A trigger is any event that fulfills the role of
cause in the cause-and-effect relationship in a
Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) interface in IOS. Sometimes, you can use
the pos delay triggers command. At other times,
Cisco recommends that you do not use the pos delay
triggers command, especially when you attempt to meet tight
Service Level Agreements (SLAs). Service providers sell differentiated levels
of service based on certain agreements. The agreements deal with how the
network internally routes, protects, or prioritizes customer traffic. These
commands assist providers to tune networks to meet service agreements.
This document examines the triggers that relate to interface up and
down events. This document also explains how to deploy Packet Over SONET (POS),
and considers SLAs and convergence times at Layer 3.
There are no specific requirements for this document.
This document is not restricted to specific software and hardware
The information in this document was created from the devices in a
specific lab environment. All of the devices used in this document started with
a cleared (default) configuration. If your network is live, make sure that you
understand the potential impact of any command.
Technical Tips Conventions for more information on document
This section describes the events that bring down a POS interface, and
lists the related commands.
The list of triggers in this section refers to the GR-253-CORE
Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) Transport Systems: Common Generic
Section Loss of Signal (SLOS)—The specification indicates that you
must detect no less than 2.5us, and no greater than 100us
Section Loss of Frame (SLOF)—The specification indicates that you
must detect this in a minimum of 3ms (or 24 consecutive errored framing
Alarm Indication Signal - Line (AIS-L)—AIS-L must be sent out when
appropriate, within 125usec of detection. A device must detect the receipt of
AIS-L if the device sees 5 consecutive frames where bits 6,7, and 8 of K2 are
set to 111 (18.104.22.168.1).
Signal Degrade Bit Error Rate (SD-BER)—SD-BER is a trigger only on
interfaces with Automatic Protection Switching (APS) (tied to B2 BER
Signal Failure Bit Error Rate (SF-BER)—SF-BER is a trigger for both
APS and non-APS interfaces (tied to B2 BER calculation).
Remote Defect Indication - Line (RDI-L)—RDI-L is not a trigger for
POS or APS. (However, RDI-L is a trigger for MPLS FRR) (section 22.214.171.124).
For more information on the sections mentioned in this list, see the
Telcordia Information SuperStore
The pos delay triggers line
command holds off LOS/LOF/AIS for n ms
before the command triggers the line down:
If you configure the command without any numeric value, the delay time
is 100ms by default. You can use Line triggers on any non-APS POS interface.
You cannot use Line triggers on interfaces that participate in APS, because
Line triggers interfere with APS operation. The pos delay triggers
command does not allow the line to
go down on the brief LOS that comes from internally protected Dense
Wavelength-Division Multiplexing (DWDM) gear, from the time an internal DWDM
protection switch occurs. If the defect clears during the holdoff period, it is
like the defect never occurred.
The pos delay triggers line command holds
off any action based on the defect (except to increment the defect counter)
until the specified holdoff period ends.
If you do not enable this command, APS and link down from the above
SONET defects are triggered immediately in the Route Processor (RP).
These specific PATH level defects initiate a state change only if you
have enabled pos delay triggers path on the
AIS-P—This defect must be raised within 125usec from the detection of
the defect that results in the AIS-P. The Path Terminating Equipment (PTE) must
detect this defect when the H1 and H2 bytes for an STS path contain all 1s for
3 consecutive frames. Concatenated paths need to observe only the first H1 and
H2 bytes. For more information, see section 126.96.36.199.2 of R6-175 and R6-176.
RDI-P—If RDI-P is present, the defect must be detected within 10
frames. See 188.8.131.52.2 of R6-221.
B3-TCA (Threshold Crossing Alarms) for B3—This alarm is tied to the
B3 Binary Synchronous Communications (Bisync) IP (BIP)
LOP-P (Path Loss of Pointer) (if the IOS version includes
section 184.108.40.206.3 of GR-253.
