is hidden. Although this command is still available in Cisco IOS software, the CLI interactive Help does not display it if you attempt to view it by entering a question mark at the command line. This command will be completely removed in a future release.

To enable syslog event logging for an Optimized Edge Routing (OER) master controller or an OER border router process, use the logging command in OER master controller or OER border router configuration mode. To disable OER event logging, use the no form of this command.

logging
no logging

Syntax Description

This command has no keywords or arguments.

Command Default

No default behavior or values

Command Modes

OER border router configuration (config-oer-br)
OER master controller configuration (config-oer-mc)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.3(8)T

This command was introduced.

12.2(33)SRB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRB.

12.2SX

This command is supported in the Cisco IOS Release 12.2SX train. Support in a specific 12.2SX release of this train depends on your feature set, platform, and platform hardware.

15.0(1)SY

This command was modified. This command was hidden.

Usage Guidelines

The logging command is entered on a master controller or border router. System logging is enabled and configured in Cisco IOS software under global configuration mode. The loggingcommand in OER master controller or OER border router configuration mode is used only to enable or disable system logging under OER. OER system logging supports the following message types:

Error Messages --These messages indicate OER operational failures and communication problems that can impact normal OER operation.

Debug Messages --These messages are used to monitor detailed OER operations to diagnose operational or software problems.

Notification Messages --These messages indicate that OER is performing a normal operation.

Warning Messages --These messages indicate that OER is functioning properly, but an event outside of OER may be impacting normal OER operation.

To modify system, terminal, destination, and other system global logging parameters, use the logging commands in global configuration mode. For more information about system logging commands, see the Cisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Command Reference , Release 12.4.

12.2(33)SXH

This command is supported only in OER border router configuration mode.

Examples

The following example enables OER system logging on a master controller:

Router(config)# oer master
Router(config-oer-mc)# logging 

The following example enables OER system logging on a border router:

Router(config)# oer border
Router(config-oer-br)# logging 

Related Commands

Command

Description

clear logging

Clears messages from the logging buffer.

clear logging xml

Clears all messages from the XML-specific system message logging (syslog) buffer.

logging buffered

Enables standard system message logging (syslog) to a local buffer and sets the severity level and buffer size for the logging buffer.

logging buffered xml

Enables system message logging (syslog) and sends XML-formatted logging messages to the XML-specific system buffer.

logging console

Limits messages logged to the console based on severity.

logging facility

Configures the syslog facility in which error messages are sent.

logging history

Limits syslog messages sent to the router's history table and the SNMP network management station based on severity.

logging history size

Sets the maximum number of syslog messages that can be stored in the router's syslog history table.

logging host

Logs messages to a syslog server host.

logging monitor

Limits messages logged to the terminal lines (monitors) based on severity.

logging monitor xml

Applies XML formatting to messages logged to the monitor connections.

logging on

Globally controls (enables or disables) system message logging.

logging synchronous

Synchronizes unsolicited messages and debug output with solicited Cisco IOS software output and prompts for a specific console port line, auxiliary port line, or vty.

logging trap

Limits messages sent to the syslog servers based on severity level.

oer

Enables an OER process and configures a router as an OER border router or as an OER master controller.

show logging

Displays the state of logging (syslog).

show logging history

Displays information about the system logging history table.

show logging xml

Displays the state of XML-formatted system message logging, followed by the contents of the XML-specific buffer.

loss

To set the relative or maximum packet loss limit that Optimized Edge Routing (OER) will permit for an exit link, use the loss command in OER master controller configuration mode. To return the packet loss limit to the default value, use the no form of this command.

loss { relative average | threshold maximum }
no loss

Syntax Description

relative average

Sets a relative percentage of packet loss based on a comparison of short-term and long-term packet loss percentages. The range of values that can be configured for this argument is a number from 1 to 1000. Each increment represents one tenth of a percent.

threshold maximum

Sets absolute packet loss based on packets per million (PPM). The range of values that can be configured for this argument is from 1 to 1000000.

Command Default

OER uses the following default value if this command is not configured or if the no form of this command is entered:

relative average : 100 (10 percent packet loss)

Command Modes

OER master controller configuration

Command History

Release

Modification

12.3(8)T

This command was introduced.

12.2(33)SRB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRB.

Usage Guidelines

The loss command is used to specify the relative percentage or maximum number of packets that OER will permit to be lost during transmission on an exit link. If packet loss is greater than the user-defined or the default value, OER determines that the exit link is out-of-policy and searches for an alternate exit link.

The relative keyword is used to configure the relative packet loss percentage. The relative packet loss percentage is based on a comparison of short-term and long-term packet loss. The short-term measurement reflects the percentage of packet loss within a 5-minute period. The long-term measurement reflects the percentage of packet loss within a 60-minute period. The following formula is used to calculate this value:

Relative packet loss = ((short-term loss - long-term loss) / long-term loss) * 100

The master controller measures the difference between these two values as a percentage. If the percentage exceeds the user-defined or default value, the exit link is determined to be out-of-policy. For example, if long-term packet loss is 200 PPM and short-term packet loss is 300 PPM, the relative loss percentage is 50 percent.

The threshold keyword is used to configure the absolute maximum packet loss. The maximum value is based on the actual number of PPM that have been lost.

Examples

The following example configures the master controller to search for a new exit link if the difference between long- and short-term measurements (relative packet loss) is greater than 20 percent:

Router(config)# oer master
Router(config-oer-mc)# loss relative 200 

The following example configures OER to search for a new exit link when 20,000 packets have been lost:

Router(config)# oer master
Router(config-oer-mc)# loss threshold 20000 

Related Commands

Command

Description

oer

Enables an OER process and configures a router as an OER border router or as an OER master controller.

resolve

Sets the priority of a policy when multiple overlapping policies are configured.

set loss

Configures an OER map to set the relative or maximum packet loss limit that OER will permit for an exit link.

master


Note


Effective with Cisco IOS Release 15.0(1)SY, the master command is hidden. Although this command is still available in Cisco IOS software, the CLI interactive Help does not display it if you attempt to view it by entering a question mark at the command line. This command will be completely removed in a future release.

To establish communication with a Optimized Edge Routing (OER) master controller, use the master command in OER border router configuration mode. To disable communication with the specified master controller, use the no form of this command.

master ip-address key-chain key-name
no master

Syntax Description

ip-address

IP address of the master controller.

key-chain key-name

Specifies the key-chain to authenticate with the master controller.

Command Default

No communication is established between a master controller and border router.

Command Modes

OER border router configuration (config-oer-br)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.3(8)T

This command was introduced.

12.2(33)SRB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRB.

12.2SX

This command is supported in the Cisco IOS Release 12.2SX train. Support in a specific 12.2SX release of this train depends on your feature set, platform, and platform hardware.

15.0(1)SY

This command was modified. This command was hidden.

Usage Guidelines

The master command is entered on a border router. This command is used to establish communication between an OER border router and master controller. Communication is established between the border router process and the master controller process to allow the master controller to monitor and control OER exit links. OER communication must also be established on the master controller with the border OER master controller configuration command. At least one border router must be configured to enable OER. A maximum of ten border routers can be configured to communicate with a single master controller. The IP address that is used to specify the border router must be assigned to a local interface on the border router and must be reachable by the master controller.

By default, passive monitoring in OER observe mode is enabled when communication is established between a master controller and border router. Communication between the master controller and the border router is protected by key-chain authentication. The key-chain configuration is defined in global configuration mode on both the master controller and the border router before key-chain authentication is enabled for master controller to border router communication. For more information about key management in Cisco IOS software, see the "Managing Authentication Keys" section in the "Configuring IP Protocol-Independent Features" chapter of the Cisco IOS IP Routing Protocols Configuration Guide , Release 12.4 .

When the border command is entered, the router enters OER managed border router configuration mode. Local interfaces must be defined as internal or external with the interface(OER) OER managed border router configuration command. A single OER master controller can support up to 20 interfaces.

Examples

The following example defines a key chain named MASTER in global configuration mode and then configures an OER border router to communicate with the OER master controller at 10.4.9.7. The master controller authenticates the border router based on the defined key CISCO.

Router(config)# key chain MASTER 
Router(config-keychain)# key 1 
Router(config-keychain-key)# key-string CISCO 
Router(config-keychain-key)# exit 
Router(config-keychain)# exit
 
Router(config)# oer border
Router(config-oer-br)# master 10.4.9.7 key-chain MASTER

Related Commands

Command

Description

border

Enters OER managed border router configuration mode to establish communication with an OER border router.

interface (OER)

Configures a border router interface as an OER managed external or internal interface.

oer

Enables an OER process and configures a router as an OER border router or as an OER master controller.

match ip address (OER)

To reference an extended IP access list or IP prefix as match criteria in an Optimized Edge Routing (OER) map, use the match ip addresscommand in OER map configuration mode. To delete the match clause entry, use the no form of this command.

match ip address { access-list name | prefix-list name [ inside] }
no match ip address

Syntax Description

access-list name

Specifies a named extended access list (created with the ip access-list command) as the match criterion in an OER map.

prefix-list name

Specifies a prefix list (created with the ip prefix-list command) as the match criterion in an OER map.

inside

Specifies an inside prefix.

Command Default

No match is performed.

Command Modes

OER map configuration

Command History

Release

Modification

12.3(8)T

This command was introduced.

