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Default Passwords in the Application Velocity System

Advisory ID: cisco-sa-20080123-avs

http://tools.cisco.com/security/center/content/CiscoSecurityAdvisory/cisco-sa-20080123-avs

Revision 1.0

For Public Release 2008 January 23 16:00  UTC (GMT)


Summary

Versions of the Cisco Application Velocity System (AVS) prior to software version AVS 5.1.0 do not prompt users to modify system account passwords during the initial configuration process. Because there is no requirement to change these credentials during the initial configuration process, an attacker may be able to leverage the accounts that have default credentials, some of which have root privileges, to take full administrative control of the AVS system.

After upgrading to software version AVS 5.1.0, users will be prompted to modify these credentials.

Cisco will make free upgrade software available to address this vulnerability for affected customers. The software upgrade will be applicable only for the AVS 3120, 3180, and 3180A systems. The workaround identified in this document describes how to change the passwords in current releases of software for the AVS 3110.

Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE) identifier CVE-2008-0029 has been assigned to this vulnerability.

This advisory is posted at http://tools.cisco.com/security/center/content/CiscoSecurityAdvisory/cisco-sa-20080123-avs.

Affected Products

Vulnerable Products

This vulnerability affects the Cisco AVS 3110, 3120, 3180, and 3180A Management Station appliances that are running software versions prior to AVS 5.1.0. Administrators can determine the software version of the AVS appliances by logging in to the Management Station web-based user interface or from the command-line interface (CLI) of the appliance operating system.

Customers who use the AVS 3180 or 3180A Management Station can determine their node software versions by navigating to the Cluster Information Page. Each registered node will display the corresponding software version when the node is selected.

The AVS appliance version can also be determined from the host operating system by using the Show Version command.

The following example shows Show Version output for an AVS 3120 appliance that is running version 5.1.0:

velocity>Show Version

****************************************
Cisco Application Velocity System,(AVS)
----------------------------------------
AVS 3120-K9 005.001(000.034)
****************************************

The following example shows Show Version output for an AVS 3180 or 3180A appliance that is running version 5.1.0:

velocity>Show Version

****************************************
Cisco Application Velocity System,(AVS)
----------------------------------------
AVS 3180-MGMT 005.001(000.034)
****************************************

Products Confirmed Not Vulnerable

No other Cisco products are currently known to be affected by this vulnerability.

Details

The Cisco AVS 3110 and 3120 are enterprise data center appliances for improving web application performance, measuring end-user response time, and managing application security. The Cisco AVS 3120 enforces application security with an integrated web application firewall. The Cisco AVS 3180 and 3180A Management Stations provide web-based tools for the configuration and application performance monitoring for a cluster of AVS 3110s and 3120s or individual nodes.

The Cisco AVS 3110, 3120, 3180, and 3180A Management Stations use some system accounts that are initially configured with default passwords. Vulnerable versions of the AVS software do not prompt the administrator to change the passwords for these accounts, including accounts with root privileges, during the initial configuration process. Non-vulnerable versions of AVS software will now prompt administrators to change these accounts after installation.

Note: If the passwords for the AVS 3110 or 3120 are changed on the device itself and it has previously been registered with an AVS 3180 or 3180A Management Station, the node must be re-registered with the Management Station console. Otherwise, communication between the AVS 3180 or 3180A Management Station and AVS 3110 or 3120 node will be lost.

For additional details about the AVS node registration process, refer to the Register Node section of the Cisco AVS User's Guide.

After upgrading the appliance software to version AVS 5.1.0 and logging in for the first time, the administrator will now be prompted to change the system account passwords.

The following example shows the new password change prompts and the subsequent password change dialog for the AVS 3120 after upgrade:

velocity login: fgn
Password:
**WARNING** System wide secrets are in factory default state.
Would you like to change these now? [y/n] y changing root password 
enter password: 
enter password again: 
changing fgn password
enter password: 
enter password again: 
changing DB password
enter password: 
enter password again: 

Please wait...The DB password change will take a few minutes.
changing node manager password
enter password: 
enter password again: 
changing condenser password
enter password: 
enter password again: 
changing console password
enter password: 
enter password again: 

The following example shows the new password change prompts and the subsequent password change dialog for the AVS 3180 and 3180A after upgrade:

velocity login: fgn
Password: 
**WARNING** System wide secrets are in factory default state.
Would you like to change these now? [y/n] y changing root password 
enter password: 
enter password again: 
changing fgn password
enter password: 
enter password again: 
changing DB password
enter password: 
enter password again: 

Please wait...The DB password change will take a few minutes.
changing console password
enter password: 
enter password again:

This issue is documented in Cisco Bug ID CSCsd94732 ( registered customers only) .

Vulnerability Scoring Details

Cisco has provided scores for the vulnerabilities in this advisory based on the Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS). The CVSS scoring in this Security Advisory is done in accordance with CVSS version 2.0.

CVSS is a standards-based scoring method that conveys vulnerability severity and helps determine urgency and priority of response.

Cisco has provided a base and temporal score. Customers can then compute environmental scores to assist in determining the impact of the vulnerability in individual networks.