For more information on the sections mentioned in this list, see the
Telcordia Information SuperStore
The pos delay triggers path
command enables link-down
triggering on AIS-P, RDI-P, and excessive B3 errors. By default, link-down
triggering for path errors is disabled.
The command also specifies a holdoff time in the range of 0 to 511 ms
(the default is 100ms). Path trigger defects (AIS-P, RDI-P) that clear before
the end of the holdoff period do not cause triggering. When you have not
explicitly configured this command on a POS interface, no action results if the
PATH level defects are processed. Unlike the Line triggers, APS interfaces
allow Path triggers, because Path triggers do not interfere with the line level
activity of APS. Path triggers were not allowed to be configured with APS in
versions earlier than Cisco IOS® Software Release 12.0(28)S. Path triggers were
added in order to speed up the link up/down behavior of POS interfaces when
connected to SONET networks. This allowed quicker Layer 3 convergence in the
presence of remote errors.
This table lists the POS triggers conditions and the associated
If you have configured nothing explicitly related to POS
Line level triggers are processed immediately.
If you have configured the pos delay triggers
Line level triggers are processed after a delay of
If you have configured the pos delay triggers line
Line level triggers are processed after x
msecs, where x is between 0 and 511.
If you have configured nothing explicitly related to Path
Path triggers are not processed and will not cause any action
to be taken.
If you have configured the pos delay triggers
Path level triggers are processed after a delay of
If you have configured the pos delay triggers path
Path level triggers are processed after x
msecs, where x is between 0 and 511.
SONET alarms that result from defects are held for 10 seconds (10.5
+-.5) after the defect clears.
In IOS, the POS cards change their LINE state due to different
triggers, through two general means for defect processing. While this depends
on the specific configuration of the interface (APS or non-APS), in general
there are two types of failures:
You must understand the terms specific to alarm-handling that this
Defect—The failure condition that the hardware
Failure—A defect that has been soaked for the required ~2.5sec, and
then is reported through the SONET-4-ALARM messages. Any defect that is a
trigger does not get soaked.
Unmanaged failures—Events such as LOS, LOF, etc. They are detected by
the SONET framer by a defined set of parameters, and require no calculation.
There is either a defect present and asserted by the hardware, or there is no
defect. Hard failures such as these, in general, are handled through
interrupts. LOS, LOF, AIS-L, and in special cases, AIS-P and RDI-P get asserted
immediately. These are dependent on the framer and the defined rules to detect
each of these defects. The effect of these defects is immediate. However, you
can instruct the router to delay assertion of this defect as a failure. There
are two timers that determine the delay value, pos delay triggers
[path | line] and carrier delay. These are addressed later in the
Managed alarms—Events such as TCAs and SD/SF-BER calculations. These
require some calculation to determine if they are present, are on the increase
or decrease, etc. For example, you cannot have an LOS that increases its
“LOS-ness” from the perspective of the router. However, you can have BER that
is on the increase or decrease; the action taken may be different. Soft
failures, like BER and TCA, need some calculation, because they depend on a
number of factors, for example, thresholds that a user can configure, bit rate,
and maximum number of BIP CVs (because they are different for B1, B2, and B3).
These failures also take longer to be detected, because the hardware is polled
for the BIP counters, and also because these types of defects are gradual in
nature and accumulated over time. It is also true that in general you do not go
from 0 BIP straight to an signal degrade (SD) or signal failure (SF) without
some other type of hard failure present in the network. These defects are
slower to occur when compared to the hard
Here is a generalized approach to basic calculations that describes how
to calculate BER:
After each restart of the calculations and until BER_Period reaches
Required_BER_Period (the integration window is not completely deployed), the
algorithm functions strictly as an integrating or averaging one:
BER_Period = BER_Period + 1 sec.
Current_BIP = Current_BIP + BIP_new.
After BER_Period reaches Required_BER_Period (the integration window
was completely deployed and starts to slide), the algorithm functions as a
leaky bucket one:
BER_Period = Required_BER_Period.
