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Multiple Vulnerabilities in Firewall Services Module

Advisory ID: cisco-sa-20071017-fwsm

http://tools.cisco.com/security/center/content/CiscoSecurityAdvisory/cisco-sa-20071017-fwsm

Revision 1.1

For Public Release 2007 October 17 16:00  UTC (GMT)


Summary

Two crafted packet vulnerabilities exist in the Cisco Firewall Services Module (FWSM) that may result in a reload of the FWSM. These vulnerabilities can be triggered during the processing of HTTPS requests, or during the processing of Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP) packets.

A third vulnerability may cause access control list (ACL) entries to not be evaluated after the access list has been manipulated.

Note: These vulnerabilities are independent of each other; a device may be affected by one and not by the others.

This advisory is posted at http://tools.cisco.com/security/center/content/CiscoSecurityAdvisory/cisco-sa-20071017-fwsm.

Affected Products

Vulnerable Products

The FWSM is affected by a crafted HTTPS request vulnerability if the HTTPS server on the FWSM is enabled and is running software versions 3.1(5) and prior or 3.2(1). Version 2.3.x is not affected. The HTTPS server is not enabled by default.

The FWSM is affected by a crafted MGCP packet vulnerability if MGCP application layer protocol inspection is enabled and the device is running software version 3.1(5) and prior. Versions 2.3.x and 3.2.x are not affected. MGCP inspection is not enabled by default.

The FWSM is affected by an access control list corruption vulnerability that may result in the ACL not working properly, i.e. the ACL may allow traffic that would normally be denied, or would deny traffic that would normally be permitted. Affected versions include 3.1(6) and prior and 3.2(2) and prior. Version 2.3.x is not affected.

In addition to the FWSM, the crafted MGCP packet vulnerability also affects the PIX 500 Series Security Appliances and the Cisco ASA 5500 Series Adaptive Security Appliances. More information regarding vulnerabilities affecting the PIX and ASA can be found in the companion advisory located at http://tools.cisco.com/security/center/content/CiscoSecurityAdvisory/cisco-sa-20071017-asa.

To determine if you are running a vulnerable version of FWSM software, issue the show module command-line interface (CLI) command from Cisco IOS or Cisco CatOS to identify what modules and sub-modules are installed in the system.

The following example shows a system with a Firewall Service Module (WS-SVC-FWM-1) installed in slot 4.

switch#show module
 Mod Ports Card Type                              Model              Serial No.
 --- ----- -------------------------------------- ----------------- -----------
 1   48    SFM-capable 48 port 10/100/1000mb RJ45 WS-X6548-GE-TX    SAxxxxxxxxx
 4    6    Firewall Module                        WS-SVC-FWM-1      SAxxxxxxxxx
 5    2    Supervisor Engine 720 (Active)         WS-SUP720-BASE    SAxxxxxxxxx
 6    2    Supervisor Engine 720 (Hot)            WS-SUP720-BASE    SAxxxxxxxxx

After locating the correct slot, issue the show module <slot number> command to identify the software version that is running:

switch#show module 4
 Mod Ports Card Type                              Model              Serial No.
 --- ----- -------------------------------------- ----------------- -----------
 4    6    Firewall Module                        WS-SVC-FWM-1      SAxxxxxxxxx

 Mod MAC addresses                     Hw     Fw           Sw           Status
 --- --------------------------------- ------ ------------ ------------ -------
 4   0003.e4xx.xxxx to 0003.e4xx.xxxx  3.0    7.2(1)       3.1(3)       Ok

The example above shows that the FWSM is running version 3.1(3) as indicated by the column under "Sw" above.

Note: Recent versions of Cisco IOS will show the software version of each module in the output from the show module command; therefore, executing the show module <slot number> command is not necessary.

Alternatively, the information may also be obtained directly from the FWSM through the show version command as seen below.

FWSM#show version
FWSM Firewall Version 3.1(3)

Customers who use the Cisco Adaptive Security Device Manager (ASDM) to manage their devices can find the version of the software displayed in the table in the login window or in the upper left corner of the ASDM window. The version notation is similar to this:

FWSM Version: 3.1(3)

Products Confirmed Not Vulnerable

No other Cisco products are currently known to be affected by these vulnerabilities.

Details

This Security Advisory describes multiple distinct vulnerabilities. These vulnerabilities are independent of each other.

1. Crafted HTTPS Request

A FWSM that has the HTTPS server enabled may reload if a crafted HTTP request is processed by the device. The HTTPS server is disabled by default.

