MPLS Traffic Engineering Path Calculation and Setup Configuration Guide, Cisco IOS XE Release 3S
MPLS Traffic Engineering Forwarding Adjacency
Downloads: This chapterpdf (PDF - 1.38MB) The complete bookPDF (PDF - 4.38MB) | The complete bookePub (ePub - 874.0KB) | Feedback

MPLS Traffic Engineering Forwarding Adjacency

Contents

MPLS Traffic Engineering Forwarding Adjacency

The MPLS Traffic Engineering Forwarding Adjacency feature allows a network administrator to handle a traffic engineering (TE) label switched path (LSP) tunnel as a link in an Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) network based on the Shortest Path First (SPF) algorithm.

Both Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS) and Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) are supported.

Finding Feature Information

Your software release may not support all the features documented in this module. For the latest caveats and feature information, see Bug Search Tool and the release notes for your platform and software release. To find information about the features documented in this module, and to see a list of the releases in which each feature is supported, see the feature information table at the end of this module.

Use Cisco Feature Navigator to find information about platform support and Cisco software image support. To access Cisco Feature Navigator, go to www.cisco.com/​go/​cfn. An account on Cisco.com is not required.

Prerequisites for MPLS Traffic Engineering Forwarding Adjacency

Your network must support the following Cisco IOS XE features:

  • Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS)
  • IP Cisco Express Forwarding
  • IS-IS

Restrictions for MPLS Traffic Engineering Forwarding Adjacency

  • Using the MPLS Traffic Engineering Forwarding Adjacency feature increases the size of the IGP database by advertising a TE tunnel as a link.
  • When the MPLS Traffic Engineering Forwarding Adjacency feature is enabled on a TE tunnel, the link is advertised in the IGP network as a type, length, value (TLV) 22 object without any TE sub-TLV.
  • You must configure MPLS TE forwarding adjacency tunnels bidirectionally.

Information About MPLS Traffic Engineering Forwarding Adjacency

MPLS Traffic Engineering Forwarding Adjacency Functionality

The MPLS Traffic Engineering Forwarding Adjacency feature allows a network administrator to handle a TE LSP tunnel as a link in an IGP network based on the SPF algorithm. A forwarding adjacency can be created between routers regardless of their location in the network. The routers can be located multiple hops from each other, as shown in the figure below.



As a result, a TE tunnel is advertised as a link in an IGP network with the link’s cost associated with it.

Routers outside of the TE domain see the TE tunnel and use it to compute the shortest path for routing traffic throughout the network.

MPLS Traffic Engineering Forwarding Adjacency Benefits

TE tunnel interfaces advertised for SPF--TE tunnel interfaces are advertised in the IGP network just like any other links. Routers can then use these advertisements in their IGPs to compute the SPF even if they are not the headend of any TE tunnels.

How to Configure MPLS Traffic Engineering Forwarding Adjacency

Configuring a Tunnel Interface for MPLS TE Forwarding Adjacency

SUMMARY STEPS

    1.    enable

    2.    configure terminal

    3.    interface tunnel number

    4.    exit

    5.    exit


DETAILED STEPS
     Command or ActionPurpose
    Step 1 enable


    Example:
    Router> enable
     

    Enables privileged EXEC mode.

    • Enter your password if prompted.
     
    Step 2 configure terminal


    Example:
    Router# configure terminal
     

    Enters global configuration mode.

     
    Step 3 interface tunnel number


    Example:
    Router(config)# interface tunnel 0
     

    Designates a tunnel interface for the forwarding adjacency, and enters interface configuration mode.

     
    Step 4 exit


    Example:
    Router(config-if)# exit
     

    Exits interface configuration mode and returns to global configuration mode.

     
    Step 5 exit


    Example:
    Router(config)# exit
     

    Exits global configuration mode and returns to privileged EXEC mode.

     

    Configuring MPLS TE Forwarding Adjacency on Tunnels


    Note


    You must configure a forwarding adjacency on two LSP tunnels bidirectionally, from A to B and B to A. Otherwise, the forwarding adjacency is advertised, but not used in the IGP network.