Current_BIP = Current_BIP + BIP_new - Current_BER * 1
The Required_BER_Period is determined based on only the line rate and
the configured BER threshold, following the standards (See figure 5-5, Switch
Initiation Time Criteria, GR-253). However, it is lower limited to 1 second,
our sampling rate.
Thus, the BER_Period (integration window) moves with each poll, and a
new BER gets calculated with each poll. If the Current_BER is ever over a
defined limit, we raise the appropriate defect immediately during that same
poll or calculation interval, and keep the response minimal. We repeat these
calculations every second, and check to see if one of three events has
BER still falls within that same range. There is no new
BER has increased again, and crossed an SD or SF threshold (for B2).
Raise a new alarm.
BER has decreased below a BER threshold. Clear the
For the assertion of a TCA or SD/SF, you need to wait only until you
have crossed a limit at that respective poll interval. At the time of the
calculation, check whether the Current_BER has crossed a threshold, and if it
has, you can go ahead and assert the alarm immediately through software.
This is valid because, if the Current_BER is big enough to trigger the
alarm initially, the condition is still true at the end of the BER_Period. This
is based on how the values are defined and compared in relation to the
When you clear an alarm, you need to wait until the end of the
BER_Period calculation window. This is to ensure that no new BIPs are
accumulated during the last portion of the window that might keep you above a
Note: According to GR-253, SD-BER and SF-BER are both tied strictly to the
B2 BIP count. The current default thresholds are:
Note: Engine2 OC-48 cards have these default thresholds:
If you want to have B3 TCA Path trigger act similar to SF, the B3
threshold must be set down to the same threshold, 10e-3. You can do so through
the pos threshold b3-tca 3 command at the
Note: As the polling interval is one second, that is the minimum time in
which we will ever notice and raise TCA or SD/SF defect. Additionally, due to
the accumulated nature of TCA/SD/SF, these types of failures are accompanied by
some other failure when they occur quickly in typical failures. This maintains
a balance between router processor utilization and performance. The polling
interval cannot be configured.
This section provides some background information to examine the
interaction of some of the various user tunable knobs in IOS:
The pos delay triggers [line | path] command
briefly delays the reporting and action of a defect.
POS delay trigger line is the hold time before reacting to a line
alarm. The default is immediate reaction, which means pos delay
trigger line 0
. If you directly configure
pos delay trigger line without any value, then the
default value of 100ms is taken into account. This allows for an immediate or
delayed response, based on the desired effect. With either of these configured,
the defect does not show up as an active alarm until the holdoff period is
T0 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5
t0—Time when the defect occurs.
t1—Time when the hardware detects the defect.
t2—Time when the defect gets reported as a failure.
t2-t3—Time that is held off for any configured
t3-t4—Time for which you wait due to carrier delay.
t4—Time when the interface actually comes down in
t5—Time at which any adjacency for a routing protocol comes
Examine the timeline to observe how to tweak the different knobs to
achieve various results.
The post delay triggers command affects the
duration between t2 and t3, and in effect, hides the defect from IOS, until the
holdoff period is over. Of course, if the defect is cleared before you reach
t3, nothing occurs, and it is as if nothing happened. The default value for
both line and Path triggers is 100ms, and the range is 0 to 511 ms. Path
triggers are not enabled (in other words, they do not take any action) unless
pos delay triggers path is first configured.
pos delay trigger path is the hold time before
reacting to a path alarm. The default is no reaction. If you directly configure
pos delay trigger path without any value, then the
default value 100ms will be assigned automatically. This includes AIS-P, RDI-P,
and B3-TCA. This functionality was added through
Carrier-delay is the hold time between the end of the POS delay hold
time and it will bring down the IOS interface. The default is 2000 msec.