Cisco has provided an FAQ to answer additional questions regarding CVSS at

http://www.cisco.com/web/about/security/intelligence/cvss-qandas.html .

Cisco has also provided a CVSS calculator to help compute the environmental impact for individual networks at

http://intellishield.cisco.com/security/alertmanager/cvss .

CSCsd94732 - AVS Default Account Passwords Don't Require Change.

Calculate the environmental score of CSCsd94732

CVSS Base Score - 10

Access Vector

Access Complexity

Authentication

Confidentiality Impact

Integrity Impact

Availability Impact

Network

Low

None

Complete

Complete

Complete

CVSS Temporal Score - 8.3

Exploitability

Remediation Level

Report Confidence

Functional

Official-Fix

Confirmed

Impact

Successful exploitation of the vulnerability may result in full administrative control of the Cisco AVS system or user-level access to the host operating system.

Software Versions and Fixes

When considering software upgrades, also consult http://www.cisco.com/go/psirt and any subsequent advisories to determine exposure and a complete upgrade solution.

In all cases, customers should exercise caution to be certain the devices to be upgraded contain sufficient memory and that current hardware and software configurations will continue to be supported properly by the new release. If the information is not clear, contact the Cisco Technical Assistance Center (TAC) or your contracted maintenance provider for assistance.

AVS software version 5.1.0 contains the fix for the vulnerability described in this document.

AVS software is available for download from the following locations on cisco.com:

Workarounds

The following workarounds are applicable only for the AVS 3110 and are performed on the system shell. The AVS 3110 does not have a CLI. The use of strong passwords is encouraged.

Changing the Root Password

Complete these steps:

  1. Change the root password by using the following command:

    shell# passwd
  2. Reboot to activate the new settings by using the following command:

    shell# reboot

Changing the Management Console Username and Password

Complete these steps:

  1. Open the following file in a text editor:

    $AVS_HOME/console/jboss-3.0.1_tomcat-4.0.4/server/default/deploy/fgconsole.war/users.properties

    Use the line admin=admin to set the username and password. The username appears before the equal sign (=) and the password appears after the equal sign (=). For example, to change the username to Cisco and the password to accelerate, change the admin=admin line to Cisco=accelerate.

  2. If you change the username, you must also change this file:

    $AVS_HOME/console/jboss-3.0.1_tomcat-4.0.4/server/default/deploy/fgconsole.war/roles.properties

    The username is set by the line that contains admin=. The username appears before the equal sign (=). For example, to change the user name to Cisco, change the admin= line to Cisco=. Do not change the text after the equal sign (=) in this file; this field specifies the account privileges. The username that you enter here must match the one in the users.properties file in the preceding step.

Changing the Database Username and Password

There are two steps required to change the database password:

  1. First change the database password.
  2. Then update the Management Console configuration file with the new database password.

Complete these steps:

  1. Log in to the database using the old password, and then use the alter SQL command to change to the new password.

    /usr/local/fineground/console/postgres/bin/psql
    		 -U fineground -p 5432 fgnlog Password : <old password>
    Welcome to psql 7.3.4, the PostgreSQL interactive terminal.
    
    Type:  \copyright for distribution terms
           \h for help with SQL commands
           \? for help on internal slash commands
           \g or terminate with semicolon to execute query
           \q to quit
    fgnlog=# alter user fineground password '<new password>'; \q
  2. The username and password to access the Management Console database are set during the Management Console installation process. If you want to change these later, you can modify an XML configuration file that the Management Console server reads at start-up.

    1. Open the following file in a text editor:

      $AVS_HOME/console/jboss-3.0.1_tomcat-4.0.4/server/default/deploy/postgres-service.xml

      Look for the following section in this file:

      <!--set these only if you want only default logins,
      		   not through JAAS -->
      <config-property name="UserName" type="java.lang.String">fineground</config-property>
      <config-property name="Password" type="java.lang.String">condenser</config-property>
    2. To change the username, change the value for the UserName configuration property (fineground in this example).

    3. To change the password, change the value for the Password configuration property (condenser in this example).

    4. Save and close the file.

Changing the Node Manager Password

Complete these steps:

  1. Log in as fgn, and then use the su command to switch to the superuser.

  2. Stop the Condenser and Node Manager:

    /etc/init.d/fgnpn<Tab> stop

    Press Tab to have the interface complete the command.

  3. Go to the $AVS_HOME/perfnode/node_manager/conf directory.

  4. Back up the file named passwords.

  5. Change the password with the following command:

    $AVS_HOME/perfnode/bin/htpasswd -bcm passwords.new admin <password>

    In the preceding command, passwords.new is the name of the file in which the passwords are stored. Currently only the user admin is supported.

  6. Install the file with the following command:

    install -m 400 -o nobody -g nobody passwords.new  passwords
  7. Restart the appliance with the reboot command.

  8. Re-register the node from the Management Console for which the node manager password was changed.

Changing the Condenser Password

Complete these steps:

  1. Log in as fgn, and then use the su command to switch to the superuser.

  2. Stop the Condenser and Node Manager:

    /etc/init.d/fgnpn<TAB> stop

    Press Tab to have the interface complete the command.