    SUMMARY STEPS

      1.    enable

      2.    configure terminal

      3.    interface tunnel number

      4.    tunnel mpls traffic-eng forwarding-adjacency [holdtime value]

      5.    isis metric {metric-value| maximum} {level-1| level-2}


    DETAILED STEPS
       Command or ActionPurpose
      Step 1 enable


      Example:
      Router> enable
       

      Enables privileged EXEC mode.

      • Enter your password if prompted.
       
      Step 2 configure terminal


      Example:
      Router# configure terminal
       

      Enters global configuration mode.

       
      Step 3 interface tunnel number


      Example:
      Router(config)# interface tunnel 0
       

      Designates a tunnel interface for the forwarding adjacency, and enters interface configuration mode.

       
      Step 4 tunnel mpls traffic-eng forwarding-adjacency [holdtime value]


      Example:
      Router(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng forwarding-adjacency 
       

      Advertises a TE tunnel as a link in an IGP network.

       
      Step 5 isis metric {metric-value| maximum} {level-1| level-2}


      Example:
      Router(config-if)# isis metric 2 level-1
       

      Configures the IS-IS metric for a tunnel interface to be used as a forwarding adjacency.

      • You should specify the isis metric command with level-1 or level-2 to be consistent with the IGP level at which you are performing traffic engineering. Otherwise, the metric has the default value of 10.
       

      Verifying MPLS TE Forwarding Adjacency

      SUMMARY STEPS

        1.    enable

        2.    show mpls traffic-eng forwarding-adjacency [ip-address]

        3.    show isis [process-tag] database [level-1] [level-2] [l1] [l2] [detail] [lspid]

        4.    exit


      DETAILED STEPS
        Step 1   enable

        Use this command to enable privileged EXEC mode. Enter your password if prompted. For example:



        Example:
        Router> enable
        Router#
        
        Step 2   show mpls traffic-eng forwarding-adjacency [ip-address]

        Use this command to see the current tunnels. For example:



        Example:
        Router# show mpls traffic-eng forwarding-adjacency
         
         destination 0168.0001.0007.00 has 1 tunnels
          Tunnel7     (traffic share 100000, nexthop 192.168.1.7)
                        (flags:Announce Forward-Adjacency, holdtime 0)
        Router# show mpls traffic-eng forwarding-adjacency 192.168.1.7
         destination 0168.0001.0007.00 has 1 tunnels
          Tunnel7     (traffic share 100000, nexthop 192.168.1.7)
                        (flags:Announce Forward-Adjacency, holdtime 0)
        
        Step 3   show isis [process-tag] database [level-1] [level-2] [l1] [l2] [detail] [lspid]

        Use this command to display information about the IS-IS link-state database. For example:



        Example:
        Router# show isis database
        IS-IS Level-1 Link State Database
        
        LSPID                 LSP Seq Num    LSP Checksum  LSP Holdtime  ATT/P/OL
        0000.0C00.0C35.00-00  0x0000000C     0x5696        792           0/0/0
        0000.0C00.40AF.00-00  0x00000009     0x8452        1077          1/0/0
        0000.0C00.62E6.00-00  0x0000000A     0x38E7        383           0/0/0
        0000.0C00.62E6.03-00  0x00000006     0x82BC        384           0/0/0
        0800.2B16.24EA.00-00  0x00001D9F     0x8864        1188          1/0/0
        0800.2B16.24EA.01-00  0x00001E36     0x0935        1198          1/0/0
        
        IS-IS Level-2 Link State Database
        LSPID                 LSP Seq Num    LSP Checksum  LSP Holdtime  ATT/P/OL
        0000.0C00.0C35.03-00  0x00000005     0x04C8        792           0/0/0
        0000.0C00.3E51.00-00  0x00000007     0xAF96        758           0/0/0
        0000.0C00.40AF.00-00  0x0000000A     0x3AA9        1077          0/0/0
        
        
        Step 4   exit

        Use this command to exit to user EXEC. For example:



        Example:
        Router# exit
        Router>
        

        Configuration Examples for MPLS Traffic Engineering Forwarding Adjacency

        This section provides a configuration example for the MPLS Traffic Engineering Forwarding Adjacency feature using an IS-IS metric.