The source IP address and interface on which the HTTPS request is received must comply with the configured http <source IP> <address mask> <source interface> command. For example, if the command http 10.10.10.0 255.255.255.0 inside is present in the configuration, then only crafted HTTPS requests coming from the 10.10.10.0/24 network may represent an issue for the device.

No other HTTP(s) services are known to be affected, such as HTTP Inspection, HTTP/HTTPS Proxy Server, and HTTP redirect.

To confirm if the HTTPS server is enabled, log in to the FWSM and issue the CLI command show running-config | include http. If the output contains both http server enable and http <source IP> <address mask> <source interface>, then the device has a vulnerable configuration. The following example shows an FWSM with a vulnerable configuration:

FWSM# show running-config | include http
http server enable
http 10.10.10.0 255.255.255.0 inside
FWSM#

This vulnerability is documented in Cisco Bug ID CSCsi77844 ( registered customers only) and does not affect the PIX or ASA security appliances.

2. Crafted MGCP Packet

An FWSM that has the MGCP application layer protocol inspection feature enabled may reload when a crafted MGCP packet is processed by the device. MGCP application layer protocol inspection is not enabled by default.

MGCP messages are transmitted over the User Datagram Protocol (UDP), which does allow the crafted MGCP messages to be sourced from a spoofed address. Only the MGCP for gateway application (MGCP traffic on UDP port 2427) is affected.

To determine whether MGCP inspection is configured on the FWSM, log in to the device and issue the CLI command show service-policy | include mgcp. If the output contains the text Inspect: mgcp and some statistics, then the device has a vulnerable configuration. The following example shows a vulnerable FWSM:

FWSM# show service-policy | include mgcp
      Inspect: mgcp, packet 66, drop 0, reset-drop 0
FWSM#

This vulnerability is documented in Cisco Bug ID CSCsi00694 ( registered customers only) . The corresponding Cisco Bug ID for the PIX and ASA security appliances, included in the companion PIX/ASA Security Advisory, is CSCsi90468 ( registered customers only) .

3. Manipulation of ACL May Cause ACL Corruption

This vulnerability may cause access control list entries (ACEs) in an ACL that has been manipulated to not be evaluated. Manipulation of the ACL can take place via the command-line interface or ASDM and consists of deleting and re-adding ACEs. When the access list is manipulated in this way, the internal structure that represents the ACL becomes corrupted, resulting in the FWSM not evaluating some ACEs.

Because ACEs in an ACL may not be evaluated, the ACL may allow traffic that would normally be denied, or deny traffic that would normally be permitted.

This vulnerability is documented in Cisco Bug ID CSCsj52536 ( registered customers only) and does not affect the PIX or ASA security appliances.

Vulnerability Scoring Details

CVSS is a standards-based scoring method that conveys vulnerability severity and helps determine urgency and priority of response.

Cisco has provided a base and temporal score. Customers can then compute environmental scores to assist in determining the impact of the vulnerability in individual networks.

Cisco has provided an FAQ to answer additional questions regarding CVSS at
http://www.cisco.com/web/about/security/intelligence/cvss-qandas.html .

Cisco has also provided a CVSS calculator to help compute the environmental impact for individual networks at
http://intellishield.cisco.com/security/alertmanager/cvss .


Impact

Successful exploitation of the crafted packet vulnerabilities that are described in this advisory will result in a reload of the affected device. Repeated exploitation can result in a sustained denial of service (DoS) attack.

In the case of the "Manipulation of ACL May Cause ACL Corruption" vulnerability, a device that becomes affected after an administrator manipulates an ACL may allow traffic that would normally be denied, or deny traffic that would normally be permitted. If the ACL is used for other functions like NAT (policy NAT and NAT exemption), AAA (auth-proxy), control of access to the device (SSH, Telnet, HTTP, ICMP), then those functions may be adversely affected as well.

Software Versions and Fixes

When considering software upgrades, also consult http://www.cisco.com/go/psirt and any subsequent advisories to determine exposure and a complete upgrade solution.

In all cases, customers should exercise caution to be certain that the devices to be upgraded contain sufficient memory and that current hardware and software configurations will continue to be supported properly by the new release. If the information is not clear, contact the Cisco Technical Assistance Center ("TAC") or your contracted maintenance provider for assistance.