  3. Go to the $AVS_HOME/perfnode/passwd directory.

  4. Backup the file named .htpasswd.

  5. Change the password with the following command:

    $AVS_HOME/perfnode/bin/htpasswd -bcm passwords.new fineground <password>

    In the preceding command, passwords.new is the name of the file in which the passwords are stored. Currently only the user fineground is supported.

  6. Install the file with the following command:

    install -m 400 -o nobody -g nobody passwords.new  .htpasswd
  7. Restart the appliance with the reboot command.

  8. Re-register the node from the Management Console for which the Condenser password was changed.

Obtaining Fixed Software

Cisco has released software updates that address this vulnerability. Prior to deploying software, customers should consult their maintenance provider or check the software for feature set compatibility and known issues specific to their environment.

Customers may only install and expect support for the feature sets they have purchased. By installing, downloading, accessing or otherwise using such software upgrades, customers agree to be bound by the terms of Cisco's software license terms found at http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/general/warranty/English/EU1KEN_.html , or as otherwise set forth at Cisco.com Downloads at http://www.cisco.com/public/sw-center/sw-usingswc.shtml .

Do not contact psirt@cisco.com or security-alert@cisco.com for software upgrades.

Customers with Service Contracts

Customers with contracts should obtain upgraded software through their regular update channels. For most customers, this means that upgrades should be obtained through the Software Center on Cisco's worldwide website at http://www.cisco.com.

Customers using Third Party Support Organizations

Customers whose Cisco products are provided or maintained through prior or existing agreements with third-party support organizations, such as Cisco Partners, authorized resellers, or service providers should contact that support organization for guidance and assistance with the appropriate course of action in regards to this advisory.

The effectiveness of any workaround or fix is dependent on specific customer situations, such as product mix, network topology, traffic behavior, and organizational mission. Due to the variety of affected products and releases, customers should consult with their service provider or support organization to ensure any applied workaround or fix is the most appropriate for use in the intended network before it is deployed.

Customers without Service Contracts

Customers who purchase direct from Cisco but do not hold a Cisco service contract, and customers who purchase through third-party vendors but are unsuccessful in obtaining fixed software through their point of sale should acquire upgrades by contacting the Cisco Technical Assistance Center (TAC). TAC contacts are as follows.

  • +1 800 553 2447 (toll free from within North America)
  • +1 408 526 7209 (toll call from anywhere in the world)
  • e-mail: tac@cisco.com

Customers should have their product serial number available and be prepared to give the URL of this notice as evidence of entitlement to a free upgrade. Free upgrades for non-contract customers must be requested through the TAC.

Refer to http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/687/Directory/DirTAC.shtml for additional TAC contact information, including localized telephone numbers, and instructions and e-mail addresses for use in various languages.

Exploitation and Public Announcements

The Cisco PSIRT is not aware of any public announcements or malicious use of the vulnerability described in this advisory.

This vulnerability was identified through internal testing.

Status of this Notice: Final

THIS DOCUMENT IS PROVIDED ON AN "AS IS" BASIS AND DOES NOT IMPLY ANY KIND OF GUARANTEE OR WARRANTY, INCLUDING THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR USE. YOUR USE OF THE INFORMATION ON THE DOCUMENT OR MATERIALS LINKED FROM THE DOCUMENT IS AT YOUR OWN RISK. CISCO RESERVES THE RIGHT TO CHANGE OR UPDATE THIS DOCUMENT AT ANY TIME.

A stand-alone copy or Paraphrase of the text of this document that omits the distribution URL in the following section is an uncontrolled copy, and may lack important information or contain factual errors.


Distribution

This advisory is posted on Cisco's worldwide website at :

http://tools.cisco.com/security/center/content/CiscoSecurityAdvisory/cisco-sa-20080123-avs

In addition to worldwide web posting, a text version of this notice is clear-signed with the Cisco PSIRT PGP key and is posted to the following e-mail and Usenet news recipients.

  • cust-security-announce@cisco.com
  • first-teams@first.org
  • bugtraq@securityfocus.com
  • vulnwatch@vulnwatch.org
  • cisco@spot.colorado.edu
  • cisco-nsp@puck.nether.net
  • full-disclosure@lists.grok.org.uk
  • comp.dcom.sys.cisco@newsgate.cisco.com

Future updates of this advisory, if any, will be placed on Cisco's worldwide website, but may or may not be actively announced on mailing lists or newsgroups. Users concerned about this problem are encouraged to check the above URL for any updates.


Revision History

Revision 1.0

2008-January-23

Initial public release

Cisco Security Procedures

Complete information on reporting security vulnerabilities in Cisco products, obtaining assistance with security incidents, and registering to receive security information from Cisco, is available on Cisco's worldwide website at http://www.cisco.com/web/about/security/psirt/security_vulnerability_policy.html. This includes instructions for press inquiries regarding Cisco security notices. All Cisco security advisories are available at http://www.cisco.com/go/psirt.