12.4(2)T

Support for matching extended access lists was introduced.

12.4(9)T

The inside keyword was added to support OER Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) inbound optimization.

12.2(33)SRB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRB.

Usage Guidelines

The match ip addresscommand defines a policy, defined by the oer-map command, to a list of prefixes. The match ip addresscommand is entered on a master controller in OER map configuration mode. This command is used to configure a named extended access list or IP prefix list as a match criteria in an OER map. Only one match clause can be configured for each OER map sequence. The access list is created with the ip access-listcommand. Only named extended IP access lists are supported. The IP prefix list is created with the ip prefix-list command. A prefix can be any IP network number combined with a prefix mask that specifies the prefix length.

The inside keyword is used to support OER BGP inbound optimization that supports best entrance selection for traffic that originates from prefixes outside an autonomous system destined for prefixes inside the autonomous system. External BGP (eBGP) advertisements from an autonomous system to an Internet service provider (ISP) can influence the entrance path for traffic entering the network. OER uses eBGP advertisements to manipulate the best entrance selection. Inbound BGP only supports the passive mode which results in some configuration restrictions when using an OER map. The following commands are not supported in an OER map for inbound BGP; set active-probe, set interface, set mode monitor, set mode verify bidirectional, set mos threshold, set nexthop, set periodic, set probe frequency, and set traceroute reporting.

Examples

The following example creates a prefix list named CUSTOMER. The prefix list creates a filter for the 10.4.9.0/24 network. The match ip addresscommand configures the prefix list as match criterion in an OER map.

Router(config)# ip prefix-list CUSTOMER permit 10.4.9.0/24
 
Router(config)# oer-map SELECT_EXIT 10 
Router(config-oer-map)# match ip address prefix-list CUSTOMER 
Router(config-oer-map)# set mode select-exit good 

The following example creates an extended access list named FTP. The named extended access list creates a filter for FTP traffic that is sourced from the 10.1.1.0/24 network. The match ip address command configures the access list as match criterion in an OER map. FTP traffic is policy routed to the first in-policy exit.

Router(config)# ip access-list extended FTP 
Router(config-ext-nacl)# permit tcp 10.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 any eq ftp 
Router(config-ext-nacl)# exit
 
Router(config)# oer-map SELECT_EXIT 10 
Router(config-oer-map)# match ip address access-list FTP 
Router(config-oer-map)# set mode select-exit good 

The following example creates a prefix list named INSIDE1. The prefix list creates a filter for the 10.2.2.0/24 network. The match ip addresscommand configures the prefix list as match criterion in an OER map.

Router(config)# ip prefix-list INSI
DE1 seq 5 permit 10.2.2.0/24 
Router(config)# oer-map INSIDE_PREFIXES 10 
Router(config-oer-map)# match ip address prefix-list INSIDE1 inside 
Router(config-oer-map)# set as-path prepend 45000

Related Commands

Command

Description

ip access-list

Defines an IP access list.

ip prefix-list

Creates an entry in a prefix list.

oer

Enables an OER process and configures a router as an OER border router or as an OER master controller.

oer-map

Enters OER map configuration mode to configure an OER map to apply policies to selected IP prefixes.

match oer learn

To create a match clause entry in an Optimized Edge Routing (OER) map to match OER learned prefixes, use the match oer learncommand in OER map configuration mode. To delete the match clause entry, use the no form of this command.

match oer learn { delay | inside | throughput }
no match oer learn { delay | inside | throughput }

Syntax Description

delay

Specifies prefixes learned based on highest delay.

inside

Specifies prefixes learned based on prefixes that are inside the network.

throughput

Specifies prefixes learned based on highest throughput.

Command Default

No match is performed.

Command Modes

OER map configuration

Command History

Release

Modification

12.3(8)T

This command was introduced.

12.4(9)T

The inside keyword was added.

12.2(33)SRB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRB.

Usage Guidelines

The match oer learn command is entered on a master controller in OER map configuration mode. OER can be configured to learn prefixes based on delay, inside prefix, or throughput. This command is used to configure OER learned prefixes as match criteria in an OER map. Only one match clause can be configured for each OER map sequence.

Examples

The following example creates an OER map named DELAY that matches traffic learned based on delay. The set clause applies a route control policy that configures OER to actively control this traffic.

Router(config)# oer-map DELAY 20
 
Router(config-oer-map)# match oer learn delay
 
Router(config-oer-map)# set mode route control 

The following example creates an OER map named THROUGHPUT that matches traffic learned based on throughput. The set clause applies a route control policy that configures OER to actively control this traffic.

Router(config)# oer-map THROUGHPUT 30
 
Router(config-oer-map)# match oer learn throughput
Router(config-oer-map)# set mode route control 

The following example creates an OER map named INSIDE that matches traffic learned based on inside prefixes. The set clause applies a route control policy that configures OER to actively control this traffic.

Router(config)# oer-map INSIDE 40
 
Router(config-oer-map)# match oer learn inside
Router(config-oer-map)# set mode route control 

Related Commands

Command

Description

learn

Enters OER Top Talker and Top Delay learning configuration mode to configure OER to learn prefixes.

oer

Enables an OER process and configures a router as an OER border router or as an OER master controller.

oer-map

Enters OER map configuration mode to configure an OER map to apply policies to selected IP prefixes.

match traffic-class access-list

To define a match clause using an access list in an Optimized Edge Routing (OER) map to create a traffic class, use the match traffic-class access-list command in OER map configuration mode. To remove the match clause, use the no form of this command.

match traffic-class access-list access-list-name
no match traffic-class access-list

Syntax Description

access-list-name

Name of an access list. Names cannot contain either a space or quotation marks and must begin with an alphabetic character to distinguish them from numbered access lists.

Command Default

OER traffic classes are not defined using match criteria in an OER map.

Command Modes

OER map configuration (config-oer-map)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.4(15)T

This command was introduced.

Usage Guidelines

The match traffic-class access-list command is used to manually configure a traffic class that matches destination prefixes in an access list used in an OER map. Only one access list can be specified, but the access list may contain many access list entries (ACEs) to help define the traffic class.


Note


The match traffic-class access-listcommand, the match traffic-class prefix-list command, and the match traffic-class application commands are all mutually exclusive in an OER map. Only one of these commands can be specified per OER map.

Examples

The following example, starting in global configuration mode, shows how to define a custom traffic class using an access list. Every entry in the access list defines one destination network and can include optional criteria. An OER map is used to match the destination prefixes and create the custom traffic class.

Router(config)# ip access-list extended CONFIGURED_TC
Router(config-ext-nacl)# permit tcp any 10.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 eq 500
Router(config-ext-nacl)# permit tcp any 172.16.1.0 0.0.0.255 eq 500 range 700 750
Router(config-ext-nacl)# permit tcp any 172.16.1.0 0.0.0.255 range 700 750
Router(config-ext-nacl)# permit tcp 192.168.0.0 0.0.255.255 10.1.2.0 0.0.0.255 eq 800
Router(config-ext-nacl)# exit
Router(config)# oer-map ACCESS_MAP 10
Router(config-oer-map)# match traffic-class access-list CONFIGURED_TC
Router(config-oer-map)# end

Related Commands

Command

Description

ip access-list

Defines a standard or extended IP access list.

list (OER)

Creates an OER learn list to specify criteria for learning traffic classes and enters learn list configuration mode.

oer

Enables an OER process and configures a router as an OER border router or as an OER master controller.

match traffic-class application

To define a match clause using a static application mapping in an Optimized Edge Routing (OER) map to create a traffic class, use the match traffic-class application command in OER map configuration mode. To remove the match clause entry, use the no form of this command.

match traffic-class application application-name ... prefix-list prefix-list-name
no match traffic-class application application-name [ prefix-list prefix-list-name ]

Syntax Description

application-name

Name of a predefined static application using fixed ports. See the table below. The ellipses show that more than one application keyword can be specified.

prefix-list

Specifies that the traffic flows are matched on the basis of destinations specified in a prefix list.

prefix-list-name

Name of a prefix list (created using the ip prefix-list command).

Command Default

OER traffic classes are not defined using match criteria in an OER map.

Command Modes

OER map configuration (config-oer-map)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.4(15)T

This command was introduced.

Usage Guidelines

The match traffic-class application command is used manually configure the master controller to profile traffic destined for prefixes defined in an IP prefix list that match one or more applications. The applications are predefined with a protocol--TCP or UDP, or both--and one or more ports and this mapping is shown in the table below. More than one application can be configured as part of the traffic class.


Note


The match traffic-class application command, the match traffic-class application nbar command, the match traffic-class access-list command, and the match traffic-class prefix-list commands are all mutually exclusive in an OER map. Only one of these commands can be specified per OER map.

The table below displays the keywords that represent the application that can be configured with the match traffic-class application command. Replace the application-name argument with the appropriate keyword from the table.