Carrier delay is the time between t3 (when IOS becomes aware of a failure) and
t4 (when the interface goes down). By default, this is set to 2 seconds, and
can be configured for msec values. As the timeline indicates, it is an additive
function on top of the SONET level holdoff timers. It behaves in the same way
as the POS triggers – if the alarm clears before the end of the holdoff period,
the interface is not brought down. However, there is a conundrum here. The
SONET debounce timer does not clear the defect before the carrier delay
activates, unless carrier delay is large (well over 10 seconds). This results
in a situation where carrier delay is almost always activated, and therefore
must be considered to be rather small when deployed with POS interfaces.
Carrier delay is also added after the alarm is cleared, before the interface is
declared up as well. Hence, you can count the value of carrier delay twice
before the interface comes back up.
With some interfaces and physical media this is helpful. However, with
POS interfaces there are a number of triggers and timers that you can use, and
combined to create the desired effect, without carrier delay taking such a
major role. A carrier delay value of 0-8 msec is a good starting point for
customers to consider when they test these knobs on their own. In general, a
good strategy is to use the pos delay triggers
command to absorb any problems, and provide the desired holdoff effect. Carrier
delay can be kept small to minimize its impact.
The SONET debounce timer mentioned above is set at 10 seconds (+/-
.5sec), and is required by GR-253 to ensure that a flap period less than 10
seconds does not occur. The timer starts after the defect is cleared. The timer
is reset if another defect event occurs before the timer window has expired.
T0 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6
t0—Debounce timer starts.
t4—t0 + 10sec (hence, the failure must clear if no new defects occur
between t0 and t4).
If an event occurs before t4, (say) at t2 (it could be another defect,
or a reoccurrence of the same type of defect), the timer is stopped until this
new defect is cleared. At t3, the timer starts again, when there are no active
defects, and counts for the ~10 seconds. If no new events are encountered,
clear the alarm at t5, and then start the carrier delay timer. When carrier
delay has been cleared at t6, bring up the interface again.
This information should allow the customer to understand more clearly
how the POS interfaces react to various SONET/SDH conditions. This allows the
equipment to be configured more precisely according to the customers intended
This section explains when you must use the pos delay
triggers [line | path] command, and when you must not use
Here are the scenarios when you must not use pos delay
triggers. There are several scenarios:
You cannot use line triggers with APS-configured interfaces. Versions
earlier than Cisco IOS Software Release 12.0(28)S did not allow even the use of
When you explicitly do not want PATH level defects to bring down the
interface, you cannot use these triggers.
When you want line level triggers to bring down the interface with no
delay, you cannot use this command.
Here are the scenarios when you can use pos delay
When you want to hold off the effect of a line level defect
To enable the ability for PATH level defects to bring down the
To enable PATH level defects to bring down the interface, but with
some holdoff included.
Examine this timeline:
T0 T1 T2
Time t=0 (t0)—When the defect is detected.
Time t2—The required SLA restoration time.
Time t1—Any holdoff from the pos delay
triggers command that is configured (the default for LINE is 0
and the default for PATH is not enabled).
X is the holdoff value (so X = the value of t1).
Y is the time it will take Layer 3 to restore
Sometimes, you can use the pos delay
triggers command, while at other times, you cannot, especially
when you attempt to meet tight Service Level Agreements (SLAs).
If Y > (t2-t1) for any value of t1, a holdoff is not a good idea
because, you cannot meet your SLA if you configure any
If Y <= (t2-t1), you can consider the implementation of a holdoff.
If the duration of the failure is less than (t1-t0), you can hold off because,
you do not have to utilize router resources, and you can meet the desired SLA.
If the defect persists past time t1, you can still meet the SLA, even though
you lose some time before you initiate restoration at the IP level.