        Example MPLS TE Forwarding Adjacency

        The following output shows the configuration of a tunnel interface, a forwarding adjacency, and an IS-IS metric:

        Router# configure terminal
        Enter configuration commands, one per line.  End with CNTL/Z.
        Router(config)# interface tunnel 7
        Router(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng forwarding-adjacency 
        Router(config-if)# isis metric 2 level-1
        

        Following is sample command output when a forwarding adjacency has been configured:

        Router# show running-config 
        Building configuration...
        Current configuration :364 bytes
        !
        interface Tunnel7
         ip unnumbered Loopback0
         no ip directed-broadcast
         tunnel destination 192.168.1.7
         tunnel mode mpls traffic-eng
         tunnel mpls traffic-eng forwarding-adjacency
         tunnel mpls traffic-eng priority 7 7
         tunnel mpls traffic-eng path-option 10 explicit name short
         isis metric 2 level 1

        Note


        Do not specify the tunnel mpls traffic-eng autoroute announce command in your configuration when you are using forwarding adjacency.


        Following is an example where forwarding adjacency is configured with OFPF:

        Router# configure terminal
         
        Router# show running-config
        
        Building configuration...
        Current configuration : 310 bytes
        interface tunnel 1 
        !
        interface Tunnel1
         ip unnumbered Loopback0
         ip ospf cost 6
         tunnel destination 172.16.255.5
         tunnel mode mpls traffic-eng
         tunnel mpls traffic-eng forwarding-adjacency  tunnel mpls 
         traffic-eng priority 7 7  
         tunnel mpls traffic-eng bandwidth 1000  
         tunnel mpls traffic-eng path-option 10 dynamic 
         end
        Router# show mpls traffic-eng forwarding-adjacency
        
         destination 172.16.255.5, area ospf 172  area 0, has 1 tunnels
          Tunnel1      (load balancing metric 2000000, nexthop 172.16.255.5)
                       (flags:  Forward-Adjacency, holdtime 0) 
        Router#

        Usage Tips

        In the figure below, if you have no forwarding adjacencies configured for the TE tunnels between Band F and C and F, all the traffic that A must forward to F goes through B because B is the shortest path from A to F. (The cost from A to F is 15 through B and 20 through C.)



        If you have forwarding adjacencies configured on the TE tunnels between B and F and C and F and also on the TE tunnels between F and B and F and C, then when A computes the SPF algorithm, A sees two equal cost paths of 11 to F. As a result, traffic across the A-B and A-C links is shared.

        Additional References

        Related Documents

        Related Topic

        Document Title

        Cisco IOS commands

        Cisco IOS Master Commands List, All Releases

        MPLS traffic engineering commands

        Cisco IOS Multiprotocol Label Switching Command Reference

        IP switching commands

        Cisco IOS IP Switching Command Reference

        IS-IS TLVs

        Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS) TLVs (white paper)

        Standards

        Standard

        Title

        No new or modified standards are supported by this feature, and support for existing standards has not been modified by this feature.

        --

        MIBs

        MIB

        MIBs Link

        No new or modified MIBs are supported by this feature, and support for existing standards has not been modified by this feature.

        To locate and download MIBs for selected platforms, Cisco software releases, and feature sets, use Cisco MIB Locator found at the following URL:

        http:/​/​www.cisco.com/​go/​mibs

        RFCs

        RFC

        Title

        No new or modified RFCs are supported by this feature, and support for existing RFCs has not been modified by this feature.