Table 1 Static Application List Keywords

Keyword

Protocol

Port

cuseeme

TCP UDP

7648 7649 7648 7649 24032

dhcp (Client)

UDP/TCP

68

dhcp (Server)

UDP/TCP

67

dns

UDP/TCP

53

finger

TCP

79

ftp

TCP

20 21

gopher

TCP/UDP

70

http

TCP/UDP

80

httpssl

TCP

443

imap

TCP/UDP

143 220

irc

TCP/UDP

194

kerberos

TCP/UDP

88 749

l2tp

UDP

1701

ldap

TCP/UDP

389

mssql

TCP

1443

nfs

TCP/UDP

2049

nntp

TCP/UDP

119

notes

TCP/UDP

1352

ntp

TCP/UDP

123

pcany

UDP TCP

22 5632 65301 5631

pop3

TCP/UDP

110

pptp

TCP

17233

simap

TCP/UDP

585 993 (Preferred)

sirc

TCP/UDP

994

sldap

TCP/UDP

636

smtp

TCP

25

snntp

TCP/UDP

563

spop3

TCP/UDP

123

ssh

TCP

22

telnet

TCP

23

Examples

The following example, starting in global configuration mode, shows how to define application traffic classes in an OER map named APP_MAP using predefined Telnet and Secure Shell (SSH) application criteria that are matched with destination prefixes specified in a prefix list, LIST1.

Router(config)# ip prefix-list LIST1 permit 10.1.1.0/24
Router(config)# ip prefix-list LIST1 permit 10.1.2.0/24
Router(config)# ip prefix-list LIST1 permit 172.16.1.0/24
Router(config)# oer-map APP_MAP 10
Router(config-oer-map)# match traffic-class application telnet ssh prefix-list LIST1
Router(config-oer-map)# end

Related Commands

Command

Description

ip prefix-list

Creates an entry in a prefix list.

match traffic-class application nbar

Defines a match clause using an NBAR application mapping in an OER map to create a traffic class.

oer

Enables an OER process and configures a router as an OER border router or as an OER master controller.

oer-map

Enters OER map configuration mode to configure an OER map to apply policies to selected IP prefixes.

match traffic-class application nbar

To define a match clause using an Network-Based Application Recognition (NBAR) application mapping in an Optimized Edge Routing (OER) map to create a traffic class, use the match traffic-class application nbar command in OER map configuration mode. To remove the match clause entry, use the no form of this command.

match traffic-class application nbar nbar-appl-name [ nbar-appl-name . . . ] prefix-list prefix-list-name
no match traffic-class application nbar [ nbar-appl-name . . . ]

Syntax Description

nbar-appl-name

Keyword representing the name of an application identified using NBAR. One application must be specified, but the ellipses show that more than one application keyword can be specified up to a maximum of ten. See the Usage Guidelines section for more details.

prefix-list

Specifies that the traffic flows are matched on the basis of destination prefixes specified in a prefix list.

prefix-list-name

Name of a prefix list (created using the ip prefix-list command).

Command Default

OER traffic classes identified using NBAR are not defined using match criteria in an OER map.

Command Modes

OER map configuration (config-oer-map)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.4(20)T

This command was introduced.

Usage Guidelines

The match traffic-class application nbar command is used to manually configure the master controller to profile traffic destined for prefixes defined in an IP prefix list that match one or more applications identified using NBAR. More than one application can be configured as part of the traffic class with a maximum of ten applications entered per command line. Enter multiple match traffic-class application nbar command statements if you need to specify more than ten applications.

NBAR is capable of identifying applications based on the following three types of protocols:

  • Non-UDP and Non-TCP IP protocols--For example, Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE), and Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP).
  • TCP and UDP protocols that use statically assigned port numbers--For example, CU-SeeMe desktop video conference (CU-SeeMe-Server) andPost Office Protocol over Transport Layer Security (TLS) and Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) server (SPOP3-Server).
  • TCP and UDP protocols that dynamically assign port numbers and require stateful inspection--For example, Real-Time Transport Protocol audio streaming (RTP-audio) and BitTorrent File Transfer Traffic (BitTorrent).

Use the match traffic-class application nbar ? command to determine if an application can be identified using NBAR and replace the nbar-appl-name argument with the appropriate keyword from the screen display.

The list of applications identified using NBAR and available for profiling OER or Performance Routing traffic classes is constantly evolving. For lists of many of the NBAR applications defined using static or dynamically assigned ports, see the Using Performance Routing to Profile the Traffic Classes module.

For more details about NBAR, see the Classifying Network Traffic Using NBAR section of the Cisco IOS Quality of Service Solutions Configuration Guide.


Note


The match traffic-class application nbar command, the match traffic-class application command, the match traffic-class access-list command, and the match traffic-class prefix-list commands are all mutually exclusive in an OER map. Only one of these commands can be specified per OER map.

Examples

The following example, starting in global configuration mode, shows how to define an application traffic class in an OER map named APP_NBAR_MAP. The traffic class consists of RTP-audio traffic identified using NBAR and matched with destination prefixes specified in a prefix list, LIST1.

The traffic streams that the OER map profiles for the RTP-audio application are:

10.1.1.1
10.2.2.1
172.16.1.1
172.17.1.2

The traffic classes that are learned for the RTP-audio application are:

10.2.2.0/24
172.17.1.0/24

Only traffic that matches both the RTP-audio application and the destination prefixes is learned.

Router(config)# ip prefix-list LIST1 permit 10.2.1.0/24
Router(config)# ip prefix-list LIST1 permit 10.2.2.0/24
Router(config)# ip prefix-list LIST1 permit 172.17.1.0/24
Router(config)# oer-map APP_NBAR_MAP 10
Router(config-oer-map)# match traffic-class application nbar rtp-audio prefix-list LIST1
Router(config-oer-map)# end

Related Commands

Command

Description

ip prefix-list

Creates an entry in a prefix list.

match traffic-class application

Defines a match clause using a static application mapping in an OER map to create a traffic class.

oer

Enables an OER process and configures a router as an OER border router or as an OER master controller.

oer-map

Enters OER map configuration mode to configure an OER map to apply policies to selected IP prefixes.

traffic-class application nbar

Defines an OER traffic class using an NBAR application mapping.

match traffic-class prefix-list

To define a match clause using a prefix list in an Optimized Edge Routing (OER) map to create a traffic class, use the match traffic-class prefix-list command in OER map configuration mode. To remove the match clause, use the no form of this command.

match traffic-class prefix-list prefix-list-name [ inside]
no match traffic-class prefix-list

Syntax Description

prefix-list-name

Name of a prefix list.

inside

(Optional) Specifies that the prefix list contains inside prefixes.

Command Default

OER traffic classes are not defined using match criteria in an OER map.

Command Modes

OER map configuration (config-oer-map)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.4(15)T

This command was introduced.

Usage Guidelines

The match traffic-class prefix-list command is used to manually configure a traffic class that matches destination prefixes in a prefix list.

Use the optional inside keyword to specify prefixes that are within the internal network.


Note


The match traffic-class prefix-listcommand, the match traffic-class access-list command, and the match traffic-class application commands are all mutually exclusive in an OER map. Only one of these commands can be specified per OER map.

Examples

The following example, starting in global configuration mode, shows how to manually configure a traffic class based only on destination prefixes. The traffic class is created using the prefix list, LIST1, in an OER map named PREFIX_MAP. Every entry in the prefix list, LIST1, defines one destination network of the traffic class.

Router(config)# ip prefix-list LIST1 permit 10.1.1.0/24
Router(config)# ip prefix-list LIST1 permit 10.1.2.0/24
Router(config)# ip prefix-list LIST1 permit 172.16.1.0/24
Router(config)# oer-map PREFIX_MAP 10
Router(config-oer-map)# match traffic-class prefix-list LIST1
Router(config-oer-map)# end

Related Commands

Command

Description

ip prefix-list

Creates an entry in a prefix list.

oer

Enables an OER process and configures a router as an OER border router or as an OER master controller.

oer-map

Enters OER map configuration mode to configure an OER map to apply policies to selected IP prefixes.

max prefix

To set the maximum number of prefixes that an Optimized Edge Routing (OER) master controller will monitor or learn, use the max prefix command in OER master controller configuration mode. To return the master controller to default behavior, use the no form of this command.

max prefix total number [ learn number ]
no max prefix total

Syntax Description

total number

Sets the total number of prefixes that the master controller will monitor. The range of values that can be entered for this argument is a number from 1 to 5000.

learn number

(Optional) Sets the total number of prefixes that the master controller will learn. The range of values that can be entered for this argument is a number from 1 to 2500.

Command Default

OER uses the following default value if this command is not configured or if the no form of this command is entered:

total number : 5000 learn number: 2500

Command Modes

OER master controller configuration

Command History

Release

Modification

12.3(14)T

This command was introduced.

12.2(33)SRB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRB.

Usage Guidelines

The max prefix command is entered on an OER master controller. This command is used to limit the number of prefix that a master controller will monitor and learn to reduce memory and system resource consumption. For more information about memory and system resource consumption, see the Cisco Optimized Edge Routing CPU and Memory Performance Tests document.


Note


If you configure a lower value for the total keyword than the learn keyword, the value for the total keyword will also set the maximum number of prefixes that a master controller will learn.

Examples

The following example configures OER to monitor a maximum of 3000 prefixes and to learn a maximum of 1500 prefixes:

Router(config)# oer master 
Router(config-oer-mc)# max prefix total 3000 learn 1500 

Related Commands

Command

Description

expire after

Configures the length of time that learned prefixes are kept in the central policy database.

learn

Enters OER Top Talker and Top Delay learning configuration mode to configure prefixes for OER to learn.

oer

Enables an OER process and configures a router as an OER border router or as an OER master controller.

max range receive

To set the maximum utilization range for all Optimized Edge Routing (OER) managed entrance links, use the max range receive command in OER master controller configuration mode. To return the maximum utilization range for entrance links to the default value, use the no form of this command.

max range receive percent maximum
no max range receive

Syntax Description

percent

Specifies the maximum utilization range for all OER entrance links as a percentage.

maximum

Maximum utilization range percentage. The range for this argument is from 1 to 100. The default is 20 percent.