You must have some knowledge about the underlying transport network,
and the convergence times of the Layer 3 network, in order to know the values
that you can use in these formulas. You also need to perform some
Here is how the triggers work:
The pos delay triggers line n
command holds off LOS/LOF/AIS for n ms
before the command triggers line down. The default value is 100ms. You can use
this command on any non-APS POS interface. The pos delay triggers
command does not allow the line to
go down on the brief LOS that comes from internally-protected DWDM gear, from
the time an internal DWDM protection switch occurs. If the defect clears during
the holdoff period, it is like the defect never occurred.
The pos delay triggers line command will
hold off any action based on the defect (except to increment the defect
counter), until the specified holdoff period ends.
If you do not enable this command, APS and link down are triggered
immediately in the RP.
This section describes the deployment of SONET triggers.
Figure 1 – Internally Protected SONET
The SONET network has internal protection, which means that a failure
inside the SONET network triggers some protection switch to restore service
very fast. Therefore, you need to consider whether you want to bring down the
interface and notify Layer 3. In most cases, when a protection switch occurs
inside the SONET network, the routers see a brief line or path AIS while the
network takes restorative action. However, this occurs only if the failure is
one hop away from either router. The SONET network can possibly be several NEs
in diameter, either router sees LINE failures only as PATH failures. In this
case, consider path and line level triggers if you want a holdoff.
To make this decision, you need to understand the associated cost with
both approaches. As a network operator, you must consider these
Does the network converge quickly enough? If not, this approach is
What is the impact of routing around such a failure? Is the impact
so great on the router that the performance drops below an acceptable
Ultimately, you need to decide whether you can ignore a potential
~60msec hit, or whether you prefer to route around such an event. If you can
ignore the hit, you must identify how much of a “fudge factor” to add in
because, you do not want to hold off on this defect only to wait several
milliseconds too few, and thereby delay corrective action.
In this scenario, pos delay triggers line
and path are probably sufficient. In addition,
consider values of at least 60msec if a holdoff is warranted. If the network is
wide enough, and you want to take immediate action on both line and path level
defects, you need not configure line level triggers. However, you need to
configure pos delay triggers path with a value of 0
to enable immediate processing of PATH level defects.
Figure 2 – Internally Unprotected SONET
In an unprotected SONET network, you run the same risks as in the first
scenario, plus a few more. If the network is large enough, the routers can
potentially never see a LINE level defect in the event of a failure, because
the defects are all filtered. The routers can see PATH level defects up and
down stream. Thus, in some situations, where a failure occurs within the
network, the router only sees PATH level events, and there is no end-to-end
continuity between the routers. Even worse, no restoration occurs at the SONET
level to remedy this situation.
In this scenario, you must configure Path triggers simply to allow the
routers at either end to take action when the routers encounter a PATH defect,
even if the routers want no holdoff effect. When you have configured Path
triggers, as a network operator, you must check whether it is better to hold
off or trigger a Layer 3 restoration.
Figure 3 – Internally Unprotected SONET
In Cisco IOS Software Release 12.0(28)S, you can enable PATH triggers
on APS circuits. When you deploy APS on the local or remote routers, an APS
switch causes the remote Working and Protect routers to see a brief PATH level
defect. With a small trigger value the interfaces go down, and this situation
is not desirable. An interface that goes down delays service restoration that
is already in progress. A momentary failure that occurs within the cloud can
also delay service restoration. However, the occurrence of a persistent PATH
level error indicates that the circuit protection (either within the network,
or at the far end) has been unable to restore connectivity. In this case, the
APS routers must take action, and initiate routing re-convergence. You can
configure Path trigger delay values of >= 100ms. With this configuration,
when a persistent error occurs either within the SONET network or at the remote
end, the routers bring both APS interfaces to a state of link down. Therefore,
the routers initiate quicker re-routing and restoration of service.
Figure 4 – Protected DWDM Network
In this scenario, we need not use Path triggers, because the DWDM
network does not participate at the SONET protocol level. The router detects
any failure at the SECTION or LINE level.
Again, because the DWDM network is internally protected, a failure
internal to the network causes restoration to soon occur. The router typically
sees a very brief LOS, LOF, or a burst of BIP errors.