The following list contains the first fixed software release for each vulnerability:

Vulnerability

Affected Major Release

First Fixed Release

Crafted HTTPS Request

2.3

Not affected

3.1

3.1(6)

3.2

3.2(2)

Crafted MGCP packet

2.3

Not affected

3.1

3.1(6)

3.2

Not affected

Manipulation of ACL May Cause ACL Corruption

2.3

Not affected

3.1

3.1(7)

3.2

3.2(3) - tentatively available Q4CY07

FWSM software versions 3.1(7) and 3.2(3) contain the fixes for all the vulnerabilities described in this document.

FWSM software is available for download from the following location on cisco.com: http://www.cisco.com/pcgi-bin/tablebuild.pl/cat6000-fwsm?psrtdcat20e2 ( registered customers only)

Workarounds

Filters that deny HTTPS packets using TCP port 443 and MGCP packets on UDP port 2427 should be deployed throughout the network as part of a transit ACL (tACL) policy for protection of traffic which enters the network at ingress access points. This policy should be configured to protect the network device where the filter is applied and other devices behind it. Filters for HTTPS packets using TCP port 443 and MGCP packets on UDP port 2427 should also be deployed in front of vulnerable network devices so that traffic is only allowed from trusted clients.

Additional information about tACLs is available in "Transit Access Control Lists : Filtering at Your Edge": http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk648/tk361/technologies_white_paper09186a00801afc76.shtml.

Additional mitigations techniques that can be deployed on Cisco devices within the network are available in the Cisco Applied Mitigation Bulletin companion document for this advisory: http://tools.cisco.com/security/center/content/CiscoAppliedMitigationBulletin/cisco-amb-20071017-asafwsm.

1. Crafted HTTPS Request

There are no workarounds for these vulnerabilities other than disabling the HTTPS server on the device. See the Cisco Applied Mitigation Bulletin companion document for mitigations.

Limiting the networks and hosts that can connect to the HTTPS server on the FWSM can help mitigate this vulnerability. For example, if the command http 10.10.10.0 255.255.255.0 inside is present in the configuration, then only hosts on this trusted network can establish HTTPS sessions with the FWSM. This scenario eliminates the possibility of malicious hosts on other IP networks launching successful attacks against the FWSM.

2. Crafted MGCP Packet

There is no workaround for this vulnerability other than disabling MGCP application layer protocol inspection on the device.

Leveraging anti-spoofing techniques will help mitigate spoofed packets from triggering this vulnerability.

Limiting MGCP application layer inspection to traffic between MGCP gateways may help to mitigate this vulnerability since it would require an attacker to have additional information (the addresses of the MGCP gateways) to launch a successful attack. To limit MGCP application layer inspection to traffic between certain devices, a class map that matches only traffic between the gateways must be created. Then, MGCP inspection must be performed on traffic in that class. The following example shows how to accomplish this:

FWSM(config)# access-list mgcp_traffic permit udp host 192.168.0.1
     host 172.16.0.1 eq 2427
FWSM(config)# access-list mgcp_traffic permit udp host 172.16.0.1
     host 192.168.0.1 eq 2427
FWSM(config)# class-map MGCP
FWSM(config-cmap)# match access-list mgcp_traffic
FWSM(config-cmap)# exit
FWSM(config)# policy-map global_policy
FWSM(config-pmap)# class inspection_default
FWSM(config-pmap-c)# no inspect mgcp
FWSM(config-pmap-c)# exit
FWSM(config-pmap)# class MGCP
FWSM(config-pmap-c)# inspect mgcp
FWSM(config-pmap-c)# exit
FWSM(config-pmap)# exit
FWSM(config)# 

Note that MGCP inspection is applied only to UDP traffic between hosts 192.168.0.1 and 172.16.0.1

See the Cisco Applied Mitigation Bulletin companion document for additional mitigation possibilities.

3. Manipulation of ACL May Cause ACL Corruption

A possible workaround for this vulnerability is to completely remove the ACL before modifying it, and then recreate it with the desired changes. ACLs can be removed with the command clear configure access-list <ACL name>.

Note: The ACL corruption does not occur during normal operation of the device, and it cannot be triggered by some type of traffic. It can only occur if an administrator makes configuration changes, and more specifically, if an administrator manipulates an ACL. For this reason, if ACL changes are made only during a maintenance window and the FWSM is reloaded after making those changes, there should not be any concerns with this vulnerability.

Obtaining Fixed Software

Prior to deploying software, customers should consult their maintenance provider or check the software for feature set compatibility and known issues specific to their environment.