Command Default

OER uses the following default value if this command is not configured or if the no form of this command is entered:

percent maximum : 20

Command Modes

OER master controller configuration

Command History

Release

Modification

12.4(9)T

This command was introduced.

12.2(33)SRB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRB.

Usage Guidelines

The max range receive command is configured on a master controller. This command is used to set a threshold link utilization range for all entrance interfaces on OER border routers.

OER entrance link range functionality attempts to keep the entrance links within a utilization range, relative to each other to ensure that the traffic load is distributed. The range is specified either as an absolute value in kilobytes per second (kbps) or as a percentage and is configured on the master controller to apply to all the entrance links on border routers managed by the master controller. For example, in an OER-managed network with two entrance links, if the range is specified as 25 percent and the utilization of the first entrance link is 70 percent, then if the utilization of the second entrance link falls to 40 percent, the percentage range between the two entrance links will be more than 25 percent and OER will attempt to move some traffic classes to use the second entrance to even the traffic load.

Examples

The following example shows how to enforce an entrance link selection for learned inside prefixes using the BGP autonomous system number community prepend technique. The max range receive command is configured under OER master controller configuration mode to set a maximum receive range for all OER-managed entrance links. In this example, the receive range between all the entrance links on the border routers must be within 35 percent.

Router> enable
Router# configure terminal
Router(config)# oer master
Router(config-oer-mc)# max range receive percent 35
Router(config-oer-mc)# border 10.1.1.2 key-chain oer
Router(config-oer-mc-br)# interface ethernet1/0 external
Router(config-oer-mc-br-if)# maximum utilization receive absolute 25000
Router(config-oer-mc-br-if)# downgrade bgp community 3:1
Router(config-oer-mc-br-if)# exit
Router(config-oer-mc-br)# exit
Router(config-oer-mc)# exit
Router(config)# oer-map INSIDE_LEARN 10
Router(config-oer-map)# match oer learn inside
Router(config-oer-map)# set delay threshold 400
Router(config-oer-map)# set resolve delay priority 1
Router(config-oer-map)# set mode route control
Router(config-oer-map)# end

Related Commands

Command

Description

border

Enters OER managed border router configuration mode to establish communication with an OER border router.

downgrade bgp

Specifies route downgrade options for an OER managed interface using BGP advertisements.

maximum utilization

Sets the maximum utilization on a single OER managed entrance link.

oer

Enables an OER process and configures a router as an OER border router or as an OER master controller.

maximum utilization receive

To set the maximum utilization on a single Optimized Edge Routing (OER) managed entrance link, use the maximum utilization receive command in OER border exit interface configuration mode. To return the maximum utilization on an entrance link to the default value, use the no form of this command.

maximum utilization receive { absolute kbps | percentage bandwidth }
no maximum utilization receive

Syntax Description

absolute

Sets the maximum utilization on an OER managed entrance link to an absolute value.

kbps

Maximum utilization for an OER managed entrance link in kilobytes per second (kbps). The configurable range for this argument is a number from 1 to 1000000000.

percent

Sets the maximum utilization on an OER managed entrance link to a bandwidth percentage.

bandwidth

Entrance link bandwidth percentage. The range for this argument is from 1 to 100. The default is 75 percent.

Command Default

OER uses the following default value if this command is not configured or if the no form of this command is entered:

percentage bandwidth : 75 .

Command Modes

OER border exit interface configuration

Command History

Release

Modification

12.4(9)T

This command was introduced.

12.2(33)SRB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRB.

Usage Guidelines

The maximum utilization receive command is entered on a master controller to set the maximum utilization threshold of incoming traffic that can be transmitted over an OER managed entrance link interface. This command is configured on a per entrance link basis. Use this command with the downgrade bgp command to configure OER BGP inbound optimization. This command can also be used with the max range receive command to configure entrance link load balancing.

If traffic utilization goes above the threshold, OER tries to move the traffic from this entrance link to another underutilized entrance link.

Examples

The following example shows how to enforce an entrance link selection for learned inside prefixes using the BGP autonomous system number community prepend technique. The maximum utilization receive command is configured under OER border exit interface configuration mode to set a maximum threshold value of 25000 kbps for packets received through the entrance link ethernet interface 1/0 on the border router.

Router> enable
Router# configure terminal
Router(config)# oer master
Router(config-oer-mc)# max range receive percent 35
Router(config-oer-mc)# border 10.1.1.2 key-chain oer
Router(config-oer-mc-br)# interface ethernet1/0 external
Router(config-oer-mc-br-if)# maximum utilization receive absolute 25000
Router(config-oer-mc-br-if)# downgrade bgp community 3:1
Router(config-oer-mc-br-if)# exit
Router(config-oer-mc-br)# exit
Router(config-oer-mc)# exit
Router(config)# oer-map INSIDE_LEARN 10
Router(config-oer-map)# match oer learn inside
Router(config-oer-map)# set delay threshold 400
Router(config-oer-map)# set resolve delay priority 1
Router(config-oer-map)# set mode route control
Router(config-oer-map)# end

Related Commands

Command

Description

border

Enters OER managed border router configuration mode to establish communication with an OER border router.

downgrade bgp

Specifies route downgrade options for an OER managed interface using BGP advertisements.

max range receive

Sets the maximum utilization range for all Optimized Edge Routing (OER) managed entrance links.

oer

Enables an OER process and configures a router as an OER border router or as an OER master controller.

max-range-utilization

To set the maximum utilization range for all Optimized Edge Routing (OER) managed exit links, use the max-range-utilization command in OER master controller configuration mode. To return the maximum utilization range to the default value, use the no form of this command.

max-range-utilization percent maximum
no max-range-utilization

Syntax Description

percent

Specifies the maximum utilization range for all OER exit links as a percentage.

maximum

Maximum utilization range percentage. The range for this argument is from 1 to 100. The default is 20 percent.

Command Default

OER uses the following default value if this command is not configured or if the no form of this command is entered:

percent maximum : 20

Command Modes

OER master controller configuration

Command History

Release

Modification

12.3(8)T

This command was introduced.

12.2(33)SRB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRB.

Usage Guidelines

The max-range-utilization command is configured on a master controller. This command is used to set a threshold link utilization range for all external interfaces on OER border routers.

OER exit link range functionality attempts to keep the exit links within a utilization range, relative to each other to ensure that the traffic load is distributed. The range is specified as a percentage and is configured on the master controller to apply to all the exit links on border routers managed by the master controller. For example, in an OER-managed network with two exit links, if the range is specified as 25 percent and the utilization of the first exit link is 70 percent, then if the utilization of the second exit link falls to 40 percent, the percentage range between the two exit links will be more than 25 percent and OER will attempt to move some traffic classes to use the second exit to even the traffic load.

Examples

The following example sets the maximum utilization range for OER managed exit links to 25 percent:

Router(config)# oer master
Router(config-oer-mc)# max-range-utilization 25
 

Related Commands

Command

Description

max-xmit-utilization

Configures maximum utilization on a single OER managed exit link.

oer

Enables an OER process and configures a router as an OER border router or as an OER master controller.

resolve

Sets the priority of a policy when multiple overlapping policies are configured.

max-xmit-utilization

To set the maximum utilization on a single Optimized Edge Routing (OER) managed exit link, use the max-xmit-utilization command in OER border exit interface configuration mode. To return the maximum utilization on an exit link to the default value, use the no form of this command.

max-xmit-utilization { absolute kbps | percentage bandwidth }
no max-xmit-utilization

Syntax Description

absolute

Sets the maximum utilization on an OER managed exit link to an absolute value.

kbps

Maximum utilization for an OER managed exit link in kilobytes per second (kbps). The configurable range for this argument is a number from 1 to 1000000000.

percentage

Sets the maximum utilization on an OER managed exit link to a bandwidth percentage.

bandwidth

Exit link bandwidth percentage. The range for this argument is from 1 to 100. The default is 75 percent.

Command Default

OER uses the following default value if this command is not configured or if the no form of this command is entered:

percentage bandwidth : 75

Command Modes

OER border exit interface configuration

Command History

Release

Modification

12.3(8)T

This command was introduced.

12.2(33)SRB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRB.

Usage Guidelines

The max-xmit-utilization command is entered on a master controller and allows you to set the maximum utilization of outbound traffic that can be transmitted over an OER managed exit interface. The maximum utilization threshold can be expressed as an absolute value in kbps or as a percentage. This command is configured on a per exit link basis and cannot be configured on OER internal interfaces; internal interfaces are not used to forward traffic.

If traffic goes above the threshold, OER tries to move the traffic from this exit link to another underutilized exit link.