Therefore, you only need to decide whether a holdoff is desirable in
The pos delay triggers line command is
sufficient in this situation, if you choose a delay.
Figure 5 – Unprotected DWDM Network
With an unprotected DWDM network in the transport, you need to address
any failure within the routers. In this situation, the default configuration
would allow for an immediate response to any failures seen at either router
because the DWDM does not participate in the SONET protocol. If you desire this
effect, the default configuration of no configured POS triggers is appropriate.
If you require some holdoff, the pos delay triggers
line command is sufficient to provide this functionality.
Figure 6 – Routers Connected Back-to-Back
Two routers connected back-to- back between two POS interfaces must
operate just like the last scenario. You can see failures immediately at either
router, because there is no intermediary equipment that operates on the SONET
overhead or terminates any part of the SONET level signal.
An interesting situation is when R1 sees S-LOS, and R2 sees both L-RDI
and P-RDI, as R1 is both Line-Terminating Equipment (LTE) and Path-Terminating
Equipment (PTE). Since L-RDI explicitly disallows any resultant action to be
taken upon receipt, R2 does not drop the interface as a result. This issue can
potentially lead to a situation where an interface of R1 is down, but the
interface of R2 is still up and forwards traffic. Of course, any Layer 2
keepalive (like High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC) provides) times out and
declares the link down, typically in 30 seconds, based on the configured
timers. However, a number of operators disable these Layer 2 keepalives, and
cannot prevent this situation. In order to address this problem, you can take
several approaches, and each approach addresses this from a different
perspective, as explained here:
Turn on Path Triggers—As P-RDI brings an interface down with Path
triggers enabled, you can use this method to cause a quick response, and drop
the interface. The interesting point to note is that L-RDI masks out the P-RDI
under normal operation as per GR-253. As the POS triggers are handled at the
defect level, the triggers are processed before the alarm masking, and the
interface still drops according to the configured delay time.
Enable Layer 2 Keepalives—This option causes the interface on R2 to
time out after 3 keepalives are missed. This is typically 30 seconds total
(3x10), and Cisco does not generally recommend this option as a tool to tune
fast link convergence.
Enable a Link-State Routing Protocol—When the interface on R1 is
brought down due to the S-LOS, a link state message is sent immediately. Even
though the interface on R2 can still be up, when the link state message is
received throughout the area, SPF is run, and the link is removed from the
topology because the link fails the two-way connectivity check. This prevents
the network from trying to route through that simplex
When you connect two routers, either back-to-back, or across a SONET
network, the provided OAM architecture covers the detection of a majority of
Typically, there are local notifications and remote notifications.
However when a high number of BIP errors cross a threshold (SD or SF, or
B3-TCA), no remote notification is sent to indicate that this condition has
occurred. Thus, when you employ Multi Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) Fast
Re-Route protection, no trigger activates an immediate protection switch.
Traffic continues to be blackholed until sufficient traffic is lost to cause a
failure of either Layer 2 keepalives on the link or neighbor relationships
among Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) peers. Sometimes this never occurs, and
continues to blackhole the traffic.
To address this scenario,
introduces the pos action b3-ber prdi command to the
POS and SONET command structure.
This command allows the operator to configure the interface to send a
P-RDI when the B3 threshold has been crossed. This option enables you to
monitor the link end-to-end optimally, regardless of topology. If
pos delay triggers path is enabled on the routers,
the pos action b3-ber prdi command activates the
link that comes down (and the corresponding Fast ReRoute (FRR) or routing
update). This avoids the black-hole effect on degraded links.
To change the sensitivity of this action, tune the b3-tca as shown
router(config-if)# pos threshold b3-tca ?
The value provided is the exponential component for the BER calculation
(for example, pos threshold b3-tca 3 sets the B3-TCA
to be equivalent to a rate of 1x10^-3).