Customers may only install and expect support for the feature sets they have purchased. By installing, downloading, accessing or otherwise using such software upgrades, customers agree to be bound by the terms of Cisco's software license terms found at http://www.cisco.com/public/sw-license-agreement.html, or as otherwise set forth at Cisco.com Downloads at http://www.cisco.com/public/sw-center/sw-usingswc.shtml.

Do not contact either "psirt@cisco.com" or "security-alert@cisco.com" for software upgrades.

Customers with Service Contracts

Customers with contracts should obtain upgraded software through their regular update channels. For most customers, this means that upgrades should be obtained through the Software Center on Cisco's worldwide website at http://www.cisco.com.

Customers using Third Party Support Organizations

Customers whose Cisco products are provided or maintained through prior or existing agreement with third-party support organizations such as Cisco Partners, authorized resellers, or service providers should contact that support organization for guidance and assistance with the appropriate course of action in regards to this advisory.

The effectiveness of any workaround or fix is dependent on specific customer situations such as product mix, network topology, traffic behavior, and organizational mission. Due to the variety of affected products and releases, customers should consult with their service provider or support organization to ensure any applied workaround or fix is the most appropriate for use in the intended network before it is deployed.

Customers without Service Contracts

Customers who purchase direct from Cisco but who do not hold a Cisco service contract and customers who purchase through third-party vendors but are unsuccessful at obtaining fixed software through their point of sale should get their upgrades by contacting the Cisco Technical Assistance Center (TAC). TAC contacts are as follows.

  • +1 800 553 2447 (toll free from within North America)
  • +1 408 526 7209 (toll call from anywhere in the world)
  • e-mail: tac@cisco.com

Have your product serial number available and give the URL of this notice as evidence of your entitlement to a free upgrade. Free upgrades for non-contract customers must be requested through the TAC.

Refer to http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/687/Directory/DirTAC.shtml for additional TAC contact information, including special localized telephone numbers and instructions and e-mail addresses for use in various languages.

Exploitation and Public Announcements

The Cisco PSIRT is not aware of any public announcements or malicious use of the vulnerabilities described in this advisory.

The crafted packet vulnerabilities were discovered by Cisco during internal testing of the associated products.

The ACL corruption vulnerability was discovered during the resolution of customer support cases.

Status of this Notice: Final

THIS DOCUMENT IS PROVIDED ON AN "AS IS" BASIS AND DOES NOT IMPLY ANY KIND OF GUARANTEE OR WARRANTY, INCLUDING THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR USE. YOUR USE OF THE INFORMATION ON THE DOCUMENT OR MATERIALS LINKED FROM THE DOCUMENT IS AT YOUR OWN RISK. CISCO RESERVES THE RIGHT TO CHANGE OR UPDATE THIS DOCUMENT AT ANY TIME.

A stand-alone copy or Paraphrase of the text of this document that omits the distribution URL in the following section is an uncontrolled copy, and may lack important information or contain factual errors.


Distribution

This advisory is posted on Cisco's worldwide website at :

http://tools.cisco.com/security/center/content/CiscoSecurityAdvisory/cisco-sa-20071017-fwsm

In addition to worldwide web posting, a text version of this notice is clear-signed with the Cisco PSIRT PGP key and is posted to the following e-mail and Usenet news recipients.

  • cust-security-announce@cisco.com
  • first-teams@first.org
  • bugtraq@securityfocus.com
  • vulnwatch@vulnwatch.org
  • cisco@spot.colorado.edu
  • cisco-nsp@puck.nether.net
  • full-disclosure@lists.grok.org.uk
  • comp.dcom.sys.cisco@newsgate.cisco.com

Future updates of this advisory, if any, will be placed on Cisco's worldwide website, but may or may not be actively announced on mailing lists or newsgroups. Users concerned about this problem are encouraged to check the above URL for any updates.


Revision History

Revision 1.1

2007-October-31

Updated expected availability date for FWSM version 3.2(3)

Revision 1.0

2007-October-17

Initial public release.

Cisco Security Procedures

Complete information on reporting security vulnerabilities in Cisco products, obtaining assistance with security incidents, and registering to receive security information from Cisco, is available on Cisco's worldwide website at http://www.cisco.com/web/about/security/psirt/security_vulnerability_policy.html. This includes instructions for press inquiries regarding Cisco security notices. All Cisco security advisories are available at http://www.cisco.com/go/psirt.