Examples

The following example sets the maximum exit link utilization to 1000000 kbps on FastEthernet interface 0/0:

Router(config-oer-mc-br)# interface FastEthernet0/0 external
 
Router(config-oer-mc-br-if)# max-xmit-utilization absolute 1000000

The following example sets the maximum percentage of exit utilization to 80 percent on serial interface 1/0:

Router(config-oer-mc-br)# interface Serial 1/0 external
 
Router(config-oer-mc-br-if)# max-xmit-utilization percentage 80

Related Commands

Command

Description

interface (OER)

Configures a border router interface as an OER managed external or internal interface.

max-range-utilization

Sets the maximum utilization range for all OER managed exit links.

oer

Enables an OER process and configures a router as an OER border router or as an OER master controller.

resolve

Sets the priority of a policy when multiple overlapping policies are configured.

mode (OER)

To configure route monitoring, route control, or route exit selection on an Optimized Edge Routing (OER) master controller, use the mode command in OER master controller configuration mode. To return the OER master controller to the default monitoring, control, or exit selection state, use the no form of this command.

mode { monitor { active [ throughput] | both | fast | passive } | route { control | metric { bgp local-pref preference | eigrp tag community | static tag value } | observe } | select-exit { best | good } }
no mode { monitor | route { control | metric { bgp | eigrp | static } | observe } | select-exit }

Syntax Description

monitor

Enables the configuration of OER monitoring settings.

active

Enables active monitoring.

throughput

(Optional) Enables active monitoring with throughput data from passive monitoring.

both

Enables both active and passive monitoring. This is the default monitoring mode.

fast

Enables continuous active monitoring and passive monitoring.

passive

Enables passive monitoring.

route

Enables the configuration of OER route control policy settings.

control

Enables automatic route control.

metric

Enables the configuration of route control based on the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) local-preference, EIGRP, or for specific static routes.

bgp local-pref preference

Sets the BGP local preference for OER-controlled routes. The value for the preference argument is a number from 1 to 65535.

eigrp tag community

Applies a community value to a EIGRP route under OER control. The value for the community argument is a number from 1 to 65535.

static tag value

Applies a tag to a static route under OER control. The value for the value argument is a number from 1 to 65535.

observe

Configures OER to passively monitor and report without making any changes. This is the default route control mode.

select-exit

Enables the exit selection based on performance or policy

best

Configures OER to select the best available exit based on performance or policy.

good

Configures OER to select the first exit that is in-policy. This is the default exit selection.

Command Default

OER uses the following default settings if this command is not configured or if the no form of this command is entered:

Monitoring: Both active and passive monitoring is enabled. Route control: Observe mode route control is enabled. Exit Selection: The first in-policy exit is selected.

Command Modes

OER master controller configuration (config-oer-mc)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.3(8)T

This command was introduced.

12.2(33)SRB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRB.

12.4(15)T

The fast and throughput keywords were added.

15.0(1)M

This command was modified. The eigrp and tag keywords and community argument were added to support EIGRP route control.

12.2(33)SRE

This command was modified. The eigrp and tag keywords and community argument were added to support EIGRP route control.

Usage Guidelines

The mode command is entered on a master controller. This command is used to enable and configure control mode and observe mode settings and is used to configure passive monitoring and active monitoring. A prefix can be monitored both passively and actively.

Observe Mode

Observe mode monitoring is enabled by default. In observe mode, the master controller monitors prefixes and exit links based on default and user-defined policies and then reports the status of the network and the decisions that should be made but does not implement any changes. This mode allows you to verify the effectiveness of this feature before it is actively deployed.

Control Mode

In control mode, the master controller coordinates information from the border routers and makes policy decisions just as it does in observe mode. The master controller monitors prefixes and exits based on default and user-defined policies but then implements changes to optimize prefixes and to select the best exit. In this mode, the master controller gathers performance statistics from the border routers and then transmits commands to the border routers to alter routing as necessary in the OER managed network.

Passive Monitoring

The master controller passively monitors IP prefixes and TCP traffic flows. Passive monitoring is configured on the master controller. Monitoring statistics are gathered on the border routers and then reported back to the master controller. OER uses NetFlow to collect and aggregate passive monitoring statistics on a per prefix basis. No explicit NetFlow configuration is required. NetFlow support is enabled by default when passive monitoring is enabled. OER uses passive monitoring to measure the following information:

Delay --OER measures the average delay of TCP flows for a prefix. Delay is the measurement of the time between the transmission of a TCP synchronization message and receipt of the TCP acknowledgment.

Packet Loss --OER measures packet loss by tracking TCP sequence numbers for each TCP flow. OER estimates packet loss by tracking the highest TCP sequence number. If a subsequent packet is received with a lower sequence number, OER increments the packet loss counter.

Reachability --OER measures reachability by tracking TCP synchronization messages that have been sent repeatedly without receiving a TCP acknowledgment.

Throughput --OER measures outbound throughput for optimized prefixes. Throughput is measured in bits per second (bps).


Note


OER passively monitors TCP traffic flows for IP traffic. Passive monitoring of non-TCP sessions is not supported.

Active Monitoring

OER uses Cisco IOS IP Service Level Agreements (SLAs) to enable active monitoring. IP SLAs support is enabled by default. IP SLAs support allows OER to be configured to send active probes to target IP addresses to measure the jitter and delay, determining if a prefix is out-of-policy and if the best exit is selected. The border router collects these performance statistics from the active probe and transmits this information to the master controller. The master controller uses this information to optimize the prefix and select the best available exit based on default and user-defined policies. The active-probe command is used to create an active probe.

In Cisco IOS Release 12.4(15)T the throughput keyword was added to enable the throughput data from passive mode monitoring to be considered when optimizing UDP traffic for both performance and load balancing. UDP traffic can be optimized only for performance (for example, delay, jitter, and loss) when active monitoring data is available. To enable load balancing of UDP traffic, throughput data from passive monitoring is required.

Fast Failover Monitoring

In Cisco IOS Release 12.4(15)T, a new monitoring mode, fast monitoring, was introduced. Fast monitoring sets the active probes to continuously monitor all the exits (probe-all), and passive monitoring is enabled too. Fast failover monitoring can be used with all types of active probes: ICMP echo, Jitter, TCP connection, and UDP echo. When the mode monitor fast command is enabled, the probe frequency can be set to a lower frequency than for other monitoring modes, to allow a faster failover ability. Under fast monitoring with a lower probe frequency, route changes can be performed within 3 seconds of an out-of-policy situation. When an exit becomes OOP under fast monitoring, the select best exit is operational and the routes from the OOP exit are moved to the best in-policy exit. Fast monitoring is a very aggressive mode that incurs a lot of overhead with the continuous probing. We recommend that you use fast monitoring only for performance sensitive traffic.

Optimal Exit Link Selection

The master controller can be configured to select a new exit for an out-of-policy prefix based on performance or policy. You can configure the master controller to select the first in-policy exit by entering the good keyword, or you can configure the master controller to select the best exit with the best keyword. If the good keyword is used and there is no in-policy exit, the prefix is uncontrolled.

Examples

The following example enables both active and passive monitoring:

Router(config)# oer master
Router(config-oer-mc)# mode monitor both

The following example enables fast failover monitoring:

Router(config)# oer master
Router(config-oer-mc)# mode monitor fast

The following example configures the master controller to enable active monitoring with throughput data from passive monitoring:

Router(config)# oer master
Router(config-oer-mc)# mode monitor active throughput

The following example enables control mode:

Router(config)# oer master
Router(config-oer-mc)# mode route control 

The following example configures the master controller to enable control mode and to enable EIGRP route control that applies a community value of 700 to EIGRP routes under OER control:

Router(config)# oer master
Router(config-oer-mc)# mode route control
Router(config-oer-mc)# mode route metric eigrp tag 700

The following example configures the master controller to select the first in-policy exit:

Router(config)# oer master
Router(config-oer-mc)# mode select-exit good 

Related Commands

Command

Description

oer

Enables an OER process and configures a router as an OER border router or as an OER master controller.

resolve

Sets the priority of a policy when multiple overlapping policies are configured.

set mode

Configures an OER map to configure route monitoring, route control, or exit selection for matched traffic.

monitor-period

To set the time period in which an Optimized Edge Routing (OER) master controller learns traffic flows, use the monitor-period command in OER Top Talker and Top Delay learning configuration mode. To return the monitoring period to the default time period, use the no form of this command.

monitor-period minutes
no monitor-period

Syntax Description

minutes

Sets the prefix learning period, in minutes. The range is from 1 to 1440. The default value is 5.

Command Default

If this command is not configured, or if the no form of this command is entered, the default is 5 minutes.

Command Modes

OER Top Talker and Top Delay learning configuration

Command History

Release

Modification

12.3(8)T

This command was introduced.

12.2(33)SRB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRB.

Usage Guidelines

The monitor-period command is configured on a master controller. This command is used to adjust the length of time that a master controller learns traffic flows on border routers. The length of time between monitoring periods is configured with the periodic-intervalcommand. The number of prefixes that are learned is configured with the prefixes command.