        --

        Technical Assistance

        Description

        Link

        The Cisco Support and Documentation website provides online resources to download documentation, software, and tools. Use these resources to install and configure the software and to troubleshoot and resolve technical issues with Cisco products and technologies. Access to most tools on the Cisco Support and Documentation website requires a Cisco.com user ID and password.

        http:/​/​www.cisco.com/​cisco/​web/​support/​index.html

        Glossary

        Cisco Express Forwarding --A scalable, distributed, Layer 3 switching solution designed to meet the future performance requirements of the Internet and enterprise networks.

        forwarding adjacency --A traffic engineering link (or LSP) into an IS-IS/OSPF network.

        IGP --Interior Gateway Protocol. Internet protocol used to exchange routing information within an autonomous system. Examples of common IGPs include Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP), Open Shortest Path First ( OSPF), and Routing Information Protocol (RIP).

        IS-IS --Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System. Open System Interconnection (OSI) link-state hierarchical routing protocol whereby Intermediate System (IS) routers exchange routing information based on a single metric to determine network topology.

        label switched path (LSP) --A sequence of hops (R0...Rn ) in which a packet travels from R0 to Rn through label switching mechanisms. A switched path can be chosen dynamically, based on normal routing mechanisms, or through configuration.

        label switched path (LSP) tunnel --A configured connection between two routers, using label switching to carry the packets.

        MPLS-- Multiprotocol Label Switching. A switching method that forwards IP traffic using a label. This label instructs the routers and the switches in the network where to forward the packets based on preestablished IP routing information.

        OSPF --Open Shortest Path First. A link-state, hierarchical IGP routing algorithm proposed as a successor to RIP in the Internet community. OSPF features include least-cost routing, multipath routing, and load balancing. OSPF was derived from an early version of the IS-IS protocol. See also IS-IS.

        SPF --Shortest Path First. A routing algorithm used as the basis for OSPF operations. When an SPF router is powered up, it initializes its routing-protocol data structures and then waits for indications from lower-layer protocols that its interfaces are functional.

        TLV --type, length, value. A block of information embedded in Cisco Discovery Protocol advertisements.

        traffic engineering --The techniques and processes used to cause routed traffic to travel through the network on a path other than the one that would have been chosen if standard routing methods had been applied.

        traffic engineering tunnel --A label switched tunnel that is used for traffic engineering. Such a tunnel is set up through means other than normal Layer 3 routing; it is used to direct traffic over a path different from the one that Layer 3 routing would cause the tunnel to take.

        Feature Information for MPLS Traffic Engineering Forwarding Adjacency

        The following table provides release information about the feature or features described in this module. This table lists only the software release that introduced support for a given feature in a given software release train. Unless noted otherwise, subsequent releases of that software release train also support that feature.

        Use Cisco Feature Navigator to find information about platform support and Cisco software image support. To access Cisco Feature Navigator, go to www.cisco.com/​go/​cfn. An account on Cisco.com is not required.

        Table 1 Feature Information for MPLS Traffic Engineering Forwarding Adjacency

        Feature Name

        Releases

        Feature Information

        MPLS Traffic Engineering Forwarding Adjacency

        12.0(15)S

        12.0(16)ST

        12.2(18)S

        12.2(18)SXD

        12.2(27)SBC

        12.2(28)SB

        12.4(20)T

        Cisco IOS XE Release 2.3

        The MPLS Traffic Engineering Forwarding Adjacency feature allows a network administrator to handle a TE LSP tunnel as a link in an IGP network based on the SPF algorithm.

        In 12.0(15)S, this feature was introduced.

        In 12.0(16)ST, this feature was integrated.

        In 12.2(18)S, this feature was integrated.

        In 12.2(18)SXD, this feature was integrated.

        In 12.2(27)SBC, this feature was integrated.

        In 12.2(28)SB, this feature was integrated.

        In 12.4(20)T, this feature was integrated.

        In Cisco IOS XE Release 2.3, this feature was implemented on the Cisco ASR 1000 Series Aggregation Services Routers.

        The following commands were modified: debug mpls traffic-eng forwarding-adjacency, show mpls traffic-eng forwarding-adjacency, and tunnel mpls traffic-eng forwarding-adjacency.