Examples

The following example sets the OER monitoring period to 10 minutes on a master controller:

Router(config)# oer master
Router(config-oer-mc)# learn
Router(config-oer-mc-learn)# monitor-period 10 

Related Commands

Command

Description

learn

Enters OER Top Talker and Top Delay learning configuration mode to configure prefixes for OER to learn.

oer

Enables an OER process and configures a router as an OER border router or as an OER master controller.

periodic-interval

Sets the time interval between prefix learning periods.

prefixes

Sets the number of prefixes that OER will learn during a monitoring period.

mos

To specify the threshold and percentage M ean Opinion Score (MOS) values that Optimized Edge Routing (OER) will permit for an exit link, use the mos command in OER master controller configuration mode. To reset the threshold and percentage MOS values to their default value, use the no form of this command.

mos threshold minimum percent percent
no mos threshold minimum percent percent

Syntax Description

threshold

Specifies a threshold MOS value that represents a minimum voice quality for exit link utilization.

minimum

Number (to two decimal places) in the range from 1.00 to 5.00, where 1.00 represents the lowest voice quality, and 5.00 represents the highest voice quality. The default MOS value is 3.60.

percent

Specifies a percentage value that is compared with the percentage of MOS samples that are below the MOS threshold.

percent

Number, as a percentage.

Command Default

The default MOS value is 3.60.

Command Modes

OER master controller configuration

Command History

Release

Modification

12.4(6)T

This command was introduced.

12.2(33)SRB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRB.

Usage Guidelines

The mos command is used to determine voice quality. The number of MOS samples over a period of time that are below the threshold MOS value are calculated. If the percentage of MOS samples below the threshold is greater than the configured percentage, OER determines that the exit link is out-of-policy and searches for an alternate exit link.

Another measure of voice quality is the jitter value. Use the mos command and the jitter command in an OER policy to define voice quality.

Examples

The following example shows how to configure the master controller to search for a new exit link if more than 30 percent of the MOS samples are below the MOS threshold of 3.75:

Router(config)# oer master
Router(config-oer-map)# mos threshold 3.75 percent 30

Related Commands

Command

Description

oer

Enables an OER process and configures a router as an OER border router or as an OER master controller.

set mos

Configures an OER map to set the maximum MOS value that OER will permit for an exit link.

oer


Note


Effective with Cisco IOS Release 15.0(1)SY, the oer command is hidden. Although this command is still available in Cisco IOS software, the CLI interactive Help does not display it if you attempt to view it by entering a question mark at the command line. This command will be completely removed in a future release.

To enable a Cisco IOS Optimized Edge Routing (OER) process and configure a router as an OER border router or as an OER master controller, use the oer command in global configuration mode. To disable a border router or master controller process and delete the OER configuration from the running configuration file, use the no form of this command.

All Cisco IOS Releases Except Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SXH

oer { border | master }
no oer { border | master }

Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SXH

oer border
no oer border

Syntax Description

border

Designates a router as a border router and enters OER border router configuration mode.

master

Designates a router as a master controller and enters OER master controller configuration mode.

Command Default

OER is not enabled.

Command Modes

Global configuration (config)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.3(8)T

This command was introduced.

12.2(33)SRB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRB.

12.2SX

This command is supported in the Cisco IOS Release 12.2SX train. Support in a specific 12.2SX release of this train depends on your feature set, platform, and platform hardware.

15.0(1)SY

This command was modified. This command was hidden.

Usage Guidelines

The oer command is entered on a router to create a border router or master controller process to enable Cisco IOS OER, which allows you to enable automatic outbound route control and load distribution for multihomed and enterprise networks. Configuring OER allows you to monitor IP traffic flows and then define policies and rules based on link performance and link load distribution to alter routing and improve network performance. An OER managed network consists of the following two components:

Master Controller --The master controller is a single router that coordinates all OER functions within an OER managed network. The master controller monitors outbound traffic flows using active or passive monitoring and then applies default and user-defined policies to alter routing to optimize prefixes and exit links. Most OER administration is centralized on the master controller, which makes all policy decisions and controls the border routers. The master controller is not required to be in the traffic forwarding path. The master controller can support up to 10 border routers and up to 20 OER managed external interfaces.

Border Router --The border router is an enterprise edge router with one or more exit links to an Internet service provider (ISP) or other participating network. The border router participates in prefix monitoring and route optimization by reporting prefix and exit link information to the master controller and then enforcing policy changes received from the master controller. Policy changes are enforced by injected a preferred route into the network. The border router is deployed on the edge of the network, so the border router must be in the forwarding path. A border router process can be enabled on the same router as a master controller process (for example, in a small network where all exit interfaces are managed on a single router).

Enabling a Border Router and Master Controller Process on the Same Router

A Cisco router can be configured to perform in dual operation and run a master controller process and border router process on the same router. However, this router will use more memory than a router that is configured to run only a border router process. This factor should be considered when selecting a router for dual operation.

Disabling a Border Router or a Master Controller

To disable a master controller or border router and completely remove the process configuration from the running configuration file, use the no form of this command in Global configuration mode.

To temporarily disable a master controller or border router process, use the shutdown command in OER master controller or OER border router configuration mode. Entering the shutdown command stops an active master controller or border router process but does not remove any configuration parameters. The shutdown command is displayed in the running configuration file when enabled.

Enabling Cisco IOS OER for Load Distribution

When enabling Cisco IOS OER for load distribution, we recommend that you set the interface load calculation on OER managed external interfaces to 30-second intervals with the load-interval interface configuration command. The default calculation interval is 300 seconds. The load calculation is configured under interface configuration mode on the border router. This configuration is not required. It is recommended that you allow Cisco IOS OER to respond as quickly as possible to load distribution issues.

Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SXH

In Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SXH, only the border keyword is supported.

Examples

Minimum Required OER Master Controller Configuration

The following example designates a router as a master controller and enters OER master controller configuration mode:

Router(config)# oer master

The following is an example of the minimum required configuration on a master controller to create an OER managed network:

A key-chain configuration named OER is defined in global configuration mode.

Router(config)# key chain OER 
Router(config-keychain)# key 1 
Router(config-keychain-key)# key-string CISCO
 
Router(config-keychain-key)# exit
Router(config-keychain)# exit

The master controller is configured to communicate with the 10.4.9.6 border router in OER master controller configuration mode. The communications port number is specified. The key-chain OER is applied to protect communication. Internal and external OER controlled border router interfaces are defined.

Router(config)# oer master
 
Router(config-oer-mc)# port 65535
 
Router(config-oer-mc)# border 10.4.9.6 key-chain OER 
Router(config-oer-mc-br)# interface FastEthernet0/0 external 
Router(config-oer-mc-br)# interface FastEthernet0/1 internal 
Router(config-oer-mc-br)# exit 

Required OER Border Router Configuration

The following example designates a router as a border router and enters OER border router configuration mode:

Router(config)# oer border

The following is an example of the minimum required configuration to configure a border router in an OER managed network:

The key-chain configuration is defined in global configuration mode.

Router(config)# key chain OER
 
Router(config-keychain)# key 1 
Router(config-keychain-key)# key-string CISCO 
Router(config-keychain-key)# exit
 
Router(config-keychain)# exit

The communications port number is specified. The key-chain OER is applied to protect communication. An interface is identified as the local source interface to the master controller.

Router(config)# oer border 
Router(config-oer-br)# port 65535
 
Router(config-oer-br)# local FastEthernet0/0 
Router(config-oer-br)# master 10.4.9.4 key-chain OER 
Router(config-oer-br)# end 

Related Commands

Command

Description

border

Enters OER managed border router configuration mode to configure a border router.

keepalive (OER)

Configures the length of time that an OER master controller will maintain connectivity with an OER border router after no keepalive packets have been received.

learn

Enters OER Top Talker and Top Delay learning configuration mode to configure OER to learn prefixes.

load-interval

Specifies the time interval for load calculation for the specified interface.

master

Establishes communication with a master controller.

mode (OER)

Configures route monitoring or route control on an OER master controller.

oer-map

Enters OER map configuration mode to configure an OER map to apply policies to selected IP prefixes.

port (OER)

Configures a dynamic port for communication between an OER master controller and border router.

shutdown (OER)

Stops or starts an OER master controller or an OER border router process.

oer-map

To enter OER map configuration mode to configure an Optimized Edge Routing (OER) map to apply policies to selected IP prefixes, use the oer-map command in global configuration mode. To delete the OER map, use the no form of this command.

oer-map map-name [ sequence-number]
no oer-map map-name

Syntax Description

map-name

Specifies the name or tag for the OER map.

sequence-number

(Optional) Specifies the sequence number for the OER map entry. The configurable range for this argument is from 1 to 65535.

Command Default

No OER maps are created.

Command Modes

Global configuration

Command History

Release

Modification

12.3(8)T

This command was introduced.

12.2(33)SRB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRB.

Usage Guidelines

The oer-map command is configured on a master controller. The operation of an OER map is similar to the operation of a route-map. An OER map is designed to select IP prefixes or to select OER learn policies using a match clause and then to apply OER policy configurations using a set clause. The OER map is configured with a sequence number like a route-map, and the OER map with the lowest sequence number is evaluated first. The operation of an OER map differs from a route-map at this point. There are two important distinctions:

  • Only a single match clause may be configured for each sequence. An error message will be displayed on the console if you attempt to configure multiple match clauses for a single OER map sequence.
  • An OER map is not configured with permit or deny statements. However, a permit or deny sequence can be configured for an IP traffic flow by configuring a permit or deny statement in an IP prefix list and then applying the prefix list to the OER map with the match ip address(OER) command.

Tip


Deny prefixes should be combined in a single prefix list and applied to the OER map with the lowest sequence number.


An OER map can match a prefix or prefix range with the match ip address (OER) command. A prefix can be any IP network number combined with a prefix mask that specifies the prefix length. The prefix or prefix range is defined with the ip prefix-listcommand in global configuration mode. Any prefix length can be specified. An OER map can also match OER learned prefixes with the match oer learn command. Matching can be configured for prefixes learned based on delay or based on throughput.

The OER map applies the configuration of the set clause after a successful match occurs. An OER set clause can be used to set policy parameters for the backoff timer, packet delay, holddown timer, packet loss, mode settings, periodic timer, resolve settings, and unreachable hosts. See the "Related Commands" section of this command reference page for a complete list of OER set clauses.

Policies that are applied by an OER map do not override global policies configured under OER master controller configuration mode and OER Top Talker and Delay learning configuration mode. Policies are overridden on a per-prefix list basis. If a policy type is not explicitly configured in an OER map, the default or configured values will apply. Policies applied by an OER map take effect after the current policy or operational timer expires. The OER map configuration can be viewed in the output of the show running-config command. OER policy configuration can be viewed in the output of the show oer master policy command.

Examples

The following example creates an OER map named SELECT_EXIT that matches traffic defined in the IP prefix list named CUSTOMER and sets exit selection to the first in-policy exit when the periodic timer expires. This OER map also sets a resolve policy that sets the priority of link utilization policies to 1 (highest priority) and allows for a 10 percent variance in exit link utilization statistics.

Router(config)# ip prefix-list CUSTOMER permit 10.4.9.0/24
Router(config)# oer-map SELECT_EXIT 10
Router(config-oer-map)# match ip address prefix-list CUSTOMER 
Router(config-oer-map)# set mode select-exit good
Router(config-oer-map)# set resolve utilization priority 1 variance 10 

The following example creates an OER map named THROUGHPUT that matches traffic learned based on the highest outbound throughput. The set clause applies a relative loss policy that will permit 10 percent packet loss:

Router(config)# oer-map THROUGHPUT 20
Router(config-oer-map)# match oer learn throughput
Router(config-oer-map)# set loss relative 10 

Related Commands

Command

Description

ip prefix-list

Creates an entry in a prefix list.

match ip address (OER)

Creates a prefix list match clause entry in an OER map to apply OER policy settings.

match oer learn

Creates a match clause entry in an OER map to match OER learned prefixes.

oer

Enables an OER process and configures a router as an OER border router or as an OER master controller.

set loss

Configures an OER map to set the relative or maximum packet loss limit that OER will permit for an exit link.

set resolve

Configures an OER map to set policy priority for overlapping policies.

show oer master policy

Displays configured and default policy settings on an OER master controller.

periodic (OER)

To configure Optimized Edge Routing (OER) to periodically select the best exit link, use the periodic command in OER master controller configuration mode. To disable periodic exit selection, use the no form of this command.

periodic timer
no periodic

Syntax Description

timer

Sets the length of time, in seconds, for the periodic timer. The range of configurable values is from180 to 7200.

Command Default

Periodic exit selection is disabled.

Command Modes

OER master controller configuration

Command History

Release

Modification

12.3(8)T

This command was introduced.

12.2(33)SRB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRB.

Usage Guidelines

The periodic command is entered on a master controller. This command is used to configure the master controller to evaluate and then make policy decisions for OER managed exit links. When the periodic timer expires, the master controller evaluates current exit links based on default or user-defined policies. If all exit links are in-policy, no changes are made. If an exit link is out-of-policy, the affected prefixes are moved to an in-policy exit link. If all exit links are out-of-policy, the master controller will move out-of-policy prefixes to the best available exit links.

The master controller can be configured to select the first in-policy exit when the periodic timer expires, by configuring the mode command with the select-exit good keywords. The master controller also can be configured to select the best available in-policy exit, by configuring the mode command with the select-exit bestkeywords.

The periodic timer is reset to the default or configured value each time the timer expires. Configuring a new timer value will immediately replace the existing value if the new value is less than the time remaining. If the new value is greater than the time remaining, the new timer value will be used when the existing timer value expires.

Examples

The following example sets the periodic timer to 300 seconds. When the periodic timer expires, OER will select either the best exit or the first in-policy exit.

Router(config)# oer master
Router(config-oer-mc)# periodic 300
 

Related Commands

Command

Description

mode(OER)

Configures route monitoring or route control on an OER master controller.

oer

Enables an OER process and configures a router as an OER border router or as an OER master controller.

set periodic

Configures an OER map to set the time period for the periodic timer.

periodic-interval

To set the time interval between prefix learning periods, use the periodic-intervalcommand in OER Top Talker and Top Delay learning configuration mode. To set the time interval between prefix learning periods to the default value, use the no form of this command.

periodic-interval minutes
no periodic-interval

Syntax Description

minutes

Sets the time interval between prefix learning periods in minutes. The range that can be configured for this argument is from 0 to 10080 minutes.

Command Default

Optimized Edge Routing (OER) uses the following default value if this command is not configured or if the no form of this command is entered:

minutes : 120

Command Modes

OER Top Talker and Top Delay learning configuration

Command History

Release

Modification

12.3(8)T

This command was introduced.

12.4(2)T

The range of values that can be entered for the minutes argument was changed.

12.2(33)SRB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRB.

Usage Guidelines

The periodic-interval command is configured on a master controller. This command is used to adjust the length of time between traffic flow monitoring periods. The length of time of the learning period is configured with the monitor-period command. The number of prefixes that are monitored is configured with the prefixescommand.

Examples

The following example sets the length of time between OER monitoring periods to 20 minutes on a master controller:

Router(config)# oer master
Router(config-oer-mc)# learn
Router(config-oer-mc-learn)# periodic-interval 20
 

Related Commands

Command

Description

learn

Enters OER Top Talker and Top Delay learning configuration mode to configure prefixes for OER to learn.

monitor-period

Sets the time period in which an OER master controller learns traffic flows.

oer

Enables an OER process and configures a router as an OER border router or as an OER master controller.

prefixes

Sets the number of prefixes that OER will learn during a monitoring period.

policy-rules

To apply a configuration from an Optimized Edge Routing (OER) map to a master controller configuration, use the policy-rulescommand in OER master controller configuration mode. To remove a configuration applied by the policy-rules command, use the no form of this command.

policy-rules map-name
no policy-rules

Syntax Description

map-name

The name of the OER map.

Command Default

No configuration is applied to a master controller from an OER map.

Command Modes

OER master controller configuration

Command History

Release

Modification

12.3(11)T

This command was introduced.

12.2(33)SRB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRB.

Usage Guidelines

The policy-rules command allows you to select an OER map and apply the configuration under OER master controller configuration mode, providing an improved method to switch between predefined OER maps.

The policy-rules command is entered on a master controller. This command is used to apply the configuration from an OER map to a master controller configuration in OER master controller configuration mode.

Reentering this command with a new OER map name will immediately overwrite the previous configuration. This behavior is designed to allow you to quickly select and switch between predefined OER maps.

Examples

The following examples, starting in global configuration mode, show how to configure the policy-rules command to apply the OER map named BLUE under OER master controller configuration mode:

Router(config)# oer-map BLUE 10 
Router(config-oer-map)# match oer learn delay
Router(config-oer-map)# set loss relative 900
Router(config-oer-map)# exit
Router(config)# oer master 
Router(config-oer-mc)# policy-rules BLUE 
Router(config-oer-mc)# end 

Related Commands

Command

Description

oer

Enables an OER process and configures a router as an OER border router or as an OER master controller.

oer-map

Enters OER map configuration mode to configure an OER map to apply policies to selected IP prefixes.

port (OER)


Note


Effective with Cisco IOS Release 15.0(1)SY, the port command is hidden. Although this command is still available in Cisco IOS software, the CLI interactive Help does not display it if you attempt to view it by entering a question mark at the command line. This command will be completely removed in a future release.

To optionally configure a dynamic port number for communication between an Optimized Edge Routing (OER) master controller and border router, use the port command in OER master controller or OER border router configuration mode. To close the port and disable communication, use the no form of this command.

port [ port-number]
no port

Syntax Description

port-number

(Optional) Specifies the port number. The configurable range for this argument is a number from 1 to 65535.

Command Default

Port 3949 is used for OER communication unless a dynamic port number is configured on both the master controller and the border router. Port configuration is not shown in the running configuration file when port 3949 is used.

Command Modes

OER border router configuration (config-oer-br)
OER master controller configuration (config-oer-mc)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.3(8)T

This command was introduced.

12.3(11)T

Port 3949 was registered with the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) for OER communication. Manual port configuration is not required as of Cisco IOS Release 12.3(11)T.

12.2(33)SRB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRB.

12.2SX

This command is supported in the Cisco IOS Release 12.2SX train. Support in a specific 12.2SX release of this train depends on your feature set, platform, and platform hardware.

15.0(1)SY

This command was modified. This command was hidden.

Usage Guidelines

Communication between a master controller and border router is automatically carried over port 3949 when connectivity is established. Port 3949 is registered with IANA for OER communication. Manual port number configuration is required only if you are running Cisco IOS Release 12.3(8)T or if you need to configure OER communication to use a dynamic port number.

The portcommand is entered on a master controller or a border router. This command is used to specify a dynamic port number to be used for border router and the master controller communication. The same port number must be configured on both the master controller and border router. Closing the port by entering the no form of this command disables communication between the master controller and the border router.

Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SXH

This command is supported only in OER border router configuration mode.

Examples

The following example opens port 49152 for master controller communication with a border router:

Router(config)# oer master
Router(config-oer-mc)# port 49152

The following example opens port 49152 for border router communication with a master controller:

Router(config)# oer border
Router(config-oer-br)# port 49152 

The following example closes the default or user-defined port and disables communication between a master controller and border router:

Router(config)# oer master
Router(config-oer-mc)# no port
 

Related Commands

Command

Description

border

Enters OER managed border router configuration mode to establish communication with an OER border router.

local (OER)

Identifies a local interface on an OER border router as the source for communication with an OER master controller.

oer

Enables an OER process and configures a router as an OER border router or as an OER master controller.

prefixes

To set the number of prefixes that OER will learn during a monitoring period, use the prefixes command in OER Top Talker and Top Delay learning configuration mode. To return the number of prefixes to the default value, use the no form of this command.

prefixes number
no prefixes

Syntax Description

number

Sets the number of prefixes that a master controller will learn during a monitoring period. The range is from 1 to 2500. The default is 100.

Command Default

OER uses a default number of 100 prefixes if this command is not configured or if the no form of this command is entered.

Command Modes

OER Top Talker and Top Delay learning configuration

Command History

Release

Modification

12.3(8)T

This command was introduced.

12.2(33)SRB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRB.

Usage Guidelines

The prefixes command is configured on a master controller. This command is used to set the number of prefixes that a master controller will learn during a monitoring period. The length of time of the learning period is configured with the monitor-periodcommand. The length of time between monitoring periods is configured with the periodic-intervalcommand.

Examples

The following example configures a master controller to learn 200 prefixes during a monitoring period:

Router(config)# oer master
Router(config-oer-mc)# learn
Router(config-oer-mc-learn)# prefixes 200 

Related Commands

Command

Description

learn

Enters OER Top Talker and Top Delay learning configuration mode to configure prefixes for OER to learn.

monitor-period

Sets the time period in which an OER master controller learns traffic flows.

oer

Enables an OER process and configures a router as an OER border router or as an OER master controller.

periodic-interval

Sets the time interval between prefix learning periods.

protocol (OER)

To configure an Optimized Edge Routing (OER) master controller to learn traffic class entries based on a protocol number or a range of port numbers, use the protocol command in OER Top Talker and Top Delay learning configuration mode. To disable port-based prefix learning, use the no form of this command.

protocol { number | tcp | udp } [ port port-number | gt port-number | lt port-number | range lower-number upper-number ] [ dst | src ]
no protocol { number | tcp | udp } [ port port-number | gt port-number | lt port-number | range lower-number upper-number ] [ dst | src ]

Syntax Description

number

Configures prefix learning based on a specific protocol number. The configurable range for this argument is a number from 1 to 255.

tcp

Configures prefix learning based on the TCP protocol.

udp

Configures prefix learning based on the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) protocol.

port port-number

(Optional) Specifies the port number for prefix learning based on protocol. The configurable range for the port-number argument is a number from 1 to 65535.

gt port-number

(Optional) Specifies all port numbers greater than the number specified with the port-number argument.

lt port-number

(Optional) Specifies all port numbers less than the number specified with the port-number argument.

range lower-number upper-number

(Optional) Specifies a range of port numbers. The first number in the range is specified with the lower-number argument. The last number in the range is specified with the upper-number argument. The configurable range for the lower-number and upper-number arguments is a number from 1 to 65535.

dst

(Optional) Configures prefix learning based on the destination port number.

src

(Optional) Configures prefix learning based on the source port number.

Command Default

No traffic class entries are learned on the basis of a protocol or port number.

Command Modes

OER Top Talker and Top Delay learning configuration

Command History

Release

Modification

12.3(11)T

This command was introduced.

12.2(33)SRB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRB.

Usage Guidelines

The protocol command is configured on a master controller. This command is used to configure prefix learning based on the specified protocol. This command provides a very granular level of control over prefix learning. Configuring this command allows you to configure the master controller to learn prefixes based on the specified protocol and the specified port number.

Port-based prefix learning allows you to include or exclude traffic streams for a specific protocol or the TCP or UDP port and port range. Traffic can be optimized for a specific application or protocol or to exclude uninteresting traffic, allowing you to focus system resources, thus saving CPU cycles and reducing the amount of memory that is required to monitor prefixes. In cases where traffic streams have to be excluded or included over ports that fall above or below a certain port number, a range of port numbers can be specified.

For a list of Internet Assigned Numbers Association (IANA) assigned port numbers, see the following document:

For a list of IANA assigned protocol numbers, see the following document:

Examples

The following example configures a master controller to learn Enhanced Interior Gateway Protocol (EIGRP) prefixes during the monitoring period:

Router(config)# oer master
Router(config-oer-mc)# learn
Router(config-oer-mc-learn)# protocol 88 

Related Commands

Command

Description

learn

Enters OER Top Talker and Top Delay learning configuration mode to configure prefixes for OER to learn.

resolve

To set the priority of a policy when multiple overlapping policies are configured, use the resolve command in OER master controller configuration mode. To disable the policy priority configuration, use the no form of this command.

resolve { cost priority value | delay priority value variance percentage | jitter priority value variance percentage | loss priority value variance percentage | mos priority value variance percentage | range priority value | utilization priority value variance percentage }
no resolve { cost | delay | jitter | loss | mos | range | utilization }

Syntax Description

cost

Specifies policy priority settings for cost optimization.

priority value

Sets the priority of the policy. The range is from 1 to 10.

  • The number 1 has the highest priority, and the number 10 has the lowest priority.

delay

Specifies policy priority settings for packet delay.

variance percentage

Sets the allowable variance for the policy, as a percentage. The range is from 1 to 100.

jitter

Specifies policy priority settings for jitter.

loss

Specifies policy priority settings for packet loss.

mos

Specifies policy priority settings for the Mean Opinion Score (MOS).

range

Specifies policy priority settings for the range.

utilization

Specifies policy priority settings for exit link utilization.

Command Default

Optimized Edge Routing (OER) uses the following default settings if this command is not configured or if the no form of this command is entered:

  • An unreachable prefix: highest priority
  • delay : 11
  • utilization : 12

Command Modes

OER master controller configuration (config-oer-mc)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.3(8)T

This command was introduced.

12.4(6)T

This command was modified. The jitter and mos keywords were added.

12.2(33)SRB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRB.

Usage Guidelines

The resolve command is entered on a master controller. This command is used to set priority when multiple policies are configured for the same prefix. When this command is configured, the policy with the highest priority will be selected to determine the policy decision.

The priority keyword is used to specify the priority value. The number 1 assigns the highest priority to a policy. The number 10 sets the lowest priority. Each policy must be assigned a different priority number. If you try to assign the same priority number to two different policy types, an error message will be displayed on the console. By default, delay has a priority value of 11 and utilization has a priority value of 12. These values can be overridden by specifying a value from 1 to 10.


Note


An unreachable prefix will always have the highest priority regardless of any other settings. This is a designed behavior and cannot be overridden because an unreachable prefix indicates an interruption in a traffic flow.

The variance keyword is used to set an allowable variance for a user-defined policy. This keyword configures the allowable percentage that an exit link or prefix can vary from the user-defined policy value and still be considered equivalent. For example, if an exit link delay is set to 80 absolute and a 10 percent variance is configured, exit links that have delay values from 80 to 89 percent will be considered equal.


Note


Variance cannot be configured for cost or range policies.

Note


You must configure an OER active jitter probe for a target prefix using the active-probe command for the resolve jitter, resolve loss, and resolve mos commands to function.

Examples

The following example shows how to set the delay policy priority to 1 and the allowable variance percentage to 20 percent:

Router(config)# oer master
Router(config-oer-mc)# resolve delay priority 1 variance 20 

The following example shows how to set the loss policy priority to 2 and the allowable variance percentage to 30 percent:

Router(config)# oer master
Router(config-oer-mc)# resolve loss priority 2 variance 30

The following example shows how to set the jitter policy priority to 3 and the allowable variance percentage to 5 percent:

Router(config)# oer master
Router(config-oer-mc)# resolve jitter priority 3 variance 5

The following example shows how to set the MOS policy priority to 4 and the allowable variance percentage to 25 percent:

Router(config)# oer master
Router(config-oer-mc)# resolve mos priority 4 variance 25

The following example shows how to set the range policy priority to 5:

Router(config)# oer master
Router(config-oer-mc)# resolve range priority 5 

The following example shows how to set the link utilization policy priority to 6 and the allowable variance percentage to 10 percent:

Router(config)# oer master
Router(config-oer-mc)# resolve utilization priority 6 variance 10 

Related Commands

Command

Description

active-probe

Configures an OER active probe for a target prefix.

cost-minimization

Configures cost-based optimization policies on a master controller.

delay

Configures OER to learn prefixes based on the lowest delay.

jitter

Sets the jitter threshold value that OER will permit for an exit link.

loss

Sets the relative or maximum packet loss limit that OER will permit for an exit link.

max-range-utilization

Sets the maximum utilization range for all OER managed exit links

max-xmit-utilization

Configures maximum utilization on a single OER managed exit link.

mode (OER)

Configures route monitoring or route control on an OER master controller.

mos

Sets the MOS threshold value that OER will permit for an exit link.

oer

Enables an OER process and configures a router as an OER border router or as an OER master controller.

show oer master policy

Displays user-defined and default policy settings on an OER master controller.

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